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The Political Economy of Regionalism

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  • Water (surface & ground) crosses boundariesAbout 279 TB river basins in the world, 45% earth surface (Backer 2011)Political & physical boundaries at local, national & international levelsUpstream & downstream issuesRecognizing: The political economy in sovereign states differUnderlying power asymmetries to consider, (Zeitoun and Warner 2006) Only 20% of all multipartite basins feature multilateral organisations, (Dombrowsky,2007)7 are basin wide, Cooperationcomparedto conflict appears to be the norm in TB systemsSherman and Hempel (2009) defined 64 LMEs over the global oceans (Figure 1). These LMEs produce 80% of the world's annual marine fisheries yields (Sherman et al. 2011).  The boundaries of these coastal LMEs are based on distributions and trends in several trophic components, including phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish and shellfish, as well as political and economic boundaries, oceanic currents, and bathymetric gradientsThe ocean covers 71 percent of the Earth's surface and contains 97 percent of the planet's water, yet more than 95 percent of the underwater world remains unexplored.  The ocean and lakes play an integral role in many of the Earth's systems including climate and weather.One of every six jobs in the United States is marine-related and over one-third of the U.S. Gross National Product originates in coastal areas. The ocean is key to transportation, recreation and its resources may hold the cures to many diseases.  NOAA protects, preserves, manages and enhances the resources found in 3.5 million square miles of coastal and deep ocean waters. NOAA's National Ocean Service provides products, services and information that promote safe navigation, support coastal communities, sustain marine ecosystems, and mitigate coastal hazards.
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    • 1. The Political Economy of Regionalism The Relevance for Transboundary Waters and the Global Environment Facility GEF STAP Research Paper IWC7, 26-31 October 2013 Bridgetown, Barbados Jakob Granit Deputy Director SEI & Centre Director, Stockholm GEF STAP IW Panel Member Fredrik Söderbaum School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg United Nations University Institute for Comparative Regional Integration Studies
    • 2. Research question & objectives “Can transboundary/international water management be more efficiently & sustainably supplied if it is more strongly linked to the broader political economy of regionalism?” Objectives: • to provide a scientifically based overview of the political economy of regionalism • to explore the relevance of regionalism for transboundary water management in general and GEF‟s activities more specifically • Mixed methodological approach – Scientific & policy literature reviews; empirical evidence from GEF terminal evaluation reports, workshop and peer review
    • 3. Definitions • Regionalism – The common objectives, values and identities that lead to region-formation and regional cooperation within a given geographical area (micro or macroregion) • Political economy – The interaction between public authority (institutions & governance) and the economy and markets • Drivers, incentives, behaviours
    • 4. The governance & management challenge of transboundary water resources • • • The “free rider” problem The “weakest link” problem The “summation” problem The International Task Force on Global Public Goods, 2006 UNEP primary watersheds map • • • Olsson “theory on collective action (65) Hardin, “the tradegy of the commons” (68) Ostrom, ”self organization” (90)
    • 5. Transboundary/IW resources management is in itself a regional public good • Public goods are available to all and consumption of the public good by one party does not reduce the amount available to others to consume (non-excludable) • PGs cannot be adequately provided by individual countries acting alone – Services: provisioning; regulating; cultural; supporting Granit 2012, Phillips et. Al. 2008; The International Task Force on Global Public Goods, 2006; MEA 2005
    • 6. Re-emergence of regionalism (new regionalism) • Old regionalism linked to cold war context – Bi-polar world order, introvert – State actors – EU as a model • New regionalism linked to globalization – Multipolar world order, extrovert – Triple helix (governments, private sector, academia & civil society) – Multiple actors & stakeholders
    • 7. Regionalism takes many shapes and forms • Several regional „scales: continent, macro-region, subregions, micro-regions  EU - EU BSR - Öresund region  OAS – CARECOM - Carribean LME  AU – COMESA – EAC – LVBC • Different types of regionalism  Security; economic; social; environmental  Or a combination of the above STAP Research Paper
    • 8. Typology of Regional Frameworks Organization Network Specialized, sectoral or functional Transport organization Development bank River basin organizations Research network Civil society network Power pool Multipurpose Development community Economic Union Political union Growth triangle Development corridor
    • 9. Illustrative cases in the research paper • Baltic Sea region – From a uniting sea to a divided and back • End of cold war – Persistent common environmental challenges • Linked to lifestyles: energy; transport & agriculture – New EU BSR stratey combines the environment, economic growth and connectivity in the region • Common Vision – National and regional action • • • • • • Sava River basin, South-East Europe CARICOM, Caribbean Iullemeden Groundwater Aquifer System, West Africa East Asian Seas Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Caspian Sea Environment
    • 10. The comparative advantage of regionalism 1 • Link state and non-state actors at various levels over time („nested governance‟) • Provide frameworks for multi-country cooperation – Norms, trust, institutions, reciprocity, transaction costs, reduce power games – Agreeing on a “common vision” • Ensure (national) political commitment and buy-in – Credibility of national reforms through „lock-in‟ – Common goals, targets, rules and regulations, M&E
    • 11. The comparative advantage of regionalism 2 • Larger and more competitive markets – Economies of scale and pooling of resources – Better utilization of factors of production and resources – Increased FDI and capital flows • Acting as a block in a globalized world • Conflict resolution & stability – Reduce fragmentation and “Balkanization” WDR 2009, World Bank
    • 12. Regionalism is not the solution to all issues • Many barriers to regionalism: outside and inside a region • ROs can be costly, ineffecient, dysfun ctional & even manipulated if not well managed and owned
    • 13. Research findings generic on PE of Regionalism and TB waters 1. Collective action in the IW space is dependent on functioning national institutions & viable regional governance frameworks 2. Specialized regional organizations and frameworks are able to enhance cooperation when the incentive structure is clear at the national and regional levels 3. Multi-purpose regional governance frameworks will facilitate a higher degree of political coordination and leadership in complex and politicized regions
    • 14. Research findings specific on PE of Regionalism and GEF IW 4. Efforts to promote regionalism need to be synchronized with national concerns, incentives and benefits 5. The broader regional political and economic context including the logic of states-led regional organizations should be addressed in regional GEF strategies 6. A regional governance baseline analysis must be undertaken when planning transboundary water interventions – Problematize the role and function of regional institutions