The CGIAR – CIMMYT ICARDA Experience: Conservation Agriculture in Wheat Systems (Nicol/Sayre)
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The CGIAR – CIMMYT ICARDA Experience: Conservation Agriculture in Wheat Systems (Nicol/Sayre)

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Dr Ken Sayre, Dr Bram Govaerts – CIMMYT Agronomists Mexico ...

Dr Ken Sayre, Dr Bram Govaerts – CIMMYT Agronomists Mexico
Dr Julie Nicol, CIMMYT Pathologist on behalf of CIMMYT ICARDA Turkey Office
Turkish NARs partners TAGEM – Turkish Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs – Mr Irfan Gultekin, Mr Muzzafer Avci and Mr Yuksel Kabaci


Presented the Regional conference on Integrated nutrient pollution management in the Danube-Black sea Basin in Ankara, Turkey

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The CGIAR – CIMMYT ICARDA Experience: Conservation Agriculture in Wheat Systems (Nicol/Sayre) The CGIAR – CIMMYT ICARDA Experience: Conservation Agriculture in Wheat Systems (Nicol/Sayre) Presentation Transcript

  • CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center The CGIAR – CIMMYT ICARDA experienceThe CGIAR – CIMMYT ICARDA experience conservation agriculture in wheat systemsconservation agriculture in wheat systems Presented the Regional conference on Integrated nutrient pollution management in the Danube-Presented the Regional conference on Integrated nutrient pollution management in the Danube- Black sea BasinBlack sea Basin Ankara Turkey 23rd October 2007Ankara Turkey 23rd October 2007 Dr Ken Sayre, Dr Bram Govaerts – CIMMYT Agronomists MexicoDr Ken Sayre, Dr Bram Govaerts – CIMMYT Agronomists Mexico Dr Julie Nicol,Dr Julie Nicol, CIMMYT Pathologist on behalf of CIMMYT ICARDA Turkey OfficeCIMMYT Pathologist on behalf of CIMMYT ICARDA Turkey Office Turkish NARs partners TAGEM – Turkish Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs –Turkish NARs partners TAGEM – Turkish Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs – Mr Irfan Gultekin, Mr Muzzafer Avci and Mr Yuksel KabaciMr Irfan Gultekin, Mr Muzzafer Avci and Mr Yuksel Kabaci
  • CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Man, despite his artisticMan, despite his artistic pretensions, hispretensions, his sophistication, and his manysophistication, and his many accomplishments, owes hisaccomplishments, owes his existence to a 15 cm layer ofexistence to a 15 cm layer of topsoil and the fact that ittopsoil and the fact that it rainsrains (Anon).(Anon).
  • CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Conservation Agriculture includes the followingConservation Agriculture includes the following practices:practices:  Reduce tillageReduce tillage  Goal – Zero-till or controlled-till seeding systemsGoal – Zero-till or controlled-till seeding systems     Retain adequate amount of crop residues on the soil surfaceRetain adequate amount of crop residues on the soil surface  Ultimate Goal – Keep enough residue on the soil surface toUltimate Goal – Keep enough residue on the soil surface to protect the soil from erosion and to save waterprotect the soil from erosion and to save water     Use of proper and profitable crop rotationsUse of proper and profitable crop rotations -- Ultimate Goal – Employ economically viable, diversifiedUltimate Goal – Employ economically viable, diversified crop rotationscrop rotations  Provide farmers with better economic benefits than currentProvide farmers with better economic benefits than current practicespractices
  • CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Conservation AgricultureConservation Agriculture  Comprises three basic componentsComprises three basic components  Surface crop residue retentionSurface crop residue retention  Minimal soil movementMinimal soil movement  Crop rotationCrop rotation
  • CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Conservation Agriculture Means ReducingConservation Agriculture Means Reducing TillageTillage Conventional TillageConventional Tillage SeedingwithZero TillageSeedingwithZero Tillage
  • CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Conservation Agriculture meansConservation Agriculture means keeping some residues on the soilkeeping some residues on the soil surfacesurface Wind erosion from too much tillageWind erosion from too much tillage and no residueand no residue Zero till with residue on the soilZero till with residue on the soil
  • CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Conservation Agriculture can Increase SoilConservation Agriculture can Increase Soil Organic Matter which is the KeyOrganic Matter which is the Key to Sustainable Soil Managementto Sustainable Soil Management PhysicalPhysical Soil QualitySoil Quality ChemicalChemical Soil QualitySoil Quality BiologicalBiological Soil QualitySoil Quality SoilSoil OrganicOrganic MatterMatter
  • CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Estimated Area Under CA Zero-till (ha) 2004/2005Estimated Area Under CA Zero-till (ha) 2004/2005 CountryCountry haha USAUSA 25,30425,304 BrazilBrazil 23,60023,600 ArgentinaArgentina 18,26918,269 CanadaCanada 12,52212,522 AustraliaAustralia 9,0009,000 Rest of the SouthRest of the South AmericaAmerica 3,0353,035 Indo-Gangetic-PlainsIndo-Gangetic-Plains 2,8002,800 EuropeEurope 450450 AfricaAfrica 400400 ChinaChina 700700 OthersOthers (rough estimate)(rough estimate) 1,0001,000 TotalTotal 98,68098,680
  • CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Characteristics of Farmers WhoCharacteristics of Farmers Who Have Adopted ConservationHave Adopted Conservation AgricultureAgriculture  Over 90% of area under CA is located in five countries andOver 90% of area under CA is located in five countries and mainly involves large commercial farms using heavy tractorsmainly involves large commercial farms using heavy tractors and large-scale machinery (especially seeders)and large-scale machinery (especially seeders)  More than 96% of the area involves non-irrigated, rainedMore than 96% of the area involves non-irrigated, rained farming - there has been minimal CA adoption has occurredfarming - there has been minimal CA adoption has occurred for irrigated crop production systemsfor irrigated crop production systems  Except for a very few exceptions, negligible adoption inExcept for a very few exceptions, negligible adoption in developing countries particularly by small and medium-scaledeveloping countries particularly by small and medium-scale farmersfarmers
  • CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Three Main Problems have Constrained theThree Main Problems have Constrained the Development of Conservation AgricultureDevelopment of Conservation Agriculture Technologies for Small Farmers in DevelopingTechnologies for Small Farmers in Developing Countries:Countries:  The lack of available CA seeders for small and medium-scaleThe lack of available CA seeders for small and medium-scale farmers.farmers.  The lack of suitable farmer-tested, CA technologies for smallThe lack of suitable farmer-tested, CA technologies for small and medium-scale farmersand medium-scale farmers  The widespread integration of crop/livestock by most small andThe widespread integration of crop/livestock by most small and medium scale farmers in developing countries with themedium scale farmers in developing countries with the consequent use of crop residues for livestock feed.consequent use of crop residues for livestock feed.
  • CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Many Farmers (Especially Rainfed Farmers)Many Farmers (Especially Rainfed Farmers) Continue to Practice Complete Removal ofContinue to Practice Complete Removal of Crop ResiduesCrop Residues For Feed/fuelFor Feed/fuel and/orand/or By BurningBy Burning
  • CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Govaerts et al., 2005 Same variety different management, Upper Conservation agriculture 15 year long- term Maize/Wheat rotation Trial in CIMMYT Mexico
  • CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Wrong agronomic Same variety, same climate, same inputs (fertilizer …), Different long-term agronomics => different environment => different yield potential Right CA based agronomic 15 year long-term Maize/Wheat rotation Trial in CIMMYT Mexico Knowledge of correct rotation, management and machinery
  • CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center WheatWheat 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Weightingyields Conservation agriculture Wrong agronomics Farmer practice
  • CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center MaizeMaize 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Weightingyields Wrongagronomics (zero tillage no residue) Conservation agriculture Farmer practice
  • CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Comparison of average rainfed wheat yields for the most common farmer practice versus the best improved practice (1995 to 2004) 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 GrainYield(kg/ha) Farmer Practice- Continuous Wheat, Conventional Till, Residues Removed Improved Practice; Maize-Wheat; Zero Till; Residues Retained
  • CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Comparison of average economic returns above variable costs per ha for rainfed wheat from 1996 to 2004 for the most common farmer practice versus the best improved practice (Mexican Pesos) (500) - 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 ReturnsAboveVariableCosts Farmer Practice- Continuous Wheat, Conventional Till, Residues Removed Improved Practice; Maize-Wheat; Zero Till; Residues Retained
  • CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Central Antolian Plateau ofCentral Antolian Plateau of Turkey – Konya –Turkey – Konya – MARA Turkey - IfranMARA Turkey - Ifran Gultekin and colleagues – Bahri Dagdas International Ag.Gultekin and colleagues – Bahri Dagdas International Ag. Research InstituteResearch Institute  Modified machine over last 5 years for minmumModified machine over last 5 years for minmum tillage in rainfed wheat systemstillage in rainfed wheat systems  Identified appropriate rotations and weed controlIdentified appropriate rotations and weed control
  • CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (F(Faalllloow-Wheat-Fw-Wheat-Faalllloow-Wheat) Yield-w-Wheat) Yield- kg/hakg/ha Ifran Gultekin and colleagues – MARA Turkey - Bahri Dagdas InternationalIfran Gultekin and colleagues – MARA Turkey - Bahri Dagdas International Ag. Research InstituteAg. Research Institute 20042004 FF 20052005 WW 20062006 FF 20072007 WW ConventionalConventional -- 10731073 -- 949949 Reduce tillageReduce tillage -- 936936 -- 13871387 Direct SeedingDirect Seeding -- 10641064 -- 17201720 Biannual cropping and higher yield with CA
  • CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (Wheat-C.Pea-F(Wheat-C.Pea-Faalllloow-Wheat) Yield-w-Wheat) Yield- kg/hakg/ha Ifran Gultekin and colleagues – MARA Turkey - Bahri Dagdas InternationalIfran Gultekin and colleagues – MARA Turkey - Bahri Dagdas International Ag. Research InstituteAg. Research Institute 20042004 WW 20052005 CPCP 20062006 FF 20072007 WW ConventionalConventional 15121512 782782 -- 909909 Reduce tillageReduce tillage 14751475 844844 -- 13491349 Direct SeedingDirect Seeding 14481448 665665 -- 13791379
  • CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center 20042004 CPCP 20052005 WW 20062006 CPCP 20072007 WW ConventionalConventional 542542 678678 00 964964 Reduce tillageReduce tillage 491491 894894 00 12281228 Direct SeedingDirect Seeding 298298 797797 00 12131213 (C(Chickpeahickpea Pea-Wheat-CPea-Wheat-Chickephickepea-ea- Wheat) Yield-kg/haWheat) Yield-kg/ha Ifran Gultekin and colleagues – MARA Turkey - Bahri DagdasIfran Gultekin and colleagues – MARA Turkey - Bahri Dagdas International Ag. Research InstituteInternational Ag. Research Institute Annual cropping and higher yield with CA
  • CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Machinery modification essentialMachinery modification essential for Conservation Agriculturefor Conservation Agriculture Dr Muzzafer Avci & co. – MARA – Field Crops Research Institute Ankara (funded by The Embassy of TheDr Muzzafer Avci & co. – MARA – Field Crops Research Institute Ankara (funded by The Embassy of The Netherlands in collaboration with CIMMYT).Netherlands in collaboration with CIMMYT).
  • CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Minimum tillage – Bala andMinimum tillage – Bala and Yozgat ‘on farm’ trials –Yozgat ‘on farm’ trials – Dr Muzzafer AvciDr Muzzafer Avci & co. – MARA – Field Crops Research Institute Ankara (funded by The Embassy of The& co. – MARA – Field Crops Research Institute Ankara (funded by The Embassy of The Netherlands in collaboration with CIMMYT).Netherlands in collaboration with CIMMYT). Bala – 2007 0-till wheat fallow Yozgat İlci Farm – 2007 0-till sunflower/safflower - wheat Due to the severe drought, conventional planted field was not harvested, while the other field yielded 700 kg/ha even it was planted after wheat which had less residual moisture than fallow 2.5 t/ha wheat yield is obtained from 0 till planting. Spring plantings (lentil, sunflower, safflower ) were outstanding.
  • CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Environmental benefitsEnvironmental benefits  Reduced fuel consumptionReduced fuel consumption as CA systems requireas CA systems require less passes with machineryless passes with machinery  Improved soil structure and soil sustainabilityImproved soil structure and soil sustainability – less– less pollution (leaching of chemicals)pollution (leaching of chemicals)  Improved soil fertilityImproved soil fertility – less reliance on synthetic– less reliance on synthetic fertilizersfertilizers  Improved water efficiencyImproved water efficiency  Better control of erosionBetter control of erosion – on flat and sloped land.– on flat and sloped land.  Option to biannual crop in some systemsOption to biannual crop in some systems – 2 crops– 2 crops vs 1vs 1  Yield maintained or increasedYield maintained or increased (along with decreased(along with decreased input costs of fuel and fertilizer)input costs of fuel and fertilizer)
  • CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center Challenges for ConservationChallenges for Conservation AgricultureAgriculture  Getting the machinery rightGetting the machinery right  Scaling up manufacture of machinery for CA.Scaling up manufacture of machinery for CA.  Managing livestock/cropping systems toManaging livestock/cropping systems to ensure minimum retention of residuesensure minimum retention of residues  Identification of the correct system – rotationIdentification of the correct system – rotation and inputs (especially herbicide)and inputs (especially herbicide) However, the long-term benefit for bothHowever, the long-term benefit for both environmental sustainability and profitabilityenvironmental sustainability and profitability is clearis clear
  • CIMMYTMR International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center More informationMore information CIMMYT Agronomists Mexico headquartersCIMMYT Agronomists Mexico headquarters Dr Ken SayreDr Ken Sayre k.sayre@cgiar.org Dr Bram GovaertsDr Bram Govaerts b.govaerts@cgiar.org TAGEM Agronomists TURKEY Dr Muzzafer Avci – CFCRI muzafavci@yahoo.com Mr Yuksel Kabaci – CRI ykabakci63@hotmail.com Mr Ifran Gultekin – BDARI irfangultekin@yahoo.com ICARDA-CIMMYT Wheat Improvement ProgramICARDA-CIMMYT Wheat Improvement Program Turkey OfficeTurkey Office Dr Mesut KeserDr Mesut Keser m.keser@cgiar.org Dr Julie NicolDr Julie Nicol j.nicol@cgiar.org Dr Alex Morgounov a.morgounov@cgiar.org