Islam - Scaling Up Coral Reef Protection and MPA Schemes

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Presentation for the 2nd GEF IW Regional Workshop for Asia & the Pacific

Presentation for the 2nd GEF IW Regional Workshop for Asia & the Pacific

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  • 1. M. Nasimul Islam, ADB ]IW: LEARN Regional Workshop Manila, The Philippines 11 March 2014 Scaling Up Coral Reef Protection and MPA Schemes 2nd Targeted Workshop for Asia and the Pacific Transforming Good Practices from Demonstration Projects into Scaled-Up Investments and Financing
  • 2. INDOENSIA COREMAP Project
  • 3. INDICATORS 1. ZONATION OF MINAPOLITAN AREA, MITIGATION AND CLIMATE ADAPTATION 2. EFFECTIVELY MANAGE OF MPA: CORAL REEFS, SEAGRASS, MANGROVE & PROTECTED ENDANGERED SPECIES 3. INVESTMENT FOR SMALL ISLANDS MANAGEMENT 2 TO MANAGE MARINE AND FISHERIES RESOURCES IN A SUSTAINABLE FASHION 1. MARINE AND FISHERIES RESOURCES ARE UTILIZED OPTIMALLY AND SUSTAINABLY 2. SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF CONSERVATION AREA S AND PROTECTED SPECIES 3. HIGH ECONOMIC VALUE OF SMALL ISLANDS OUTPUTS
  • 4. INDONESIA MARINE PROTECTED AREAS 2010 10 Mio Ha 2014 15.5 Mio Ha 2020 20 Mio Ha To date: 13.9 Mio Ha No Category Numbers Luas (Ha) A Initiated by MOF 32 4,694,947.6 1 Marine National Parks 7 4,043,541.3 2 Marine Tourism Parks 14 491,248.0 3 Marine Wildlife Reserves 5 5,678.3 4 Marine Nature Reserves 6 154,480.0 B Initiated by MMAF 53 9,256,413.1 1 Marine National Parks 1 3,521,130.0 2 Marine Nature Reserves 3 445,630.0 3 Marine Tourism Parks 5 278,354.0 4 District-based MPAs 44 5,011,299.1 TOTAL 85 13,951,360.7 MPA TARGET
  • 5. Source: Kemhut dan KKP (2010). Gap Analysis... Coral reef area 3,293,543 Ha Coral reef conserved 747,190 Ha % coral reef conserved 22.7 % Mangrove area 3,452,688 Ha Mangrove conserved 758,472 Ha % mangrove conserved 22.0 % Seagrass area 1,758,708 Ha Seagrass conserved 304,866 Ha % seagrass conserved 17.3 % Target: 30% (988,063 Ha) Need 240,873 Ha more to be conserved Target: 30% (1,035,806 Ha) Need 277,334 Ha more to be conserved Target: 30% (527,612 Ha) Need 222,746 Ha more to be conserved
  • 6. MPA: 13.951.361 Ha Equal to 4.5 % of territory area MPA: 15.5 Mio Ha Equal to 5.0 % of territory area MPA: 20 Mio Ha Equal to 6.5 % of territory area Equal to 31 Mio Ha of MPA
  • 7. Conceptual COREMAP MODEL Vision
  • 8.  Phase 1: Initiation (1998-2003) • Viable framework for a national coral reef system in Indonesia established • Assistance from: GOI, ADB, WB/GEF, AusAID  Phase 2: Acceleration (2004 - 2011) • Replication in 15 districts, moving towards establishment of MPA establishment • Assistance from: GOI, ADB, WB/GEF  Phase 3: Institutionalization (2014–2018) • Viable reef management systems established in priority districts operational, fully decentralized to regional governments and institutionalized through effective MPA management and financial mechanisms for sustainability and eco-system protection • Assistance from: GOI, ADB/GEF, WB/GEF Actual COREMAP PHASES
  • 9.  Initiation  Identification of Potential and Threats Proposed MPA  Designation  Designated (legal status)  Management Plan and zoning  Determination  enacted by Minister  Boundary Marking Managed MPAs
  • 10. Institutional Strengthening Community Based Co- management Public Awareness, Education COREMAP Basic Components
  • 11. CORE Focus: Awareness Raising
  • 12. TAMBATAN PERAHU PUBLIC SANITATION Small Jetty Village Information Center
  • 13. Unique Design Features and Past Challenges  Decentralized Management (political commitment, capacity, paradigm shift on community-based co-management,  Multi Stakeholder Inclusion (including NGO’s academe research institutions)  Holistic multi sector approach  Monitoring ecosystem health/Fisheries Benefits by Scientific Body (LIPI)
  • 14. Typical COREMAP Meeting
  • 15. Remote Areas: Wide Geographic Coverage
  • 16. Unique Design Features and Past Challenges  Wide geographic coverage  Awareness raising and capacity building for behavior change  Enforcement  Multi dimensional issues: poverty, environment, education, infrastructure  Linking environment and poverty  Environment and Development Dichotomy
  • 17. Current Challenges :COREMAP-CTI Phase III  Complete MPA process and making it effective and sustainable operationally and financially  Ecotourism through partnerships  Making livelihoods sustainable  Maintain community empowerment  Biodiversity protection linking ecosystems and regional processes (e.g., CTI, WB COREMAP )  Law Enforcement and Institutionalization
  • 18. Project Specific Factors in Ownership, Replication and Integration  Community as CORE focus: capacity building, information centers, community coral reef institutions (LPSTK)  District Government as implementers, coral reef monitoring and evaluation system (CRITC) created within District Government’s  Village head integrated within LPSTK structure  Community-based strategy, plans integrated into district strategy and plan (helped to mainstream into development)
  • 19. Project Specific Factors in Ownership, Replication and Integration  Best practice sustainable models for public awareness ( coral reef books produced and integrated with national curriculum, radio stations, coral ambassador competitions)  Surveillance boats, infrastructure, livelihood inputs  Broader social service: solid waste management systems, electricity supply by LPSTK, LPSTK providing leadership in aquaculture product replication and marketing ( e.g., tapteng catfish culture);  All of the above built political commitment and replicability bottom up.
  • 20. How Challenges are Addressed  Clarity in strategy and targets  Executing Agency technical capacity and strategic leadership capability  Commitment towards goals and targets and understanding of complexity  Inclusiveness including NGO participation  Fairness in training and learning opportunities
  • 21. How Challenges are Addressed  Inclusion of top management experts in project implementation  Inclusion of Indonesia Institute of Sciences in monitoring evaluation and research publication  Focus on awareness through high quality knowledge materials information and integration of coral reef curriculum in national education system  Continuous facilitation and communication  Bottom up planning and regulation development  Strong partnership with ADB
  • 22. Questions to Ponder  Time frame for phases too long? Geographic focus too broad for a replication model? Is there a more practical design approach? Can community empowerment be sustainable? Decentralization of MPA ‘s can be effectively achieved ?
  • 23. Questions to Ponder  Can MPA effectiveness possible in a widespread fashion?  Effective maritime law enforcement achievable?  Accurate data generation and uniform platforms feasible?  Current biodiversity and ecosystem knowhow sufficient?  Can Climate change issues be controlled?