Sem interipaiv redhana

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Sem interipaiv redhana

  1. 1. DEVELOPMENT OF ARGUMENT-MAP-BASED-CHEMISTRY WORKBOOK AT THERMOCHEMISTRY TOPIC By I Wayan Redhana Depertment of Chemistry Education, Faculty of Math and Natural Science Ganesha University of Education Email: iwayanredhana@yahoo.com Abstract The aims of the study were to investigate the effect of argument-map-based chemistry workbook towards students’ critical thinking skills, ( ) the excellences of the workbook, and ( ) teacher’s and students’ responses towards the workbook. The study used a quasi experiment with nonequivalent control group design. The study was conducted in one senior high school in Buleleng regency, Bali in academic year at thermochemistry topic. The data gained in this study were quantitative and qualitative ones. The quantitative data were analyzed by using inferential statistics, independent sampel t-test or Mann-Whitney at significance level 5%. On the other hand, qualitative data were analyzed by using descriptive method. The findings of the study showed that: (1) the workbook was better than conventional book to increase students’ critical thinking skills, (2) the excellences of the workbook were: (i) teacher could manage class easily, (ii) the teaching and learning processes took place conductively, and (iii) the teaching and learning processes were very interesting; and teacher and students responded the workbook positively and they hoped that the strategies of the workbook could be continued to teach other chemistry topics. Keywords: argument maps, and critical thinking skills. Background The qualities of Indonesian human resources were still low. These could be seen from the achievement reached by Indonesian students in international competition, such as TIMSS (The Third International Mathematics and Science Study) in which Indonesia occupied the position of out of participating countries (Jalal, ). This fact was in line with the previous findings relating to the height of students’ misconception and lowness of students’ achievement in the teaching and learning processes. Redhana & Kirna reported that students from several senior high schools in Buleleng regency had high misconception of atomic structures and chemical bonding, namely . and . , respectively. The lowness of students’ achievement and the height of students’ misconception was caused by teaching and learning processes conducted by teachers at this moment. The teachers did not provide learning environments to allow students developed higher-order
  2. 2. thinking/critical thinking. The results of the studies done by Redhana (2007) in Buleleng regency pictured out that most teachers just used information and asking-answering methods to teach chemistry concepts, in general. At those teaching and learning processes, teachers referred to only one chemistry book. That book contained description of chemistry contents and most well-structured problems. Generally, those problems were algorithmic problems which were far away from the students’ daily life. Tsapartis & Zoller ( ) stated that the algorithmic problems were well-structured problems which did not challenge students to develop their critical thinking skills. By doing so, students were lack of critical thinking skills. To develop students’ critical thinking skills, educational reform needed to be done. The intended reform was not concerned with the change of curriculum, but the change of pedagogy, namely shift from traditional teaching (lower-order thinking) to the teaching and learning of critical thinking (higher-order thinking) (Tsapartis & Zoller, 2003; Lubezky et al., . The teaching and learning of critical thinking skills was necessary to be applied by teachers in order to develop students’ reasoning (Beyer, in Walker, 1998). Critical thinking skills focused on learning instead of teaching. Through critical thinking skills, students would gain knowledge, understanding, insight, and skills in several contents. Without critical thinking skills in the teaching and learning, students would forget easily what they learn because they seldom internalized their ideas well. To enhance students’ critical thinking skills, class condition had to be created so that they got experiences to practice the use of critical thinking skills (teaching for thinking). One effort which was expected to give students experiences to practice critical thinking skills in the teaching and learning processes was by confronting the students with the argument-map-chemistry workbook using the local culture as contexts. By using the workbook students could practice how to create argument maps based on description of contents presented argumentatively. Making argument maps would help students to produce organized, clear, and strong arguments. Meanwhile, the use of local culture as contexts of chemistry contents would create the meaningful teaching and learning processes handled by teachers. This condition would enhance students’ motivation and interest to learn. One example of local culture related to the thermochemistry content is ngaben ceremony (ceremony of corpse combustion in Bali). Students are very familiar to this ceremony. Almost all villages in
  3. 3. Bali in certain time conduct the ceremony. The ceremony was very popular not only in Bali but also abroad. Corpse combustion needs oxygen gas and yields carbon dioxide gas and water steam as well as an amount of energy. The form of energy produced is heat which can make the atmosphere around us hot. By presenting students with the ceremony, students could understand the relationship between content (thermochemistry topic) and contexts (ngaben ceremony). By remembering the importance of critical thinking skills and contexts of local cultures for students, it was required to develop learning materials which could give students opportunities to improve their critical thinking skills. In this study, it would be created argument-map-based-chemistry workbook using contexts of Balinese local culture. This workbook contained two columns in which chemistry contents were presented argumentatively in one column and argument maps were created by students in the other column. Through applying this workbook, students were expected to be able to practice some critical thinking skills, such as analyzing argument, claims, and premises, as well as creating the relationship between premises and claims from which the premises supported the claims. Method This study used quasi experiment, namely nonequivalent control group design. The populations of the study were the eleventh grade students of senior high schools in Buleleng regency, Bali. Samples of the study were the students of the eleventh grade in one senior high schools in Buleleng regency. This study used two classes, one class as a control group and the other class as an experimental group. At the control group the conventional book, namely the book of “Cerdas Belajar Kimia untuk SMA Kelas XI” written by Nana Sutresna (2007) and published by Grasindo Media Pratama Bandung, was applied, whereas at the experimental group the argument-map-based-chemistry workbook developed in this study was applied. Before the teaching and learning processes were conducted, both groups were given pretest. The test used in this study was critical thinking skill test based on chemistry contents. The items of the test were developed by using Ennis’s indicators of critical thinking skills (Ennis, 1985). The indicators included: ( ) identifying criteria to consider possible answers, ( ) determining similarities and deferences, ( ) giving examples, ( ) formulating questions, ( ) determining main ideas, ( ) withdrawing conclusion, ( )
  4. 4. determining equivalent expression, ( ) identifying irrelevances, and ( ) applying main principles. The test was also used at the posttest session. Steps conducted to implement the workbook at experimental group were as follows. 1) Students were informed about the competence standards, basic competences, indicators of competence attainments, and learning goals. 2) Students were divided into leaning groups containing 4-5 people. 3) Stendents learned chemistry contents presented argumentatively in the first columm of the workbook. 4) Students in group figured out the argument maps based on the chemistry contents. 5) Teacher provided guidances for students, if needed. 6) Class discussion was conducted to examine students’ argument maps. 7) One group was assigned to present its argument maps in class discussion. 8) Other groups were required to respond argument maps presented by another group. 9) If mistakes were found, teachers guided students to revise them. 10) Students answered conceptual questions to evaluate their understanding towards chemistry concepts, principles, theories, and laws learnt. 11) Then, students did practicum to verify chemistry concepts, principles, theories, and laws learnt. 12) Finally, students applied chemistry contents learnt on new situations demanding higher-order thinking skills through solving some problems. On the other hand, the application of conventional book in control group was conducted as follows. 1) Students were informed about the competence standards, basic competences, indicators of competence attainments, and learning goals. 2) Students listened the explanation of chemistry contents delivered by a teacher. This explanation was suitable to the sequences of contents in conventional book. The teacher gave examples to make his explanation clear. 3) Students solved well-structured problems which were at the end of reaction rate topic. 4) A student wrote down their solusions in board and others gave responses. 5) Next, students conducted practicum based on the prosedur provided to verify chemistry concepts, principles, theories, and laws learnt. 6) Finally, students completed the homework assigned by the teacher.
  5. 5. Instruments used in the study consisted of: (a) expert judgment form (to gather data related to the validity of workbook and critical thinking skill test), (b) critical thinking skill test (to gather data related to students’ critical thinking skills), (c) interview form (to gather data related to the teacher’s responses to the workbook), (d) observation form (to gather data related to the excellences of workbook in teaching and learning processes), and (e) open-ended and close-ended questionnaires (to gather data related to students’ responses to the workbook). The workbook and the test of critical thinking skills were validated by three experts consisting of two chemistry lecturers from the Department of Chemistry Education, Ganesha University of Education and a senior chemistry teacher from one of senior high schools. Two chemistry lecturers had competences in chemistry contents and pedagogy, especially in critical thinking. Meanwhile, the utilization of the teacher as an expert was intended to obtain inputs related to the implementation of the feasibility of the workbook and test of critical thinking skills in schools. The revised test was, then, tried out to determine validities, reliabilities, discriminating power, and difficulty indexes. The data obtained in the study consisted of qualitative and quantitative data. The qualitative data included: (1) the characterization of the workbook, (2) the excellences of the workbook, and the teacher’s and the students’ responses from open-ended questionnaires. This data were analyzed descriptively. On the other hand, the quantitative data included students’ scores from critical thinking skill tests and students’ responses from closed-ended questionnaires. The formers were analyzed by comparing the average scores of the students agree with the statements of the questionnaires and the average score of the students who disagree with the statements of the questionnaires. The students’ responses are positive if the score average of agreeing statements is higher than that of disagreeing statements. Meanwhile, normalized-gain score of each student (g) was calculated by equation (Hake, in Savinainem & Scott, 2002): g = in which: g = normalized gain scores, Spre = pretest scores, Spost = posttest scores, and Smax = maximum scores Discriminating test of g average ( ̅) between the control and experimental groups made use of inferential statistics. If normalized gain scores at each group distributed normally and had homogenous variances, the testing used independent-sample t tests.
  6. 6. Otherwise, if normalized gain scores at each group did not distribute normally and did not have homogeneous variances, the testing used Mann Whitney tests. All testing used SPSS ver. 17 at significance level 5%. Ho will be rejected, if sig. (p-value) is higher than 0.05 ( value). Results and discussion Results . The effect of argument-map-based chemistry workbook towards students’ critical thinking skills The findings of the study in connection with students’ normalized gain score average ( ̅) both in control and experimental groups in one senior high school in which the study was conducted are presented in Table 1. Tabel . Discriminating testing of ̅ between control and experimental groups Indica- tors Control group Experimental group Var. p ̅pre ̅post ̅ Dist. ̅pre ̅post ̅ Dist. . . . NN . . . NN H . sig.) . . . NN . . . NN H . sig.) . . . NN . . . NN H . sig.) . . . NN . . . NN H . sig.) . . . NN . . . NN H . sig.) . . . NN . . . NN H . sig.) . . . NN . . . NN H . non sig.) . . . NN . . . NN H . non sig.) . . . NN . . . NN NH . sig.) Tot. . . . NN . . . N NH . sig.) Annotations: ̅pre = pretest score average, ̅post = posttest score average, ̅ = normalized gain score average, NN = not normal, N = normal; NH = not homogeneous, H = homogeneous, sig. = significance. Indicator 1 = identifying criterias to consider possible answers, determining similarities and deferences, giving examples, formulating questions, determining main ideas, withdrawing conclusion, determining equivalent expression, identifying irrelevances, and applying main principles. From Table 1 it is known that seven of nine indicators had p-value less than 0.05. And, p-value of total of indicators was also less than 0.05. This meant that a null hypothesis was rejected. It proved that the workbook was better to enhance students’
  7. 7. critical thinking than conventional book. In addition, the students’ gains of critical thinking skills at experimental group were intermediate categories at seven of the nine indicators. While, the students’ gains of critical thinking skills at control group were intermediate categories at two of the nine indicators. For total of indicators, the students’ gains of critical thinking skills at experimental and control groups were intermediate and low categories, respectively. Excellences of the workbook The excellences of the workbook were as follows. The teaching and learning processes conducted by the teacher became more structural and purposeful in which the students’ critical thinking skills could be improved. Presenting chemistry contents argumentatively and using contexts of local cultures could facilitate students to understand chemistry contents deeply. On the other side, argument maps could help students to understand the structures of arguments so that they could develop their critical thinking skills well. Teacher’s responses According to the teacher, the workbook could help him to deal with the teaching and learning processes well. He felt that: he was easy to guide students to create argument maps individually or cooperatively, he got inspiration how to design the workbook which could motivate students to think critically, he could guide students to meet competences targeted in this subjects, he taught the chemistry contents more pleasantly, and (5) students could learn chemistry contents more easily. Students’ responses To know students’ responses towards the teaching and learning processes followed, questionnaires were distributed at the end of workbook implementation. Students’ responses obtained from closed ended questionnaires were presented in Table . Tabel . Respon Siswa terhadap Pembelajaran No. Statements Responses (%) Disagree Agree . Creating argument maps could challenge me to think critically . Conceptual questions could guide me to understand chemistry
  8. 8. contents . Teacher guided me to create argument maps . Teacher guided me to understand chemistry contents . Teaching and learning processes motivated me to work in group and to enhance my responsibilities . Teaching and learning processes could improve my communication skills . I participated actively in the teaching and learning processes . I could understand chemistry contents well . I learnt chemistry contents more criticaly . I could follow the teaching and learning processes well . I would have lost out if I did not attend the class . The teaching and learning climate was very exited . This teaching and learning processes needed continuing to teach chemistry contents and other subject matters Average Students’ responses collected from open-ended questionnaires were: they could understand difficult chemistry contents, learning climates were more relax and excited, they would be open-minded, they could enhance communication skills, chemistry contents being learnt could be long memorized, and the teaching and learning processes could develop their critical thinking skills. Discussion The findings of the study showed that the workbook was better than the conventional book to improve students’ critical thinking skills. The workbook was effective to enhance students’ critical thinking skills in the whole indicators. This was brought about by cumulative effects of all components of the workbook including: (1) presenting chemistry contents argumentatively, using local culture contexts, delivering conceptual questions, conducting practicum, and solving problems at the end of the teaching and learning processes. At the workbook the chemistry contents was presented using contexts of local cultures. The use of local cultures as contexts would make the teaching and learning processes meaningful and rich in experiences. This condition raised students’ interest and motivation and grew up students’ curiosities to learn chemistry content through local culture contexts. Raising this motivation would drive students to study information
  9. 9. resources deeply, and even looked for other information resources. This would enhance students’ concentration to study chemistry contents. Finally, students would understand chemistry contents deeply and improve students’ understanding towards their local culture simultaneously. This was in accordance with the findings of some researchers (Baker & Taylor, 1995; Cobern & Aikenhead, 1996) who stated that the use of local culture in the teaching and learning processes would help students understand contents being learnt. The chemistry contents presented argumentatively influenced the students’ critical thinking skills. The presentation of those contents was conducted by describing a claim supported by one or more premises. This condition would allow students to understand chemistry contents deeply and meaningfully. After understanding chemistry contents, students were, then, challenged to create argument maps. In constructing argument maps, the students analyzed and evaluated description of chemistry contents. The students attempted to find out claims and premises as well co-premises. They identified arguments whether an argument consisted of a claim and a premise, or a claim and two or more premises, or two claims and a premise, or two premises and two or more premises, or several claims and several premises in which a premise could become a claim for other premises (co-premise). And also, students identified whether an argument was simple or complexe. In so doing, they practiced some critical thinking skills, e. g. finding out both stated and unstated reasons, determining the structures of arguments, identifying claims and premises, determining or withdrawing conclusions, and applying main principles. Therefore, students’ critical thinking skills could be enhanced. Some researchers also reported the same things (van Gelder, 2003; Twardy, 2004; Ostwald, 2007; Bassham et al., Lau & Chan, . Alongside, the conceptual questions aimed at investigating students’ understanding towards chemistry contents being learnt. They would know which contents they did not understand and which contents they understood well. Thus, they would learn again the contents that they did not understand. Meanwhile, the aims of practicum were to verify and to deepen concepts, principles, theories, and laws that they learnt. Therefore, they would be sure to the things that they learnt. Finally, the aims of solving problem at the end of the teaching and learning processes were to practice applying concepts. If students could not solve the problems, they would learn the content again. So, they could understand the contents better.
  10. 10. The teacher and the students responded the workbook positively. By applying the workbook, the students obtained opportunities to develop cooperative abilities, to express perspectives, to participate actively in group and class discussion, to enhance communication skills, and to develop intelligences. This was in accordance with Vygotskian views stating that social interactions with peers could produce new ideas and enrich students’ intellectual development ( ). On the other hand, the workbook could also motivate the teacher to prepare the teaching and learning processes by exploring more information resources. In the teaching and learning processes, the teacher played an important role as a facilitator and a mediator for the students so that the teaching and learning processes took place conductively. On the other hand, the teacher also obtained inspiration to develop teaching and learning model to improve the students’ critical thinking skills. He could guide the students easily to meet the competences targeted in this topic. Conclusion Based on the findings of the study, it was concluded as follows. 1. The argument-map-based-chemistry workbook was better than the conventional book to improve students’ critical thinking skills. 2. The excellences of the workbook were: the teaching and learning processes took place conductively, structurally, and meaningfully, and students could understand the chemistry contents easily and develop critical thinking skills. 3. Teacher greeted the workbook positively. He felt that the workbook could help him to deal with the teaching and learning processes well. 4. Students felt that the workbook could motivate them to actively participate in the teaching and learning processes and develop critical thinking skills. Bibliographies Baker, D. & Taylor, P. C. S. (1995). The effect of culture on the learning of science in non- western countries: The result of an integrated research review. Journal Science Education , - . Bassham, G., Irwin, W., Nardone, H., & Wallace, J. M. ( ). Critical thinking: A student’s introduction. nd Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Company, Inc.
  11. 11. Cobern, W. W. & Aikenhead, G. S. (1996). Cultural aspects of learning science. [on-line]. Available at: http://wmich.edu/slcsp/121.htm. (December 21, 2003). Jalal, F. (2006). Peran PPPG dalam Memfasilitasi Peningkatan Mutu Pendidik dan Tenaga Kependidikan dalam Upaya Meningkatkan Mutu Pendidikan. Makalah Disampaikan pada Rapat Koordinasi 12 PPPG. Jakarta. Jalmo, T. (2007). Profile of science teachers’ performances of junior high school in Bandar Lampung city in anticipating educational standardization era. Proceeding of The First International on Science Education. October 27, 2007. Lau, J. & Chan, J. ( ). Argument mapping. [on-line]. Available at: http://philosophy.hku.hk/think/arg/arg.php. (February , ). Lubezki, A., Dori, Y. J., & Zoller, U. 2004. HOCS-promoting assessment of students’ performance on environment-related undergraduate chemistry. Chemistry Education Research and Practice , - . Ostwald, J. (2007). Argument mapping for critical thinking. [on-line]. Available at: http://www.jostwald.com/argumentmapping/ostwaldhandout.pdf. (February 15, . Paul, R. & Elder, L. ( ). Critical thinking competency standars. [on-line]. Available at: http://www.criticalthinking.org. (September , ). Redhana, I W. & Kirna, I M. ( ). Identifikasi miskonsepsi siswa SMA Negeri terhadap konsep-konsep kimia. Unpublished Research Report. Ganesha University of Education. Redhana, I W. . Chemistry teachers’ views towards teaching and learning and assessment of critical thinking skills. Proceeding of The First International on Science Education. October 27, 2007. Redhana, I W. (2009). Pengembangan program pembelajaran berbasis masalah terbimbing untuk meningkatkan keterampilan berpikir kritis siswa SMA. Unpublished Disertation. Indonesia University of Education. Suparno, P. (1997). Filasafat Konstruktivisme dalam Pendidikan. Yogyakarta : Kanisius. Tsapartis, G. & Zoller, U. (2003). Evaluation of higher vs. lower-order cognitive skills- type examination in chemistry: implications for university in-class assessment and examination. U.Chem.Ed , - . Twardy, C. R. ( ). Argument maps improve critical thinking. [on-line]. Available at: http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/ctwardy/papers/reasonpaper.pdf. (September , . Walker, G. H. (1998). Critical thinking. [on-line]. Available at: http://www.utr.edu/ administration/walkerteachingresoursecenter/facultydevelopment/criticalthinkig. (July 6, 2007).
  12. 12. van Gelder, T. (2003). Enhancing deliberation through computer-supported argument visualization. in P. A. Kirschner, S. Buckingham Shum, & C. Carr (Eds). Visualizing argumentation. London: Springer-Verlag.

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