Evaluating                       Teachers,                           OR                        Evaluating                 ...
GOOD                       TEACHING                       MATTERS!Friday, April 12, 13
Teachers Matter!               CHART:  Sanders, W. and Rivers, J. (1996) Cumulative and residual effects of teachers on fu...
Teacher Quality:                         What do we mean?                       • Successful teaching = good teaching?    ...
Measures of Effective Teaching project Report                                 2013 by Bill and Melinda Gates foundation   ...
The MET project is a research partnership of academics, teachers,         and education organizations committed to investi...
The MET Project - The Gates FoundationFriday, April 12, 13
Three Evaluation                             Components                       • Student Surveys                       • Cl...
This is the first large-scale study to demonstrate, using random      assignment, that it is possible to identify great tea...
• The report shows that a more balanced approach –     which incorporates the student survey data and     classroom observ...
Teacher Evaluation         • Evaluation standards should be clear and                  detailed so that teachers understan...
Test scores                       • How do tests help us achieve                         our educational goals?           ...
Educational Goals May Include...      •        Creating active, responsible, caring citizens.      •        Fostering crit...
Prof. Mary Kennedy:                                                    Attribution Error!     •        “We have veered too...
We should move from this model:     Teacher                                     Teaching                          Student ...
Situational                           characteristics •        TIME. Teachers’ already limited planning time is further   ...
“Teaching is such a difficult practice!”            ~David Labaree  •        The problem of client cooperation.           l...
Professor Yong Zhao:                       The traditional strengths in the US education:                       appreciati...
“Not everything                                that can be                            counted counts,                     ...
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Evaluating teachers or evaluating teaching

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This presentation criticizes the overemphasis on teacher characteristics in the discussion about teacher evaluation. Teacher evaluation should take into account situational characteristics that are faced by teachers, which may hinder the implementation of quality teaching. Moreover, the over-realiance on precise measurement may distract us from the main educational goals that we all want as a society. Thus, we need to reframe our thoughts and assumptions in discussing teacher evaluation.

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Evaluating teachers or evaluating teaching

  1. 1. Evaluating Teachers, OR Evaluating Teaching By: Iwan SyahrilFriday, April 12, 13
  2. 2. GOOD TEACHING MATTERS!Friday, April 12, 13
  3. 3. Teachers Matter! CHART:  Sanders, W. and Rivers, J. (1996) Cumulative and residual effects of teachers on future student academic achievement. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Value-Added Research and Assessment Center.Friday, April 12, 13
  4. 4. Teacher Quality: What do we mean? • Successful teaching = good teaching? • Good teaching = sound pedagogy • Successful teaching = achieving intended results. • What if good teaching does not achieve the intended results?Friday, April 12, 13
  5. 5. Measures of Effective Teaching project Report 2013 by Bill and Melinda Gates foundation Link: http://www.metproject.org/downloads/ MET_Ensuring_Fair_and_Reliable_Measures_Practitioner_Brief.pdf • Effective teaching is measureable(by classroom observation, students test score, students survey) • Through the measurement, students achievement is predictable.Friday, April 12, 13
  6. 6. The MET project is a research partnership of academics, teachers, and education organizations committed to investigating better ways to identify and develop effective teaching. Funding is provided by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. 3,000 MET project teachers from the following districts: The Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools, the Dallas Independent Schools, the Denver Public Schools, the Hillsborough County Public Schools, the New York City Schools, the Memphis Public Schools, and the Pittsburgh Public Schools. Participating teachers and students were enrolled in math and English language arts (ELA) in grades 4 through 8, algebra I at the high school level, biology (or its equivalent) at the high school level, and English in grade 9. Partners: American Institutes for Research, Cambridge Education, University of Chicago, The Danielson Group, Dartmouth University, Educational Testing Service, Empirical Education, Harvard University, National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, National Math and Science Initiative, New Teacher Center, University of Michigan, RAND, Rutgers University, University of Southern California, Stanford University, Teachscape, University of Texas, University of Virginia, University of Washington, and Westat.Friday, April 12, 13
  7. 7. The MET Project - The Gates FoundationFriday, April 12, 13
  8. 8. Three Evaluation Components • Student Surveys • Classroom Observations • Student Achievement Gains The MET Project - The Gates FoundationFriday, April 12, 13
  9. 9. This is the first large-scale study to demonstrate, using random assignment, that it is possible to identify great teaching. 1st year: Teaching practice was measured using a combination of student surveys, classroom observations, & student achievement gains. 2nd year: Teachers were randomly assigned to different classrooms of students. The students’ outcomes were later measured using state tests and supplemental assessments designed to measure students’ conceptual understanding in math and ability to write short answer responses following reading passages. Findings: The teachers whose students did better during the first year of the project also had students who performed better following random assignment. Moreover, the magnitude of the achievement gains they generated aligned with the predictions. The MET Project - The Gates FoundationFriday, April 12, 13
  10. 10. • The report shows that a more balanced approach – which incorporates the student survey data and classroom observations – has two important advantages: ratings are less likely to fluctuate from year to year, and the combination is more likely to identify teachers with better outcomes on assessments other than the state tests. • The report provides guidance on the best ways to achieve reliable classroom observations. The report recommends averaging observations from more than one observer, such as another administrator in a school or a peer observer. The MET Project - The Gates FoundationFriday, April 12, 13
  11. 11. Teacher Evaluation • Evaluation standards should be clear and detailed so that teachers understand the targets and evaluators can provide focused help on where they need to improve. • Some Questions: How to put evaluation measures into place in order to make sure they are fair, consistent, and produce accurate data? Should observations be announced or unannounced? How many observations are needed to get a meaningful sense of the quality of classroom instruction? Who should conduct the evaluations?Friday, April 12, 13
  12. 12. Test scores • How do tests help us achieve our educational goals? • So, what do the scores really mean? How important are they in achieving the educational goals?Friday, April 12, 13
  13. 13. Educational Goals May Include... • Creating active, responsible, caring citizens. • Fostering critical thinking, developing creative and innovative minds. • Preparing future skills: multi-literacies skills, numeracy skills, communication skills, etc. • Preparing global citizens: open-minded with a strong empathy, combating stereotypes, prejudices, and any types of discrimination especially against minority and marginalized groups. • And the list can go on and on....Friday, April 12, 13
  14. 14. Prof. Mary Kennedy: Attribution Error! • “We have veered too far toward the attribution of teaching quality to the characteristics of teachers themselves, and are overlooking situational factors that may have a strong bearing on the quality of teaching practices we see.” • “Policy makers and researchers seek better strategies for assessing teachers assuming that such qualities have a predictable bearing on teaching practices.” Reference: Kennedy, M. M. (2010). Attribution error and the quest for teacher quality. Educational Researcher, 39(8), 591-598.Friday, April 12, 13
  15. 15. We should move from this model: Teacher Teaching Student characteristics Practices Learning ...to the following model: Teacher characteristics Teaching Student Practices Learning Situational characteristics Reference: Kennedy, M. M. (2010). Attribution error and the quest for teacher quality. Educational Researcher, 39(8), 591-598.Friday, April 12, 13
  16. 16. Situational characteristics • TIME. Teachers’ already limited planning time is further reduced by other agendas: departmental meetings, assemblies, parent visits, test results reviews, professional development, etc. • MATERIALS. Lack of coherence, consistency and alignment between textbooks, standards, curriculum framework and achievement tests; lack of manuals for deep and complex learning activities. • WORK ASSIGNMENTS. The number of different type/ level of class to teach, out-of-field assignment, extra-curricular responsibilities. Reference: Kennedy, M. M. (2010). Attribution error and the quest for teacher quality. Educational Researcher, 39(8), 591-598.Friday, April 12, 13
  17. 17. “Teaching is such a difficult practice!” ~David Labaree • The problem of client cooperation. learn what the teacher is teaching. The student must be willing to • The problem of compulsory clientele. Students are present under duress, otherwise students may be doing something else rather than learning algebra, literature, biology, etc. • The problem of emotion management. Teachers need to actively establish and manage emotional relationships with students. • The problem of structural isolation. Teachers are the only professional in the room left alone to manage 30 kids on their own. • The problem of chronic of uncertainty about the effectiveness of teaching. The will and emotion in the teaching and learning process, the effects of teaching, the conflicting purposes of education, confusing client’s identity. Reference: Labaree, D. F. (2000). On the nature of teaching and teacher education: Difficult practices that look easy. Journal of Teacher Education, 51(3), 228-233. Friday, April 12, 13
  18. 18. Professor Yong Zhao: The traditional strengths in the US education: appreciation on individual interests and talents, passion, curiosity, confidence and risk-taking. This leads to creativity, innovation, entrepreneurship - the qualities needed to win the global competition.Friday, April 12, 13
  19. 19. “Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be ~Albert Einstein counted.”Friday, April 12, 13

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