- SPRING TERM 2012 -
1st Assignment: 1984 Essay
Marko Rajkovic Mark Spokes, Gun Gulley
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION TO PROPAGANDA...................................................................page 3.
HUMAN PERCEPTION TO FORGIVENESS.........................................................page 4.
HUMAN PSYCHE AS A TARGET...........................................................................page 5.
CONTROLLING MECHANISMS & THE NEW WORLD......................................page 6.
“Who controls the past, controls the future. Who controls the present, controls the past” (Orwell,
Activity that aims to influence the widest social layers, diffusion of ideas, dissemination
of ideas, a thought, movement, etc., is called the “propaganda” (from the Latin word
"propaganda" or "propagare").
Under the propaganda we mean a planned organized, deliberate expansion of political,
religious, economic and other ideas in order to gain public opinion." Political action is always
directed to the consensus of public opinion, and remember that the goal is not telling the truth,
but to convince, conquer the human soul, the change affects the attitudes and behavior. Political
power is most easily realized by transferring messages, ideas, initiative and power of the media
channels of interaction that become levers of control and shaping mass consciousness. Mass
media transpose the ruling political will as a norm of behavior, forming a new structure with
reduced-mentioned world view. For the political elite it is of biggest importance to control the
social relations in society and control techniques of communication practices, such as imposing
their own ideas and value system.
Persuasion is the only one of its ways of controlling masses. It is a mainstay of
advertising effects: it holds propagandist intention to, via influencing the attitudes to varying
degrees, directs the audience's behavior in accordance with its goals. And the impact on behavior
is the main objective of propaganda.
The basis of all the propaganda indoctrinating pre-and long-term effects, and its purpose,
unifying ideas and actions of the population accept the ruling ideology. The term that is related
to the concept of propaganda is the notion of manipulation.
In the terms of human beings, propaganda sets the parameters for subconscious influence
on human mind. It is the way people perceive things which actually shape the world. How do we
see ourselves as being a part a society.
In 1984, Orwell’s vision of The Party is the true horror of the human mind. A mind
without freedom and soul. A world without love, peace, diversity and joy. A world in which
hate, is the the driving mechanism of a nation. We live in a world of change. The fact is that we
were confronted within the previous past ten to fifteen years have made a vast series of both
technological and social change. In other words, we can now be influenced more easily. In the
same time, not even being aware that we are under constant surveillance and espionage. It just
seems unreal that Orwell could see to the future without even witnessing all the change we are
People tend to forget. That is the meaning of forgiveness, as some would say. On the
other hand... Do we forget? In this question lies the answer on collective memory perception. If
we forget, how will we now if we were ever hurt? Do we need a leader to guide us? Do we see
ourselves as a part of a herd? Or is it all the way around? It is in people’s memory where all of
the hopes and dreams are kept. Mechanism which drive us are our dreams. Same ones which
Orwell used to point out our sheer determination for uniqueness.
Throughout the past, there were a lot of key figures, which enjoyed the power of
manipulation. Figures all the way from likes of Alexander the Great, Hitler, John F. Kennedy,
Mahatma Gandhi, over to various largely successful business people. Music icons such as
Beatles, Michael Jackson, Elvis, you name it. They are not only political. They are every single
one of them that shape our world. It is in the nature of human beings to blindly follow a leader.
Leader just has to carry them over the water, to show them the way, and they will obey. They
need to. It is in their mind to be a part of the group. Of the party. This is by terms of
manipulation as a a whole. Politics use all of the above to construct a collective memory of all
the population by giving them false happiness, but on the other hand taking their lives. Privacy is
dying, and all of those great people that call themselves leaders in certain aspects, are no more
than slaves of the present time. Their power only goes to an extent where they have to be
changed, or disciplined thoroughly. To be used as a medium of gaining power. To listen to the
big brother, and contribute to his will. A variety of them tried to shape the world, but none had
By gaining the edge in collective memory of human, not only gives a perception of
guidance, but also presents a walkthrough through the labyrinth of chaos. If we remember the
way to solve it, we will find a way to cure it. Obliviousness is the biggest problem there is.
People tend to forget bad things, even though they can serve as a trigger for change. As a way of
influencing the people to think upon their future, but using the past as the mentor for future
decisions. Collective memory is a strong weapon if it is used with proper bullets. It can trigger
political revolt if we are aware of what happened to us before and how can we influence the
Methods for achieving complete mental lethargy of substantial part of the people are very
colorful and each have a fixed "target" - a place in the human psyche which is intended of
dulling. Newspeak is just one such method, which allows the narrowness of thought, therefore
the existing terms intertwines and intersects the new words, without the possibility of expression
and connotative meanings in general, let alone politically or ideologically saturated colored
terms. Thus, reducing the number and quality of words, achieved a perfect "backwardness" of the
people, i.e., the basic tool of mankind, opinion, was actually deprived.
The extent of comprehensiveness of mechanism that aims to systematically destroy
everything in man may represent a possible threat to the party, is shown also in the official
attitude towards sex. Any contact that may have sexual or emotional component is considered
highly unacceptable. Only in purpose of reproduction, sex was acceptable and desirable.
Frustration that would be deposited due to the inability of instinctual impulses of their
personality to adequately meet is also used in a manipulative purpose.
Correcting the facts of the past, the destruction of all that is in contradiction with the
principles of the INGSOC, permanent modifications to the press and all written documents,
served as the remapping of reality. To the extent that man has no choice but to at all to actually
believe. Common sense and memory, but also by seeing something very obvious and real, it does
not need to serve, a fact which does not exist anywhere in the objective world, it can be
demonstrated only through one's memory. Knowledge and general intellectual domain, are
something to be eradicated immediately, as people could not see through what is happening with
them. And taking into account all methods used, and it is unlikely that it really could still be a
branch of the people who was immune to such psychological sanctions. Hypocrisy (well
described in the names of government bodies: Ministry of Truth - which serves the falsification
of reality, creating the lies, the Ministry of Love - which deals with torture and murder of the
Ministry of Peace - engaged in warfare) became one of the weapons against humanity. Simply
knowing the name and spontaneity of these institutions, and with the knowledge that the entire
population possessed the true functions of these ministries, should lead to quite easily visible and
poorly disguised lies, however, no one is asking these questions. Misery, poverty, shortages of
basic necessities of life is just hitting directly on the general state of apathy and indifference,
reinforcing the very effects that contribute to valid and fatal camouflage objective reality. All
this has resulted in mass brainwashing
Orwell's vision of a new tomorrow is very like what we see around us today, to the results, as
well as techniques used to achieve them. More than fifty years ago, Orwell described the control
technology such as "Newspeak", the machine voice recognition, and the "telescreen," a two-way
television with only one channel to backfill the people with the government propaganda. Sounds
familiar? We may have a myriad of channels, but they are in fact one and the same, and are
endlessly repeating the same, unchallenged, government story.
Orwell spoke of "the proles" or "proletarians", which made up about 85% of the population.
They were the mass of the unthinking, and they were seen as the cattle by the government,
exactly as it is the case today. They were not at the same level of control as those who were
considered intellectually dangerous, because they did not question anything.Then there was
"prolefood", the numbing 'entertainment', and fabricated 'news' for the masses that were used to
keep them in dull condition and incapable of independent thinking. There was also "Unperson",
someone kicked out of social activities and all the documents until they officially ceased to exist.
Keeping the people right where they want them, in the same way that it’s done today….
Nowadays we are also witnessing the introduction of political programs, similar to those
in the book, which are used to encourage and stimulate people to spy on each other, and report
their neighbors, workmates, clients, and even friends and classmates, to the authorities. These are
all absolutely identical ways and situations that we encounter today, they are just modified and
improved, in line with progress of technology and improvement of methods. Orwell's world from
the nightmare is not coming, it is here.
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