Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Deverbal nouns and historical development Øivin Andersen, Department of Linguistic, Literary and Aesthetic Studies
Basic Hyotheses: <ul><li>H1. Deverbal nouns are hybrid forms with verbal and nominal features. </li></ul><ul><li>H2. Dever...
Prototypical Verbal and Nominal Features of Verbs and Nouns <ul><li>Verbal features: event denotation, description, dynami...
Theoretical and empirical basis <ul><li>Two empirical domains: </li></ul>D1 Syncronic frequency  Data from gramma- ticaliz...
Theory and Relevant Data <ul><li>D2: Lack of data, but H3 is attested for many languages, jf. Malchukov (2004). </li></ul>...
Lexicalization <ul><li>Lexicalization is the change whereby in certain linguistic contexts speakers use a syntactic constr...
Consequences of Lexicalization <ul><li>1. Lexicalization takes place in definable stages (paths, clines). </li></ul><ul><l...
Deverbal Nouns in a Diachronic Perspective <ul><li>Pilot investigation on zero suffix nouns </li></ul><ul><li>DNH1: Zero s...
Testing  DNH2: The Oslo corpus, 18,5 mill. word tokens <ul><li>Only two occurrences with the preposition  for : </li></ul>...
Testing  DNH2: The Oslo corpus, 18,5 mill. word tokens <ul><li>82 occurences with the preposition  av : </li></ul><ul><li>...
How can we use frequency data? <ul><li>Hopper & Traugott (2003:125)  token frequency, i.e. the number of times a particula...
Testing DNH1: Norwegian Newspaper corpus: 430 mill. ord Gr.  - Lex 0 - 30 7   30   slag av   133 - 53 43   186   drap av  ...
Different nounhood of zero suffix nouns: <ul><li>perfect noun ----------------------------------imperfect noun </li></ul><...
Factors in the nominalization path <ul><li>Non-lexical/less lexical  More lexical </li></ul><ul><li>transparent  opaque </...
Postulated Stages <ul><li>Stage 1: Establishment of process event meaning and reference </li></ul><ul><li>Standardprosedyr...
Stage 2 <ul><li>Development of result meaning, specific reference, development of logical polysemy by reanalysis and analo...
Presence of logical polysemy <ul><li>Morphological type  Yes  No </li></ul><ul><li>-(n)ing  69  19 </li></ul><ul><li>[zero...
Stage 3 <ul><li>Development of idiosyncratic polysemy, semantic distance  </li></ul><ul><li>When a word/collocation is lex...
Stage 4 <ul><li>Development of idiosyncratic morphophonological alternation. Form distance  </li></ul><ul><li>Isomorphic r...
Infinitive–deverbal noun alternations <ul><li>Infinitive Deverbal noun </li></ul><ul><li>1. bryte brudd </li></ul><ul><li>...
Token frequency for deverbal zero suffix nouns plus preposition  av 30 0 7 30 Slag av  53 133 43 186 Drap av 153 0 35 153 ...
Token frequency for deverbal zero suffix noun plus preposition  på Non-partici-pant Parici-pant Rel. Frequen-cy  Abs. Freq...
Argument and participant structure with zero suffix nouns. little full high predictable kjøp kjøpe little full high Idiosy...
Stage Theory <ul><li>Bybee’s ordering hierarchy: The iconic principle of a given category’s relevance to the root, i.e. th...
Stage 5: Loss of aspect distinctions by analogical spreading <ul><li>Aspect distinctions and morphological types: </li></u...
Aspect and arg. structure with zero suffix nouns plus prep.  av 0 19 4 19 Sparking av 16 6 5 22 Spark av 0 74 16 74 Vaskin...
Aspect and arg. Structure with zero suffix nouns plus prep.  på 2 0 0 2 sparking på 90 110 81 355 spark på 5 0 1 5 vasking...
Dist. of perfective (result) and imperfective (process) with zero suffix and –ing nouns plus prep.  av 19 0 Sparking av 6 ...
Examples <ul><li>VG040327 Teknikken min er utsatt. Jeg får feil  skru på  ballen.  </li></ul><ul><li>DA060204 Så fikk Bjør...
Accomplishments and achievments <ul><li>Perfective zero suffix DNs correspond to achievements/ simple events. </li></ul><u...
What about Norwegian? <ul><li>VG060212 …, det blir for mange  spark på  ballen, sier Ferguson.  </li></ul><ul><li>DB991210...
Maximal Difference Principle <ul><li>Categories tend to be defined in terms of prototypes that contain the attributes that...
Maximal Difference Principle <ul><li>Various expressions of quantification are typical of perfect nouns.  </li></ul><ul><l...
Aspect types and quantification *en pass *en grøssing et grøss Indef. Art. mye pass mye grøssing *mye grøss Mass quant *ma...
Stage 6: Loss of dependent and lexical differentiation <ul><li>Development of idiosyncratic polysemy may lead to loss of d...
Conclusion <ul><li>Norwegian DNs are in a state of flux. </li></ul><ul><li>Grammaticalization theories and frequency data ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Deverbal nouns and historical development

1,033

Published on

Power Point presentation of my project on deverbal nouns in Norwegian. Please visit http://www.oivinandersen.com for more info

Published in: Technology, Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,033
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Deverbal nouns and historical development"

  1. 1. Deverbal nouns and historical development Øivin Andersen, Department of Linguistic, Literary and Aesthetic Studies
  2. 2. Basic Hyotheses: <ul><li>H1. Deverbal nouns are hybrid forms with verbal and nominal features. </li></ul><ul><li>H2. Deverbal nouns have closer semantic relations to the verb the younger they are. </li></ul><ul><li>H3. Deverbal nouns become increasingly more nouny the older they are. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Prototypical Verbal and Nominal Features of Verbs and Nouns <ul><li>Verbal features: event denotation, description, dynamic process meaning, tense, aspect, presence of argument structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Nominal features: entity denotation, spesific reference, result meaning, no aspect, no argument structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Hopper, Paul J. & Sandra A. Thompson. 1985. The iconicity of the universal categories ‘noun’ and ‘verb’. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Theoretical and empirical basis <ul><li>Two empirical domains: </li></ul>D1 Syncronic frequency Data from gramma- ticalization theory D2 Authentic diachronic data
  5. 5. Theory and Relevant Data <ul><li>D2: Lack of data, but H3 is attested for many languages, jf. Malchukov (2004). </li></ul><ul><li>D1: Frequency data motivated by grammaticalization and lexicalization theory. Sources: The Oslo Corpus and The Norwegian Newspaper Corpus. </li></ul><ul><li>Grammaticalization: The study of how lexical items and constructions take on specialized, grammatical functions. (Hopper & Traugott 2003). </li></ul>
  6. 6. Lexicalization <ul><li>Lexicalization is the change whereby in certain linguistic contexts speakers use a syntactic construction or word formation as a new contentful form with formal and semantic properties that are not completely derivable from the constituents of the construction or the word formation pattern. Over time there may be further loss of internal constituency and the item may become more lexical. (Brinton & Traugott 2005:96). </li></ul>
  7. 7. Consequences of Lexicalization <ul><li>1. Lexicalization takes place in definable stages (paths, clines). </li></ul><ul><li>2. Constructions with a compositional semantics loose compositionality. </li></ul><ul><li>3. The internal constituent structure of constructions become more idiosyncratic (Lehmann 1995). </li></ul><ul><li>4.There are no sharp boundaries between grammar and lexicon. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Members of the class adpositions may have both lexical and grammatical members at the same time (cf. layering in unidirectionality theory (Lehmann 1995). </li></ul>
  8. 8. Deverbal Nouns in a Diachronic Perspective <ul><li>Pilot investigation on zero suffix nouns </li></ul><ul><li>DNH1: Zero suffix nouns have a different mixture of verbal and nominal properties. Some are more” verby” and some are more ”nouny”. </li></ul><ul><li>DNH2: Prep av ”of” can function both as a lexical preposition and as a grammatical preposition (Grimshaw: theta transmitter). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Testing DNH2: The Oslo corpus, 18,5 mill. word tokens <ul><li>Only two occurrences with the preposition for : </li></ul><ul><li>AV/BT95/02 : .. urt Lancaster) skal bygge et mottak for nordsjøolje i en skotsk småby. Stedet… </li></ul><ul><li>AV/BT95/01 : … ere et nettverk av kombinerte mottak for skogssopp og -bær over hele landet. Øs… </li></ul>
  10. 10. Testing DNH2: The Oslo corpus, 18,5 mill. word tokens <ul><li>82 occurences with the preposition av : </li></ul><ul><li>… liegjenforeningen, og øvrige mottak av asylsøkere og flyktninger på 1980-talle… </li></ul><ul><li>AV/Af96/01 :… land og landet er isolert for mottak av nabolands programmer. Kilde : Nordisk … </li></ul><ul><li>AV/Fa96/01 : … es av andre i forlaget? Vårt mottak av manus på papir utenfra er idag ca 18 tr… </li></ul><ul><li>AV/VG96/01 : …sc oringen var bare genial, med mottak av høy klasse, måten han vendte vekk svei… </li></ul>
  11. 11. How can we use frequency data? <ul><li>Hopper & Traugott (2003:125) token frequency, i.e. the number of times a particular form occurs in texts or the changes in frequency of forms or constructions over time. These frequency data are very characteristic of the grammaticalization of grammatical forms. Changes such as semantic fading, phonological reduction, positional fixing, increasing compositionality and erasure of word boundaries, are inseparable from the absolute frequency of the forms and the frequency with which they occur with other forms. In the opposite process, lexicalization, factors such as semantic enrichment and reduction of compositionality will be assumed to have a close connection to token frequency. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Testing DNH1: Norwegian Newspaper corpus: 430 mill. ord Gr. - Lex 0 - 30 7 30 slag av 133 - 53 43 186 drap av 0 - 153 35 153 skudd av 200 - 0 3828 16319 salg av 200 - 0 1817 7747 kjøp av 16- 14 7 30 brudd av F of prep av for first 200 occur Rel.freq. per 100 mill.words absolute frequency deverbal noun + prep.
  13. 13. Different nounhood of zero suffix nouns: <ul><li>perfect noun ----------------------------------imperfect noun </li></ul><ul><li>skudd slag brudd drap salg kjøp </li></ul><ul><li>idiosyncratic predictable </li></ul><ul><li>no argument structure argument structure </li></ul><ul><li>no participant structure participant structure </li></ul>
  14. 14. Factors in the nominalization path <ul><li>Non-lexical/less lexical More lexical </li></ul><ul><li>transparent opaque </li></ul><ul><li>regular irregular </li></ul><ul><li>full inner structure reduced inner structure </li></ul><ul><li>predictable unpredictable </li></ul><ul><li>compositional idiosyncratic </li></ul><ul><li>based on Hopper & Thompson 1985, Lehmann 2002, Malchukov 2004 and Brinton & Traugott 2005 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Postulated Stages <ul><li>Stage 1: Establishment of process event meaning and reference </li></ul><ul><li>Standardprosedyre for isoler-ing av reguleringsventiler </li></ul><ul><li>Sjekk-Ø av manuell-e ventiler må foregå ettter kontortid. </li></ul><ul><li>Halliday & Martin (1993), Banks (2004), Cowie (2000). </li></ul>
  16. 16. Stage 2 <ul><li>Development of result meaning, specific reference, development of logical polysemy by reanalysis and analogical spreading </li></ul><ul><li>AA060201 Når vi får tegning av kjøkkenrommet som viser vannuttak… </li></ul><ul><li>AP060203 Tegningene som nå fordømmes er en tegning av profeten med en bombe i turbanen. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Presence of logical polysemy <ul><li>Morphological type Yes No </li></ul><ul><li>-(n)ing 69 19 </li></ul><ul><li>[zero suffix] 29 2 </li></ul><ul><li>-sjon 11 5 </li></ul><ul><li>-asje 5 0 </li></ul><ul><li>infinitive 0 4 </li></ul><ul><li>-anse 2 0 </li></ul><ul><li>-sel 2 0 </li></ul><ul><li>-skap 0 1 </li></ul><ul><li>-t 0 1 </li></ul><ul><li>-else 2 2 </li></ul>
  18. 18. Stage 3 <ul><li>Development of idiosyncratic polysemy, semantic distance </li></ul><ul><li>When a word/collocation is lexicalized a specific semantic component is added to the DN (Wischer 2000). </li></ul><ul><li>DB060117 De har påtatt seg salg av prosjekterte leiligheter… </li></ul><ul><li>AP060211 I januar hadde vi salg på varer som var billige fra før. </li></ul><ul><li>Salg av: 3828 per 100 million words </li></ul><ul><li>Salg på: 297 per 100 million words, only six with idiosyncratic meaning. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Stage 4 <ul><li>Development of idiosyncratic morphophonological alternation. Form distance </li></ul><ul><li>Isomorphic relationship between semantic idiosyncracy and form idosyncracy. </li></ul><ul><li>Morphophonological alternations between the infinitive form and the corresponding zero suffix nouns tend to be lexically governed, i.e. idiosyncratic and irregular: </li></ul>
  20. 20. Infinitive–deverbal noun alternations <ul><li>Infinitive Deverbal noun </li></ul><ul><li>1. bryte brudd </li></ul><ul><li>2. drepe drap </li></ul><ul><li>3. skyte skudd </li></ul><ul><li>Infinitive Deverbal noun </li></ul><ul><li>4. slå slag </li></ul><ul><li>5. selge salg </li></ul><ul><li>6. kjøpe kjøp </li></ul>
  21. 21. Token frequency for deverbal zero suffix nouns plus preposition av 30 0 7 30 Slag av 53 133 43 186 Drap av 153 0 35 153 Skudd av 0 200 3828 16319 Salg av 0 200 1817 7747 Kjøp av 14 16 7 30 Brudd av Non-partici-pant Partici-pant Rel. Frequen-cy Abs. Frequen-cy DN+ prep
  22. 22. Token frequency for deverbal zero suffix noun plus preposition på Non-partici-pant Parici-pant Rel. Frequen-cy Abs. Frequen-cy DN+ prep 190 10 77 247 Slag på 11 189 1499 6285 Drap på 199 1 238 1017 Skudd på 194 6 297 1269 Salg på 156 44 48 206 Kjøp på 0 200 3252 13634 Brudd på
  23. 23. Argument and participant structure with zero suffix nouns. little full high predictable kjøp kjøpe little full high Idiosyn-cratic salg selge Almost full some low Idiosyn-cratic drap drepe full some low Idiosyn-cratic brudd bryte little no low Idiosyn-cratic slag slå no no low Idiosyn-cratic skudd skyte Participant structure Argument strucure Frequency Predicta-bility Deverbal noun Infinitive
  24. 24. Stage Theory <ul><li>Bybee’s ordering hierarchy: The iconic principle of a given category’s relevance to the root, i.e. the extent to wich the meaning of a verbal category or property directly affects or modifies the meaning of the stem (Bybee 1985). </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal properties like valence and aspect are more relevant than tense. Hence tense is easier lost in nominalization than aspect. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Stage 5: Loss of aspect distinctions by analogical spreading <ul><li>Aspect distinctions and morphological types: </li></ul><ul><li>DB050808 Nå ser vi det samme i NRK med sparking av medarbeidere som virkelig gjør noe. </li></ul><ul><li>DB051024 Nå blir det et drama helt til siste spark på ballen. </li></ul><ul><li>BT050427 Spør om råd til stell av de plantene du har investert i. </li></ul><ul><li>VG050518 skyggejakting og alt for mye stelling av egen pels, melder Daily Telegraph . </li></ul>
  26. 26. Aspect and arg. structure with zero suffix nouns plus prep. av 0 19 4 19 Sparking av 16 6 5 22 Spark av 0 74 16 74 Vasking av 0 137 31 137 Vask av Lexical prep Grammatical prep Rel.freq. Abs.freq. DN+prep
  27. 27. Aspect and arg. Structure with zero suffix nouns plus prep. på 2 0 0 2 sparking på 90 110 81 355 spark på 5 0 1 5 vasking på 23 0 5 23 vask på Non-partic-ipant Partici-pant Rel. freq Abs. freq. DN + prep
  28. 28. Dist. of perfective (result) and imperfective (process) with zero suffix and –ing nouns plus prep. av 19 0 Sparking av 6 15 Spark av 74 0 Vasking av 137 0 Vask av Imperfective/ process Perfective/ result DN + prep.
  29. 29. Examples <ul><li>VG040327 Teknikken min er utsatt. Jeg får feil skru på ballen. </li></ul><ul><li>DA060204 Så fikk Bjørnstad sving på sakene, og vartet opp med birdier… </li></ul><ul><li>DB040814 ..i tradisjonen fra latinen, med mye pugg av bøyningsmønstre og deklinasjoner… </li></ul><ul><li>SA990219 Han tenkte på ”Gift” og kritikk av pugging av latinske gloser og byer i Belgia. </li></ul><ul><li>AA011115 Siste skikkelige rens av kirken ble foretatt for 50 år siden. </li></ul><ul><li>AP060304 Produktene brukes både til rensing av drikkevann og avløpsvann. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Accomplishments and achievments <ul><li>Perfective zero suffix DNs correspond to achievements/ simple events. </li></ul><ul><li>Imperfective zero suffix DNs correspond to accomplishments/complex events. </li></ul><ul><li>Cf. Grimshaw 1990: English accomplishment DNs have argument structure and achievements do not. </li></ul>
  31. 31. What about Norwegian? <ul><li>VG060212 …, det blir for mange spark på ballen, sier Ferguson. </li></ul><ul><li>DB991210 Et av sparkene treffer meg i låret. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Maximal Difference Principle <ul><li>Categories tend to be defined in terms of prototypes that contain the attributes that are most representative of items inside and least representative of items outside the category (Rosch/Lloyd 1978). </li></ul><ul><li>When imperfect nouns become perfect nouns, they tend to take on more attributes representative of the noun category. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Maximal Difference Principle <ul><li>Various expressions of quantification are typical of perfect nouns. </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation between different semantic types, morphological types and aspect on the one hand, and various types of quantification on the other hand: simple event nouns tend to be countable, can be pluralized, individuated, quantified and occur with the indefinite article. </li></ul><ul><li>Complex event nouns tend not to be pluralized, have only mass quantification, and do not occur with the indefinite article: </li></ul>
  34. 34. Aspect types and quantification *en pass *en grøssing et grøss Indef. Art. mye pass mye grøssing *mye grøss Mass quant *mange passer *mange grøssinger mange grøss Individual Quant. *passene *grøssingene grøssene Plural pass grøssing grøss Examples Zero suff. -ing Zero suff. Morph.type Complex event Complex event Simple event Semantic type
  35. 35. Stage 6: Loss of dependent and lexical differentiation <ul><li>Development of idiosyncratic polysemy may lead to loss of dependent: </li></ul><ul><li>SA051219 …ikke har problemer med å spise over vasken og drikke fra kartongen. </li></ul><ul><li>CF. Skjær (Anglo-Saxon scorian ), kløft (from klufta ”to split”) </li></ul><ul><li>Lexical differentiation: bygging vs bygning, stiging vs stigning, retting vs retning, skaping vs skapning. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Conclusion <ul><li>Norwegian DNs are in a state of flux. </li></ul><ul><li>Grammaticalization theories and frequency data suggest that DNs tend to become more like perfect nouns. </li></ul><ul><li>The process can be described in terms of stages triggered by phenomena like relevance to the root, reanalysis, language use, isomorphism, The Maximal Difference Principle and Prototype Theory </li></ul>
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×