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Turkish classical art music
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  • 1. TURKISH ART MUSICOttoman classical music (Turkish: Türk sanatmüziği – turkish art music or Klasik Türk mûsikîsi –classical turkish music) developed in Istanbul andmajor Ottoman towns from Skopje to Cairo, fromTabriz to Morocco through the palace, mosques, andsufi lodges of the Ottoman Empire.[1] Above all a vocalmusic, Ottoman music traditionally accompanies a solosinger with a small instrumental ensemble.
  • 2. In recent times instruments might includetambur (lute), ney (flute), kemençe (fiddle), keman(Western violin), kanun (zither), or other instruments.Sometimes described as monophonic music, thevariety of ornamentation and variation in the ensemblerequires the more accurate term heterophonic.
  • 3. OverviewOttoman music has a large and varied system ofmodes or scales known as makams, and other rules ofcomposition. There are more than 600 makams that havebeen used so far. Out of these, at least 119 makams areformally defined, but today only around 20 makams arewidely used. In the sufi teaching, each makam representsand conveys a particular psychological and spiritual state.Sometimes, in certain makams, Ottomans would usedifferent instrumental and vocal musical pieces in order tocure certain medical and psychological conditions.
  • 4. A number of notation systems were used fortranscribing classical music, the most dominant beingthe Hamparsum notation in use until the gradualintroduction of western notation. Turkish classicalmusic is taught in conservatories and social clubs, themost respected of which is Istanbuls Üsküdar MusikiCemiyeti.
  • 5. Traditional instruments in Ottoman classicalmusic today include tanbur long-necked pluckedlute, ney end-blown flute, kemençe bowed fiddle, oudplucked short-necked unfretted lute, kanun pluckedzither, violin, and in Mevlevi music, kudüm drum.Older instruments still in use include lavta.Musical instruments
  • 6. Ottoman classical music comprises many vocal andinstrumental forms, among which are the suites called fasıl.A fasıl typically includes many instrumental and/or vocalmovements, including taksim, peşrev, şarkı, beste, andkar, among others.Forms
  • 7. Ottoman music has various genres includingthe spiritual, improvised("gazel", "kaside", "durak", etc.) and fasil music. Thelatter is more secular.Genres
  • 8. Other famous proponents of this genre includeDede Efendi, Prince Cantemir, BabaHamparsum, Kemani Tatyos Efendi, Sultan Selim IIIand Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent. The mostpopular modern Turkish classical singer is MünirNurettin Selçuk, who was the first to establish a leadsinger position. Other performers include Bekir SıdkıSezgin, Alaeddin Yavaşça, Müzeyyen Senar and ZekaiTunca.Composers and Performers