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  1. 1. PODCASTING Group 3 / Task 11: Cleidylaine Damasceno Silva Magalhães Ivia Vianna Santana Luciana Morais Amaral Rosilene Moreira da Silva Viviane Campos
  2. 2. What is a Podcast? <ul><li>“ [Podcasts] are audio programs that are stored as digital files on the Internet. This files can be retrieved from an Internet connection anywhere in the world.” </li></ul><ul><li>Transmits pre-recorded files to any MP3 player, laptop, or any other device capable to synchronizing with and audio software like iTunes or Windows Media Player. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is a Podcast? <ul><li>Podcasts descend from Blogs, but while these are based on written content, Podcasts focus on audio and video files as an ‘audio blog’. </li></ul><ul><li>The audio or video files are selected and sent to the media device via podcast-enabled RSS 2.0 feeds, what makes uploading and recording files much easier than the traditional broadcasting . </li></ul>
  4. 4. How does it work?
  5. 6. Figure 7:1 Podcasting http://www.cmu.edu/teaching/resources/PublicationsArchives/StudiesWhitepapers/Podcasting_Jun07.pdf
  6. 7. History of Podcasting <ul><li>RSS 2.0 was developed by Adam Curry and Dave Winer </li></ul><ul><li>October 2003 : BloggerCon conference at Harvard Law School’s Berkman Centre. </li></ul><ul><li>and the podcast concept launched in September 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>October 2004 : launched Podkey , the first phonetic search engine for podcasting. </li></ul><ul><li>May 2004 : First book on Podcasting ( Podcasting: the do it yourself guide by Todd Cochrane). </li></ul><ul><li>June 2005 : Apple announce iTunes software support </li></ul><ul><li>to podcasting and distribuition through iTunes </li></ul><ul><li>Music Store. </li></ul>
  7. 8. History of Podcasting <ul><li>Podcasting was reorganized by Big Media and now most nationwide news programs are now available in podcast format. </li></ul><ul><li>Some websites: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobilcast from Melodeo http://mobilcast.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gabscast http://gabcast.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evoca http://evoca.com </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gcast http://gcast.com </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Educational uses of Podcasts <ul><li>Podcasts can be used to promote school activities and to connected families with their child's school activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Check Minneapolis Public schools broadcasts </li></ul><ul><li>Many schools incorporate podcasts into the school district Web site or an individual school's Web site using RSS technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers can use daily or weekly podcasts to summarize lessons for students and parents. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Educational uses of Podcasts <ul><li>To start the podcast integration into the curriculum, teachers can make directory podcasts that can be helpful for students research. </li></ul><ul><li>Older students can add podcasts to these subject specific directories. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Educational uses of Podcasts <ul><li>Students can use podcasts in school to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Share information and research findings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debate issues and opposing view points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share poetry or creative writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply topics and concepts to the world events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate in foreign languages </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Educational uses of Podcasts <ul><li>Dave Warlick, a North Carolina educator , and Landmark project created The Education Podcasts Network , with the effort to bring together, the wide range of podcast programming that may be helpful to teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>Two of the most popular directories that cover all topics are Podcast Alley and iTunes Podcast Directory . </li></ul><ul><li>There is also a partnership between Apple and individual colleges and universities called iTunesU </li></ul>
  12. 13. Retrieval and Listening to podcasts <ul><li>In order to receive a podcast, it is needed a podcatcher software. </li></ul><ul><li>Podcatcher is a tool that manages the selection and downloads of podcast feeds automatically, without physically visiting the sites. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Retrieval and Listening to podcasts <ul><li>How does a podcatcher work? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Podcather downloads podcast files by reading the contained in a RSS file </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extracts different information from the same RSS file </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Displays the information in human-readable format. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Retrieval and Listening to podcasts <ul><li>When a desired podcast is found, you need to locate the links to the RSS feed necessary to add to your podcatcher application. </li></ul><ul><li>For iPod users, Apple has created a podcast directory that can be accessed from their iTunes Music Store . </li></ul><ul><li>Apple only links to the podcast files; it does not host them. </li></ul><ul><li>To receive a podcast, iTunes users need simply to click the ‘Subscribe' button on the show’s directory page. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Resources for preparing podcasts in the classroom <ul><li>Podcasts can be used as way of developing the four skills. Not only can they listen to educational podcast but they can also produce their own. </li></ul><ul><li>By doing this students will be able to learn how to research, plan, and write their scripts in advance, moreover to do many takes in order to have a satisfactory quality. </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Helpful sites: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.k12handhelds.com/podcasting </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.learnnoutloud.com </li></ul><ul><li>Books about podcasting: </li></ul><ul><li>Kidcast: podcasting in the classroom by Dan Schimt </li></ul><ul><li>Educator´s podcast guide by Bard Williams </li></ul><ul><li>Handheld Computers in Schools and media Centers by Ann Bell </li></ul>
  17. 18. Legal and Copyright issues in podcasting <ul><li>Podcasting unlike broadcasting are not subjected to direct censorship or regulatory control. However, media content on the internet is copyrighted, associated with terms of use, laws of defamation. </li></ul><ul><li>School should be aware of the steps to ensure that their podcasts do not infringe any existing copyright or are considered offensive or libelous. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents and educators need to provide discussion with the young people about the content of the podcasts they are listening to, their own opinions about it and their uses. </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Educators should always ask for permission and inform the parents when publishing students work on line. Assuring that the students identity are protected. </li></ul><ul><li>Participants need to be aware when being recorded (audio and video) whether it is done on line or digitally . </li></ul><ul><li>Check www.rcfp.org/taping if there are any doubts about ethical recording. </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>The uses and exchanges of music over the internet is a complex issue. </li></ul><ul><li>Legal licenses (organizations that represent groups of songwriters and publishers for permission) </li></ul><ul><li>www.copyright.gov/circ22.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://cocatalog.loc.gov </li></ul><ul><li>http://acap.com/weblicense </li></ul><ul><li>http://creativecommons.org </li></ul><ul><li>Royalty free music </li></ul><ul><li>http://podshow.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.podsafeaudio.com </li></ul><ul><li>Create your own music </li></ul><ul><li>The creator of a podcast is its owner even a minor. When published as a work they are protected under copyright laws </li></ul>
  20. 21. Hardware needed to produce a podcast <ul><li>A computer with at least a Gigabyte of memory, a fast processor, several Gigabytes of free space on the hard drive, and line in/out jacks should be capable of creating and receiving a podcast. </li></ul><ul><li>A full featured USB or FireWire audio to digital converter will provide flexibility and higher quality sound. </li></ul><ul><li>Apple only links to the podcast files; it does not host them. </li></ul><ul><li>To receive a podcast, iTunes users need simply to click the ‘Subscribe' button on the show’s directory page. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Hardware needed to produce a podcast <ul><li>MICROPHONE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most important component of a podcast setup. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microphone upgrades are the number-one purchase that will improve the quality of a podcast. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Hardware needed to produce a podcast <ul><li>MICROPHONE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Add a pop filter to your setup which is a nylon mesh stretched over a small frame that is positioned between the speaker and the microphone. This helps eliminate the “pop” noise you hear when you speak words that contain explosive sounds such as “p”, “t” and “k”. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TYPES OF MICROPHONE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic microphones which require no power source; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The condenser microphone which requires a phantom power (external power). </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Hardware needed to produce a podcast <ul><li>HEADPHONES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any full-cuff headset will enable podcasters hear the noise that is being introduced into the recordings and get a real sense of what is being recorded. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All the types and lines of headsets can be found at http://www.headphones.com </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Hardware needed to produce a podcast <ul><li>AUDIO MIXER: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of a mixer will provide some advantages: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ - Ease of manually controlling volume on background music via the mixer while talking rather than dealing with a mouse and trying to move a slide bar on a media player”; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High quality, low- noise microphone amplifiers; </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Hardware needed to produce a podcast <ul><li>AUDIO MIXER: </li></ul><ul><li>The capability to insert external audio and multiple microphone inputs; </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to record telephone interviews; </li></ul><ul><li>The capability to patch in special effects.” </li></ul>
  26. 27. Hardware needed to produce a podcast <ul><li>PORTABLE MEDIA PLAYERS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ To take full advantage of the mobile features of podcasting a portable media player is necessary.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any MP3 player or cell phone can play a podcast. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Hardware needed to produce a podcast <ul><li>PORTABLE MEDIA PLAYERS: </li></ul><ul><li>Features or mobile devices used for podcasting: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to synchronize with Windows Media Player, iTunes or other MP3 audio player; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizes a USB drive; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains at least 256 MB storage space; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains at least four hours of battery life; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to play other files other than MP3 is desirable; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wi-fi capability to synchronize podcasts and access other types of media content remotely is optimal; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MP3 FM transmitter add-on lets users listen to their MP3 player via their car or home stereo is optimal. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Software needed to produce a podcast <ul><li>AUDIO EDITORS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To create a podcast, one should first create an MP3 audio file using an audio editing software to edit the files and include music or sound effects. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Software needed to produce a podcast <ul><li>Some popular websites in the podcasting community for editing audios: </li></ul><ul><li>- Audacity: http://audacity.sourceforge.net </li></ul><ul><li>This one is a free audio recorder and editor. Users here will be able to record live audio using their computer’s sound input and then do simple editing to the recording and export it as an MP3 file. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Software needed to produce a podcast <ul><li>AUDIO EDITORS: </li></ul><ul><li>- Audio editors for the Mac Operating System include FinalCut Express: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.apple.com/finalcutexpress </li></ul><ul><li>FinalCut Pro: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.apple.com/finalcutstudio/finalcutpro </li></ul>
  31. 32. Software needed to produce a podcast <ul><li>- System includes QuickTime Pro: http://www.apple.com/quicktime/pro/win.html </li></ul><ul><li>- Adobe Auditon 2.0: http://www.adobe.com/products/audition/main.html </li></ul>
  32. 33. Software needed to produce a podcast <ul><li>PODCAST GENERATOR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Once the audio has been edited, specific podcast software (a podcast generator) is necessary to publish for distribution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apple’s iTunes AAC format allows podcasters to create “enhanced podcasts” complete with embedded photos at publisher defined points throughout the podcast. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. Software needed to produce a podcast <ul><li>PODCAST GENERATOR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To create a Windows Media enhanced podcast, the producer needs an application that supports for Windows Media script editing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once a podcast is complete, users will need a file transfer utility to upload the podcast to the web host. Internet Explorer is a good one to download file from sites and select software for download. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Software needed to produce a podcast <ul><li>PODCAST GENERATOR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Once a podcast is complete, users will need a file transfer utility to upload the podcast to the web host. Internet Explorer is a good one to download file from sites and select software for download. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And finally, you need to select a hosting site in order to publish the podcast. </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Planning a classroom podcast <ul><li>The first step in planning a podcast is define the objective of it, in other words: establish the format, the purpose and its audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Then the students will need to decide its main points, who will participate, the kind of the script they will need and the appropriate music as well. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Planning a classroom podcast <ul><li>After planning, the students need to do a research for information, for write their script, for identify their guests, for Podsafe music and for find a quite place to record. </li></ul><ul><li>The students also have to improve the content outline: general statements, bullets, or snippets of information about what to present and the order it is going to be presented. </li></ul><ul><li>The last step is rehearse the podcast before recording it. </li></ul>
  37. 38. Planning a classroom podcast <ul><li>Recording a Podcast: </li></ul><ul><li>• However the brain filters out a great deal of noise to allow a person to concentrate, care needs to be taken to reduce the noise of the recording once microphones have not such filters. Two kinds of noise need to be addressed: </li></ul><ul><li>-> Environmental Noise </li></ul><ul><li>-> Signal Noise </li></ul>
  38. 39. Planning a classroom podcast <ul><li>− Editing the podcast: </li></ul><ul><li>For a final production, the audio file needs to be loaded to be edited. So, The audio quality is checked, filters words are corrected and weak areas are re-recorded. </li></ul><ul><li>The final step is to publish the MP3 file, generate an XML/RSS feed, check the MP3 link in the RSS feed and publish the XML/RSS feed. </li></ul>
  39. 40. Planning a classroom podcast <ul><li>− Evaluating the podcast: </li></ul><ul><li>Before being distributed for public or semi-public listening, a podcast needs to be evaluated by teachers and viewers. For this evaluation, there are general guidelines of a good podcast to be considred. </li></ul>
  40. 41. Planning a classroom podcast <ul><li>− Hosting and publishing a podcast: </li></ul><ul><li>Creat an RSS feed with an RSS generator; </li></ul><ul><li>Upload the feed to the server and then use an online validating tool to identify any problem that could prejudice the feed running. </li></ul><ul><li>Add an ID3 to an audio file to be sure that the program is played. </li></ul><ul><li>While publishing the podcast, the students need to be sure to select specific tags that best reflect the purpose of the e podcast. And also pay close attention to the category labels selected. </li></ul>
  41. 42. Summary <ul><li>Initially, the aim of Podcasting was entertainment. But as many professionals got interested on this and learnt how to use the tool, it became a good media to share content among themselves and others. </li></ul>
  42. 43. References: <ul><li>Deal, Ashley. A teaching with tecnology white pater: Podcastting. http://www.cmu.edu/teaching/resources/PublicationsArchives/StudiesWhitepapers/Podcasting_Jun07.pdf accessed on 09/09/2010 . </li></ul><ul><li>BELL, A. Exploring web 2.0 . ‘Chapter 7: Podcasting’. Georgetown, TX: Katy Crossing Press, 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>LEFEVER, Lee. Podcasting in Plain English. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vMgemQahuFM </li></ul>