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    Sam's Copy Sam's Copy Presentation Transcript

    • CHLOROPHYTA
    • Characteristics
      NUCLEUS
      • Uninucleate
      • Multinucleate
      • Cells are eukaryotic
      COLOUR
      • Green
      • Some may be red or orange
      FLAGELLATION
      • Vegetative and reproductive cells are motile
      • 2 or multiples of 2 flagella equal in length
      • No mastigonemes
      MORPHOLOGY
      • Unicellular flagellates
      • Colonial flagellates
      • Non-motile unicells
      • Non-motile colonies
      • Branched or unbranched filaments
      • Parenchymatous or siphonousthalli
      REPRODUCTION
      • vegetative: cell division, autocolony formation, fragmentation
      • asexual: zoospores or autospores
      • Sexual: isogamous, anisogamous or oogamous
      • Resting stages: eukaryotic akinetes, may form thick walls and become resting spores
      LIFE HISTORY
      • Zygotic
      • Sporic
      • Gametic
      CHLOROPLAST
      • 2 membrane envelopes
      • No PER
      • Thylakoids in stacks of several to many
      • DNA scattered
      • Starch is stored within the chloroplast
      • Conspicuous chloroplasts
      EYESPOT
      - Within the chloroplast but not associated with the flagella
    • Acrosiphonia sp.
      Ploidy: N
      Life History: Sporicheteromorphic
    • Codium fragile
      • Coenocytic
      • Dichotomously branched
      • multinucleate
      Ploidy: 2n
      Life History: Gametic
    • Codium Sporangia
    • Codium Utricle
    • Prasiola sp.
    • Ulvalinza
      • Parenchymatous blade
    • Ulvaintestinalis Tubular blade formation
    • UlvalactucaParenchymatous blade formation
    • Example of a Chlorophyte
    • Example of a Chlorophyte 2
    • Example of a Chlorophyte 3
    • Example of a Chlorophyte 4: Volvox sexual reproduction
    • Example of a Chlorophyte 5
    • Example of a Chlorophyte 6
    • Example of a Chlorophyte 7
      oogonia
      Antheridium
    • Chloroplast of a desmid
      • Note the pronounced stacking of the thylakoids
      • The 2 membranes of the chloroplast envelope and the scattered light areas containing fibrils of DNA
      • green algal chloroplasts are similar in many respects to those of high plants
    • Chlamydomonas
      Upper: diagrammatic
      Lower: electron micrograph
    • Section through the eyespot of Chlamydomonas
      • These eyespots may be one or several layers thick
      • they are located within the chloroplast but not close to the flagella
      • the eyespot operates by intercepting (shading) and/or reflecting (increasing the illumination) light onto the photoreceptor pigment, which is localized in either the plasma or chloroplast membranes over the eyespot
      • note the stacking of the thylakoids
    • Portions of sections through chloroplasts of the Chlorophyta
      • This is the only algal phylum in which starch is stored in the chloroplast
      • It may be in a sheath surrounding the pyrenoid and/or in other parts of the chloroplast
    • Chloroplast of a ‘higher plant’
      • Compare to previous slide
      • note the arrangements of the thylakoids into grana stacks (dark areas) which are connected by stroma lamellae
      • the scattered areas containing chloroplast DNA (in between the grana stacks) (NA)
      • RUBISCO in higher plants is found in the stroma of the chloroplast (S)
    • RHODOPHYTA
    • Characteristics
      NUCLEUS
      • Very small nuclei
      • Often multinucleate
      COLOUR
      • Pink, Red, Purple, Black, Bluegreen, Brownish
      FLAGELLATION
      • None
      MORPHOLOGY
      • Simple microscopic unicells
      - Branched filaments
      - Corticated filaments
      Corticating cells surround in clusters the main filament
      - pseudofilaments
      - Polysiphonousfilaments
      Polysiphonous cells arrange themselves like flower petals around the main axial cell by pitplugs
      - Parenchymatousthalli
      - Large complex pseudoparenchymatousthalli
      Uniaxialpseudoparenchyma: 1 main filament with many coming off the sides
      Multiaxialpseudoparenchyma: many main filaments together with many coming off the sides
      REPRODUCTION
      - Cell division:
      Unicells undergo simple cell division
      Filaments undergo cell division and elongation which can be apical and/or intercalarly
      - Sexual Reproduction:
      Oogamous by fusion of spermatia (non motile male sex cell) with a carpogonium (female reproductive organ)
      CHLOROPLASTS
      - Chlorophyll a
      - Unstackedthylakoids
      - 2 membranes around the chloroplast
      - Starch is the storage product
      - Stellateor discoid chloroplast shapes
      - Phycobilisomespresent
      - Pyrenoids(centers of carbon dioxide fixation within the chloroplasts) store RUBISCO
      • Chloroplast DNA Is scattered in nucleoids
      EYESPOTS
      • None
    • Characteristics Part 2
      LIFE HISTORY
      Sporic meiosis with an alternation of isomorphic or heteromorphic generations
      Red algae:
      Male gametophytes (n) produce spermatia (non motile male sex cells)
      Female gametophytes produce carpogonia (egg cells) that are retained on the female gametophyte plant
      After fertilization the zygote (2n) stays on the female gametophyte and develops into a carposporophyte (2n)
      This carposporophyte produces carpospores (2n) that are released and become tetrasporophytes
      Each tetrasporophyte produces tetrasporangia where meiotic divisions result in tetraspores (n)
       
      Polysiphonia: Isomorphic
      Tetrasporophyte (2n)(small plant) is forming tetrasporangia (round balls)
      These tetrasporangia divide into four parts  four spores (n) are then formed
      From these spores, male and female gametophytes form
      Tetrasporophytes and gametophytes look identical
      The spermatangia (male reproductive organs) are formed at the top of the branches of the gametophyte (look like small cucumbers) are crowded with spermatia (non motile male sex cells)
      Spermatia can melt together with the carpogonium (female reproductive organ also know as the oogonium)
      Nucleus of the male cell moves through the tube of the trichogyne (hair like receptive protuberance of the carpogonium) to the egg cell and a zygote is formed that develops into a cystocarp (fruiting structure with a special protective envelope produced after fertilization)
      In the cystocarp, carpospores are formed (2n) which escape through a hole and the top and can grow into a tetrosporophyte
       
      Porphyra: Heteromorphic
      Conspicuous blades are gametophytes (n) that bear either spermatia or carpogonia or both
      Fertilization occurs in the situ on the female gametophyte
      The zygote remains in the female gametophyte blade and divides to form many carpospores (2n)
      The carpospores are released and germinate to produce the “Conchocelis” stage (2n)
      This stage burrows into shells (i.e. oysters and clams) and produces spores called conchospores
      Conchospores form new thallus
       
      Mastocarpus: Heteromorphic
      Female gametophyte (n) produce carpogonium (trichogyne + egg)
      Male gametophyte produce spermatia (n)
      Spermatia and carpogonia fuse to form carposporophyte (2n)
      Carposporophyte forms carpospores (2n)
      Carpospores are released and form tetrasporophyte (2n)
      Tetrasporophyte form tetrasporangia and meitotically divide to form tetraspores (n) which then go back to forming the male and female gametophytes
    • Mastocarpuspapillatus/Petrocelis
      Mastocarpus – N (gametophyte)
      Life History: sporicheteromorphic life history
      Petrocelis – 2N (tetrasporophyte)
      - Dark purple to nearly black
    • Mastocarpus Life Cycle
    • Mastocarpus
    • Petrocelis phase
    • Chondracanthusexasperatus
    • Mazzaellasplendens
      • If there are cystocarps (N) present containing carpospores (2N) then it is a gametophyte (N)
      • if these are not present then its a tetrasporophyte (2N)
      - Life history: Sporicheteromorphic
    • Sparlingiapertusa
      Ploidy: if there are bumps then it’s a gametophyte (N) with cystocarps; if not, then it’s a tetrosporophyte (2N)
      Life History: Sporicheteromorphic
    • Polysiphoniapacifica
    • Hildenbrandia
      • Thinnest of the crusts
      • bright orange/red in colour
    • Gracilariapacifica
      Ploidy: if there are bumps then it’s a gametophyte (N) with cystocarps; if not, then it’s a tetrosporophyte (2N)
      Life History: Sporicheteromorphic
    • Polyneuralatissima
      Ploidy: if there are bumps then it’s a gametophyte (N) with cystocarps; if not, then it’s a tetrosporophyte (2N)
      Life History: Sporicheteromorphic
    • Grateloupiadoryphora
    • Porphyrafallax
      Ploidy: N
      Life History: SporicHeteromorphic
      - Conchocelis stage is 2N
    • Example of a Rhodophyte: Polysiphonia
    • Example of a Rhodophyte 2: Porphyra
    • Example of a Rhodophyte 3: Hollenbergia
    • Conchocelis phase of Porphyra
    • PHAEOPHYTA
    • CHARACTERISTICS
      NUCLEUS
      • Uninucleate
      • Eukaryotic
      COLOUR
      • Brown
      FLAGELLATION
      • Two heterokont flagella (only reproductive cells)
      • Long flagellum has 2 rows of mastigonemes
      • Shorter flagellum is smooth and directed backward
      • Has a light receptor
      • Attached laterally
      MORPHOLOGY
      • Multicellular
      • Sometimes very large
      • Unbranched filaments
      • Parenchymatous
      • Pseudoparenchymatous is rare
      • Have a meristoderm:
      • small surface cells with chloroplasts and capable of division
      • cortex:
      • general larger cells lacking chloroplasts which do not divide
      • Medulla:
      • trumpet hypae cells form
      REPRODUCTION
      • vegetative: formation of propagules or by fragmentation,
      • Asexual: by zoospores formed in plurilocular sporangia
      • Sexual: fusion of isogamous, oogamous
      LIFE HISTORY
      • Gametic:
      • gametes range from oogamous to isogamous
      • Sporic
      EYESPOT
      • In spores or gametes within the chloroplast and associated with a flagellum
      • Present and acts as shading or light reflector
    • Characteristics Cont’d
      CHLOROPLAST
      • One to many smooth chloroplasts
      • Storage product is stored outside the chloroplast
      • 4 membranes surround the chloroplast
      • 2 membrane envelope and PER
      • Thylakoids are in stacks of 3
      • Girdle lamella is present
      OTHER
      • DNA is ring shaped
      • RUBISCO in the pyrenoids
      • Cell wall always present – made of cellulose, alginic acid and polysaccharides
      • Sieve elements: perforated cross walls in large kelps for conduction of photosynthate
    • Fucales: Sargassummuticum
      Ploidy: 2N
      Life History: Gametic meiosis forms gametes which fuse to form a diploid zygote that grows into the adult plant
      Other: has short stubby receptacles that bear oogonial and antheridial conceptacles
    • Fucales: Fucusgardneri
      Ploidy: 2N
      Life History: gametic meiosis forms gametes which fuse to form a 2N zygote that grows into the adult plant
      Other: parenchymatousthalli with apical meristems
      Anatomy: meristoderm, cortex and medulla present
      - Receptacles (ends of blades) contain pores (small depressions) under which are conceptacles (spaces) within which are oogonia, antheridia or both
    • Fucus Life Cycle
    • Chloroplast of Fucus
    • Fucales: Pelvetiopsislimitata
      Ploidy: 2N
      Life History: Gametic meiosis forms gametes which fuse to form a diploid zygote that grows into the adult plant
    • Melanosiphonintestinalis
    • Ralfsia
      - Dark brown or yellowish brown
    • Scytosiphonales: Petalonia fascia
      Ploidy: N(crusts are diploid sporophytes)
      Life History: Sporic
      Other: Growth is diffuse
    • Scytosiphonales: Scytosiphonlomentaria
      Ploidy: N (crusts are diploid sporophytes)
      Life History: Sporic
      Other: growth is diffuse
    • Laminariales: Saccharinalatissima
      Ploidy: 2N
      Life History: SporicHeteromorphic, with microscopic filamentous gametophytes
    • Laminariales: Nereocystisluetkeana
      Ploidy: 2N
      Life History: Sporicheteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes
    • Sieve elements of Nereocystis
      • Sieve elements are elongated cells located with in the medulla
      • their cross-walls have fields of pored with plasmodesmata
      • used for translocation of photosynthate
    • Laminariales: Macrocystispyrifera
      Ploidy: 2N
      Life History: Sporicheteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes
    • Laminariales: Saccharinasessilis
      Ploidy: 2N
      Life History: SporicHeteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes
    • Laminariales: Alaria sp.
      Ploidy: 2N
      Life History: Sporicheteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes
    • Laminariales: Costariacostata
      Ploidy: 2N
      Life History: Sporicheteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes
    • Laminariales: Egregiamenziesii
      Ploidy: 2N
      Life History: Sporicheteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes
    • Laminariales Reproduction
    • Desmarestiales: Desmarestiaacuelata
      Ploidy: 2N
      Life History: SporicHeteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes
      Other: trichothallicmeristem (at the base of hair) which produces a pseudoparenchymatousuniaxialthallus
      ** only pseudoparenchymatous brown
    • Desmarestiales: Desmarestia sp.
      Ploidy: 2N
      Life History: SporicHeteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes
      Other: trichothallicmeristem (at the base of hair) which produces a pseudoparenchymatousuniaxialthallus
      ** only pseudoparenchymatous brown
    • Plurilocular: found in Ectocarpales
      • Pluriloculargametangia that release hundreds of isogametes
      • each gametophyte (plant) are N and produce gametes by mitosis
    • Unilocular: found in Ectocarpales
      • Unilocular sporangia with 2N cells that undergo meiosis to produce unicellular N zoospores
      • borne on the diploid plant
      • this thallus is called the sporophyte
      • the meitotically produced zoospores grow by mitosis into gametophytes
    • Location of chloroplast DNA in the Phaeophyta
      Left: is a perpendicular section through a disc-shaped chloroplast, showing sections of the ring nucleoid beneath the girdle lamella, at both ends
      Right: is a section parallel to the face of the same chloroplast, showing the entire ring of DNA
    • Diagram of a brown algal cell
    • Pyrenoids of a brown algal cell
    • Spermatangia
    • Polysiphonous
    • Heterocysts
    • Pennate
      Centric
    • Girdle VIew
      Valve View
    • Geminata
    • Diatom Silica wall formation
    • VolvoxGonidium
    • Oogonia
      Antheridia
    • Heterocyst & Akinete
      heterocyst
      akinete
    • CRYPTOPHYTA
    • Characteristics
      NUCLEUS
      • Eukaryotic
      • Uninucleate
      COLOUR
      • Red
      • Tan
      • Blue-green
      • olive
      FLAGELLATION
      • 2 similar flagella both with mastigonemes
      • Flagella are apical or lateral and originating within a groove
      MORPHOLOGY
      • Unicellular
      REPRODUCTION
      • Vegetative: by cell division
      • Sexual: not well known
      LIFE HISTORY
      • Not well known
      CHLOROPLAST
      • 1 to 2 smooth chloroplasts
      • Thylakoids usually in stacks of 2
      • Chlorophylls a and c
      • Phycobilins present
      • Chloroplast DNA in scattered nucleoids
      • 4 membranes around chloroplast
      • Eyespots when present are within the chloroplast but not associated with the flagella
      OTHER
      • Have protein plates that act as an anchoring system and is internal to the plasma membrane
      • Ejectosomes line the gullet
      • Storage product is starch and is stored outside the chloroplast envelope, inside the PER
    • Example of a Cryptophyte
      Plastids
      ejectosomes
      Flagella
    • A Cryptophyte eyespot
      • These eyespots may be one or several layers thick
      • they are located with in the chloroplast but not close to the flagella
      • the eyespot operates by either intercepting light (shading) or reflecting light (increasing the illumination) onto the photoreceptor pigment
      • which is probably localized in either the plasma membrane or chloroplast membranes over the eyespot
    • Electron micrograph of a cryptophyte
      • The large ejectosomes seen here line the wall of the gullet
      • Part of a smaller ejectosome is visible just beneath the plasmalemma on the lower left side of the cell
    • Diagram of a longitudinal section of a cryptophyte
    • DINOPHYTA
    • Characteristics
      NUCLEUS
      • Nucleus with condensed chromatin at interphase
      COLOUR
      • Brownish
      • Golden-brown
      • Red-brown
      • Can be colourless
      FLAGELLATION
      • 2 highly heteromorphic flagella originating near each other
      • One is flattened and wraps around the cell
      • Other flagellum trails behind
      MORPHOLOGY
      • Unicellular
      REPRODUCTION
      • Vegetative: cell division
      • Sexual: by fusion of isogamous or anisogamous gametes
      LIFE HISTORY
      • Zygotic
      CHLOROPLAST
      • 3, 4 or 5 membranes around the chloroplast
      • Chlorophylls a and c
      • No phycobilins
      • Thylakoids in stacks of 3
      • Scattered DNA
      EYESPOT
      • Present or not
      OTHER
      • Storage product is outside the chloroplast and may form a cap over the pyrenoid
      • Cell wall internal if present
      • Has a girdle
      • Has a sulcus
      • Hypotheca is located posterior on area that has the sulcus
      • Epitheca is apical
      • Covered by a theca subdivided into plates with or without cellulose  horns or spines may form
    • Example of a Dinoflagellate
      Horns off the theca
      girdle
      theca
      Trailing flagellum
    • Example of a Dinoflagellate 2
      Displace girdle
      sulcus
    • Example of a Dinoflagellate 3
      Ventral View: sulcus and girdle
      Is flattened therefore has jerky swimming motion
      Dorsal View: girdle only
    • Interphase nucleus and chromosomes of a dinoflagellate
      • The chromosomes lack histones, are permanently condensed and have a characteristic banded appearance
      • There is a large nucleolus within the nucleus
    • EUGLENOPHYTA
    • Characteristics
      NUCLEUS
      • Uninucleate
      • Eukaryotic
      • Chromosomes are condensed during interphase
      COLOUR
      • Bright green
      • Colourless
      FLAGELLATION
      • 2 heteromorphic flagella originating with in a reservoir (gullet?)
      • Usually only one is emergent
      • Some species do possess 2 or 4 emergent flagella
      MORPHOLOGY
      • Unicellular
      REPRODUCTION
      • vegetative: cell division
      CHLOROPLAST
      • Chlorophylls a and b
      • No phycobilins
      • Store paramylon which is similar to starch
      • 3 membranes around the chloroplast
      • Thylakoids in stacks of 3
      • Smooth and variable in shape and number
      EYESPOT
      • Present usually in photosynthetic form
      • It is large, anterior, near the reservoir
      • Not located in the chloroplast
      • Associated with flagellar swelling
      OTHER
      • Cell wall consists of interlocking protein strips
      • Can rapidly change shape (known as metaboly)  only in some species
    • Example of an Euglenophyte
      Paramylon bodies
      Colourless (due to lack of chloroplasts); Exhibit a large range of shape changes (metaboly)
    • Example of an Euglenophyte 2
    • Example of an Euglenophyte 3
      Show no metaboly
    • Euglena longitudinal section
      - Note the distinctive outer covering, the pellicle
    • Interphase nuclei of a green alga and a euglenophyte
      • Note the condense chromosomes of the euglenophyte
    • Euglena
      - Diagrammatic longitudinal section
    • Eyespot of a euglenophyte
      • The eyespot is composed of loosely packed globules lying outside the chloroplast, next to the reservoir, opposite of the flagellar swelling
      • the swelling is usually on the longer, emergent flagellum and is thought to be the site of the photoreceptor pigment
    • Sections through parts of chloroplasts from 3 algal groups
      -upper photo: chrysochromulina (haptophyte)
      • PER surrounds chloroplast
      • chloroplast envelope has 2 membranes
      • Middle photo: dinobryon (chrysophyte)
      • has a girdle lamella
      • PER surrounds chloroplast
      • chrloroplast envelope has 2 membranes
      • lower photo: trachelomonas (euglenophyte)
      • chloroplast envelope has 3 membranes
      • All three groups share stacking of thylakoids in three
    • HAPTOPHYTA
    • Characteristics
      NUCLEUS
      • Uninucleate
      • Small eurkaryotic
      COLOUR
      • Golden brown
      FLAGELLATION
      • 2 equal flagella with a third flagellum-like appendage between them  haptonema
      • Originate near each other at the apical end of the cell
      MORPHOLOGY
      • Unicellular
      REPRODUCTION
      • vegetative: cell division
      • Sexual: not well known
      LIFE HISTORY
      • Not well known
      CHLOROPLAST
      • Chlorophylls a and c
      • No phycobilins
      • 4 membranes around the chloroplast
      • 1 or 2 chloroplasts present
      • Thylakoids in stacks of 3
      • 2 membrane PER
      • No girdle lamella
      EYESPOT
      • Found in some members
      • Located within the chloroplast
      OTHER
      • Cell coverings has organic scales
      • Some species have calcified scales (coccoliths)
    • Example of a Haptophyte
      Haptonema
      **The haptonema functions as a food gathering device and in others as a sensory or attachment mechanism  may be coiled or fully extended
    • Outer view of a haptophyte
      - The cell surface is completely encased in coccoliths , special organic scales encrusted with calcium carbonate
    • Electron micrograph of Chrysochromulina
      - This photograph shows the two flagella and a haptonema, the latter lightly coiled at the tip
    • Several cross-sections through a haptonema
      - Note the outer sheath of three concentric membranes and the inner circle of 6 or 7 microtubules
    • Sections through parts of chloroplasts from 3 algal groups
      -upper photo: chrysochromulina (haptophyte)
      • PER surrounds chloroplast
      • chloroplast envelope has 2 membranes
      • Middle photo: dinobryon (chrysophyte)
      • has a girdle lamella
      • PER surrounds chloroplast
      • chrloroplast envelope has 2 membranes
      • lower photo: trachelomonas (euglenophyte)
      • chloroplast envelope has 3 membranes
      • All three groups share stacking of thylakoids in three