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Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto

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  • 1. CHLOROPHYTA
  • 2. Acrosiphonia sp.
    Chlorophyta
    N
    Sporic
  • 3. Codium fragile
    Chlorophyta
    2n Gametic
  • 4. Codium Sporangia
  • 5. Codium Utricle
  • 6. Prasiola sp.
    Chlorophyta
    *
  • 7. Ulvalinza
    Chlorophyta
    *
  • 8. Ulvaintestinalis
    Chlorophyta
    * Tubular blade formation
  • 9. Ulvalactuca
    Chlorophyta
    * Parenchymatous blade formation
  • 10. RHODOPHYTA
  • 11. Mastocarpuspapillatus/Petrocelis
    Masto = n --------------
    Petro = 2n
    Sporic
  • 12. Chondracanthusexasperatus
    Rhodophyta
    *
    Sporic
  • 13. Mazzaellasplendens
    Rhodophyta
    can only tell if there are cystocarps (2n +n) on the gametophyte (n) otherwise it is a tetrasporophyte (2n)
    Sporic
  • 14. Sparlingiapertusa
    Rhodophyta
    if with bumps then gametophyte (n) with cytocarps (2n+n) otherwise it is the tetrosporophyte (2n) (Swiss cheese algae)
    Sporic
  • 15. Polysiphoniapacifica
    Rhodophyta
    *
    Sporic
  • 16. Hildenbrandia
    Rhodophyta
    *
    Sporic
  • 17. Gracilariapacifica
    Rhodophyta
    *same as mazaella & sparlingia
    Sporic
  • 18. Polyneuralatissima
    Rhodophyta
    *same as mazaella & sparlingia
    Sporic
  • 19. Grateloupiadoryphora
    Rhodophyta
    *
    Sporic
  • 20. Porphyrafallax
    Rhodophyta
    n
    Sporic
  • 21. PHAEOPHYTA
  • 22. CHARACTERISTICS
    NUCLEUS
    • Uninucleate
    • 23. Eukaryotic
    COLOUR
    • Brown
    FLAGELLATION
    • Two heterokont flagella (only reproductive cells)
    • 24. Long flagellum has 2 rows of mastigonemes
    • 25. Shorter flagellum is smooth and directed backward
    • 26. Has a light receptor
    • 27. Attached laterally
    MORPHOLOGY
    • Multicellular
    • 28. Sometimes very large
    • 29. Unbranched filaments
    • 30. Parenchymatous
    • 31. Pseudoparenchymatous is rare
    • 32. Have a meristoderm:
    • 33. small surface cells with chloroplasts and capable of division
    • 34. cortex:
    • 35. general larger cells lacking chloroplasts which do not divide
    • 36. Medulla:
    • 37. trumpet hypae cells form
    REPRODUCTION
    • vegetative: formation of propagules or by fragmentation,
    • 38. Asexual: by zoospores formed in plurilocular sporangia
    • 39. Sexual: fusion of isogamous, oogamous
    LIFE HISTORY
    • Gametic:
    • 40. gametes range from oogamous to isogamous
    • 41. Sporic
    EYESPOT
    • In spores or gametes within the chloroplast and associated with a flagellum
    • 42. Present and acts as shading or light reflector
  • Characteristics Cont’d
    CHLOROPLAST
    • One to many smooth chloroplasts
    • 43. Storage product is stored outside the chloroplast
    • 44. 4 membranes surround the chloroplast
    • 45. 2 membrane envelope and PER
    • 46. Thylakoids are in stacks of 3
    • 47. Girdle lamella is present
    OTHER
    • DNA is ring shaped
    • 48. RUBISCO in the pyrenoids
    • 49. Cell wall always present – made of cellulose, alginic acid and polysaccharides
    • 50. Sieve elements: perforated cross walls in large kelps for conduction of photosynthate
  • Fucales: Sargassummuticum
    Ploidy: 2N
    Life History: Gametic meiosis forms gametes which fuse to form a diploid zygote that grows into the adult plant
    Other: has short stubby receptacles that bear oogonial and antheridial conceptacles
  • 51. Fucales: Fucusgardneri
    Ploidy: 2N
    Life History: gametic meiosis forms gametes which fuse to form a 2N zygote that grows into the adult plant
    Other: parenchymatousthalli with apical meristems
    Anatomy: meristoderm, cortex and medulla present
    - Receptacles (ends of blades) contain pores (small depressions) under which are conceptacles (spaces) within which are oogonia, antheridia or both
  • 52. Fucus Life Cycle
  • 53. Fucales: Pelvetiopsislimitata
    Ploidy: 2N
    Life History: Gametic meiosis forms gametes which fuse to form a diploid zygote that grows into the adult plant
  • 54.
  • 55. Ralfsia
    *
  • 56. Scytosiphonales: Petalonia fascia
    Ploidy: N(crusts are diploid sporophytes)
    Life History: Sporic
    Other: Growth is diffuse
  • 57. Scytosiphonales: Scytosiphonlomentaria
    Ploidy: N (crusts are diploid sporophytes)
    Life History: Sporic
    Other: growth is diffuse
  • 58. Laminariales: Saccharinalatissima
    Ploidy: 2N
    Life History: SporicHeteromorphic, with microscopic filamentous gametophytes
  • 59. Laminariales: Nereocystisluetkeana
    Ploidy: 2N
    Life History: Sporicheteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes
  • 60. Sieve elements of Nereocystis
    • Sieve elements are elongated cells located with in the medulla
    • 61. their cross-walls have fields of pored with plasmodesmata
    • 62. used for translocation of photosynthate
  • Laminariales: Macrocystispyrifera
    Ploidy: 2N
    Life History: Sporicheteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes
  • 63. Laminariales: Saccharinasessilis
    Ploidy: 2N
    Life History: SporicHeteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes
  • 64. Laminariales: Alaria sp.
    Ploidy: 2N
    Life History: Sporicheteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes
  • 65. Laminariales: Costariacostata
    Ploidy: 2N
    Life History: Sporicheteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes
  • 66. Laminariales: Egregiamenziesii
    Ploidy: 2N
    Life History: Sporicheteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes
  • 67. Laminariales Reproduction
  • 68. Desmarestiales: Desmarestiaacuelata
    Ploidy: 2N
    Life History: SporicHeteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes
    Other: trichothallicmeristem (at the base of hair) which produces a pseudoparenchymatousuniaxialthallus
    ** only pseudoparenchymatous brown
  • 69. Desmarestiales: Desmarestia sp.
    Ploidy: 2N
    Life History: SporicHeteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes
    Other: trichothallicmeristem (at the base of hair) which produces a pseudoparenchymatousuniaxialthallus
    ** only pseudoparenchymatous brown
  • 70. Plurilocular: found in Ectocarpales
    • Pluriloculargametangia that release hundreds of isogametes
    • 71. each gametophyte (plant) are N and produce gametes by mitosis
  • Unilocular: found in Ectocarpales
    • Unilocular sporangia with 2N cells that undergo meiosis to produce unicellular N zoospores
    • 72. borne on the diploid plant
    • 73. this thallus is called the sporophyte
    • 74. the meitotically produced zoospores grow by mitosis into gametophytes
  • Diagram of a brown algal cell
  • 75. Pyrenoids of a brown algal cell
  • 76. Chloroplast of Fucus
  • 77. Spermatangia
  • 78. Polysiphonous
  • 79. Heterocysts
  • 80.
  • 81. Pennate
    Centric
  • 82. Girdle VIew
    Valve View
  • 83. Geminata
  • 84. Diatom Silica wall formation
  • 85. VolvoxGonidium
  • 86. Oogonia
    Antheridia
  • 87. Heterocyst & Akinete
    heterocyst
    akinete
  • 88. CRYPTOPHYTA
  • 89. Characteristics
    NUCLEUS
    • Eukaryotic
    • 90. Uninucleate
    COLOUR
    FLAGELLATION
    • 2 similar flagella both with mastigonemes
    • 94. Flagella are apical or lateral and originating within a groove
    MORPHOLOGY
    • Unicellular
    REPRODUCTION
    • Vegetative: by cell division
    • 95. Sexual: not well known
    LIFE HISTORY
    • Not well known
    CHLOROPLAST
    • 1 to 2 smooth chloroplasts
    • 96. Thylakoids usually in stacks of 2
    • 97. Chlorophylls a and c
    • 98. Phycobilins present
    • 99. Chloroplast DNA in scattered nucleoids
    • 100. 4 membranes around chloroplast
    • 101. Eyespots when present are within the chloroplast but not associated with the flagella
    OTHER
    • Have protein plates that act as an anchoring system and is internal to the plasma membrane
    • 102. Ejectosomes line the gullet
    • 103. Storage product is starch and is stored outside the chloroplast envelope, inside the PER
  • Example of a Cryptophyte
    Plastids
    ejectosomes
    Flagella
  • 104. A Cryptophyte eyespot
    • These eyespots may be one or several layers thick
    • 105. they are located with in the chloroplast but not close to the flagella
    • 106. the eyespot operates by either intercepting light (shading) or reflecting light (increasing the illumination) onto the photoreceptor pigment
    • 107. which is probably localized in either the plasma membrane or chloroplast membranes over the eyespot
  • Electron micrograph of a cryptophyte
    • The large ejectosomes seen here line the wall of the gullet
    • 108. Part of a smaller ejectosome is visible just beneath the plasmalemma on the lower left side of the cell
  • Diagram of a longitudinal section of a cryptophyte
  • 109. DINOPHYTA
  • 110. Characteristics
    NUCLEUS
    • Nucleus with condensed chromatin at interphase
    COLOUR
    FLAGELLATION
    • 2 highly heteromorphic flagella originating near each other
    • 114. One is flattened and wraps around the cell
    • 115. Other flagellum trails behind
    MORPHOLOGY
    • Unicellular
    REPRODUCTION
    • Vegetative: cell division
    • 116. Sexual: by fusion of isogamous or anisogamous gametes
    LIFE HISTORY
    • Zygotic
    CHLOROPLAST
    • 3, 4 or 5 membranes around the chloroplast
    • 117. Chlorophylls a and c
    • 118. No phycobilins
    • 119. Thylakoids in stacks of 3
    • 120. Scattered DNA
    EYESPOT
    • Present or not
    OTHER
    • Storage product is outside the chloroplast and may form a cap over the pyrenoid
    • 121. Cell wall internal if present
    • 122. Has a girdle
    • 123. Has a sulcus
    • 124. Hypotheca is located posterior on area that has the sulcus
    • 125. Epitheca is apical
    • 126. Covered by a theca subdivided into plates with or without cellulose  horns or spines may form
  • Example of a Dinoflagellate
    Horns off the theca
    girdle
    theca
    Trailing flagellum
  • 127. Example of a Dinoflagellate 2
    Displace girdle
    sulcus
  • 128. Example of a Dinoflagellate 3
    Ventral View: sulcus and girdle
    Is flattened therefore has jerky swimming motion
    Dorsal View: girdle only
  • 129.
  • 130. Interphase nucleus and chromosomes of a dinoflagellate
    • The chromosomes lack histones, are permanently condensed and have a characteristic banded appearance
    • 131. There is a large nucleolus within the nucleus
  • EUGLENOPHYTA
  • 132. Characteristics
    NUCLEUS
    • Uninucleate
    • 133. Eukaryotic
    • 134. Chromosomes are condensed during interphase
    COLOUR
    FLAGELLATION
    • 2 heteromorphic flagella originating with in a reservoir (gullet?)
    • 136. Usually only one is emergent
    • 137. Some species do possess 2 or 4 emergent flagella
    MORPHOLOGY
    • Unicellular
    REPRODUCTION
    • vegetative: cell division
    CHLOROPLAST
    • Chlorophylls a and b
    • 138. No phycobilins
    • 139. Store paramylon which is similar to starch
    • 140. 3 membranes around the chloroplast
    • 141. Thylakoids in stacks of 3
    • 142. Smooth and variable in shape and number
    EYESPOT
    • Present usually in photosynthetic form
    • 143. It is large, anterior, near the reservoir
    • 144. Not located in the chloroplast
    • 145. Associated with flagellar swelling
    OTHER
    • Cell wall consists of interlocking protein strips
    • 146. Can rapidly change shape (known as metaboly)  only in some species
  • Example of an Euglenophyte
    Paramylon bodies
    Colourless (due to lack of chloroplasts); Exhibit a large range of shape changes (metaboly)
  • 147. Example of an Euglenophyte 2
  • 148. Example of an Euglenophyte 3
    Show no metaboly
  • 149. Euglena longitudinal section
    - Note the distinctive outer covering, the pellicle
  • 150. Interphase nuclei of a green alga and a euglenophyte
    • Note the condense chromosomes of the euglenophyte
  • Euglena
    - Diagrammatic longitudinal section
  • 151. Eyespot of a euglenophyte
    • The eyespot is composed of loosely packed globules lying outside the chloroplast, next to the reservoir, opposite of the flagellar swelling
    • 152. the swelling is usually on the longer, emergent flagellum and is thought to be the site of the photoreceptor pigment
  • HAPTOPHYTA
  • 153. Characteristics
    NUCLEUS
    • Uninucleate
    • 154. Small eurkaryotic
    COLOUR
    • Golden brown
    FLAGELLATION
    • 2 equal flagella with a third flagellum-like appendage between them  haptonema
    • 155. Originate near each other at the apical end of the cell
    MORPHOLOGY
    • Unicellular
    REPRODUCTION
    • vegetative: cell division
    • 156. Sexual: not well known
    LIFE HISTORY
    • Not well known
    CHLOROPLAST
    • Chlorophylls a and c
    • 157. No phycobilins
    • 158. 4 membranes around the chloroplast
    • 159. 1 or 2 chloroplasts present
    • 160. Thylakoids in stacks of 3
    • 161. 2 membrane PER
    • 162. No girdle lamella
    EYESPOT
    • Found in some members
    • 163. Located within the chloroplast
    OTHER
    • Cell coverings has organic scales
    • 164. Some species have calcified scales (coccoliths)
  • Example of a Haptophyte
    Haptonema
    **The haptonema functions as a food gathering device and in others as a sensory or attachment mechanism  may be coiled or fully extended