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Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto
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Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto

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  • 1. CHLOROPHYTA<br />
  • 2. Acrosiphonia sp. <br />Chlorophyta<br />N<br />Sporic<br />
  • 3. Codium fragile<br />Chlorophyta<br />2n Gametic<br />
  • 4. Codium Sporangia <br />
  • 5. Codium Utricle<br />
  • 6. Prasiola sp. <br />Chlorophyta<br />*<br />
  • 7. Ulvalinza<br />Chlorophyta<br />*<br />
  • 8. Ulvaintestinalis<br />Chlorophyta<br />* Tubular blade formation<br />
  • 9. Ulvalactuca<br />Chlorophyta<br />* Parenchymatous blade formation<br />
  • 10. RHODOPHYTA<br />
  • 11. Mastocarpuspapillatus/Petrocelis<br />Masto = n --------------<br />Petro = 2n<br />Sporic<br />
  • 12. Chondracanthusexasperatus<br />Rhodophyta<br />*<br />Sporic<br />
  • 13. Mazzaellasplendens<br />Rhodophyta<br />can only tell if there are cystocarps (2n +n) on the gametophyte (n) otherwise it is a tetrasporophyte (2n) <br />Sporic<br />
  • 14. Sparlingiapertusa<br />Rhodophyta<br />if with bumps then gametophyte (n) with cytocarps (2n+n) otherwise it is the tetrosporophyte (2n) (Swiss cheese algae) <br />Sporic<br />
  • 15. Polysiphoniapacifica<br />Rhodophyta<br />*<br />Sporic<br />
  • 16. Hildenbrandia<br />Rhodophyta<br />*<br />Sporic<br />
  • 17. Gracilariapacifica<br />Rhodophyta<br />*same as mazaella & sparlingia<br />Sporic<br />
  • 18. Polyneuralatissima<br />Rhodophyta<br />*same as mazaella & sparlingia<br />Sporic<br />
  • 19. Grateloupiadoryphora<br />Rhodophyta<br />*<br />Sporic<br />
  • 20. Porphyrafallax<br />Rhodophyta<br />n<br />Sporic<br />
  • 21. PHAEOPHYTA<br />
  • 22. CHARACTERISTICS<br />NUCLEUS <br /><ul><li>Uninucleate
  • 23. Eukaryotic</li></ul>COLOUR<br /><ul><li>Brown</li></ul>FLAGELLATION<br /><ul><li>Two heterokont flagella (only reproductive cells)
  • 24. Long flagellum has 2 rows of mastigonemes
  • 25. Shorter flagellum is smooth and directed backward
  • 26. Has a light receptor
  • 27. Attached laterally</li></ul>MORPHOLOGY<br /><ul><li>Multicellular
  • 28. Sometimes very large
  • 29. Unbranched filaments
  • 30. Parenchymatous
  • 31. Pseudoparenchymatous is rare
  • 32. Have a meristoderm:
  • 33. small surface cells with chloroplasts and capable of division
  • 34. cortex:
  • 35. general larger cells lacking chloroplasts which do not divide
  • 36. Medulla:
  • 37. trumpet hypae cells form</li></ul>REPRODUCTION<br /><ul><li>vegetative: formation of propagules or by fragmentation,
  • 38. Asexual: by zoospores formed in plurilocular sporangia
  • 39. Sexual: fusion of isogamous, oogamous</li></ul> LIFE HISTORY<br /><ul><li>Gametic:
  • 40. gametes range from oogamous to isogamous
  • 41. Sporic</li></ul>EYESPOT<br /><ul><li>In spores or gametes within the chloroplast and associated with a flagellum
  • 42. Present and acts as shading or light reflector</li></li></ul><li>Characteristics Cont’d<br />CHLOROPLAST<br /><ul><li>One to many smooth chloroplasts
  • 43. Storage product is stored outside the chloroplast
  • 44. 4 membranes surround the chloroplast
  • 45. 2 membrane envelope and PER
  • 46. Thylakoids are in stacks of 3
  • 47. Girdle lamella is present</li></ul>OTHER<br /><ul><li>DNA is ring shaped
  • 48. RUBISCO in the pyrenoids
  • 49. Cell wall always present – made of cellulose, alginic acid and polysaccharides
  • 50. Sieve elements: perforated cross walls in large kelps for conduction of photosynthate</li></li></ul><li>Fucales: Sargassummuticum<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: Gametic meiosis forms gametes which fuse to form a diploid zygote that grows into the adult plant<br />Other: has short stubby receptacles that bear oogonial and antheridial conceptacles <br />
  • 51. Fucales: Fucusgardneri<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: gametic meiosis forms gametes which fuse to form a 2N zygote that grows into the adult plant<br />Other: parenchymatousthalli with apical meristems<br />Anatomy: meristoderm, cortex and medulla present<br />- Receptacles (ends of blades) contain pores (small depressions) under which are conceptacles (spaces) within which are oogonia, antheridia or both<br />
  • 52. Fucus Life Cycle<br />
  • 53. Fucales: Pelvetiopsislimitata<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: Gametic meiosis forms gametes which fuse to form a diploid zygote that grows into the adult plant<br />
  • 54.
  • 55. Ralfsia<br />*<br />
  • 56. Scytosiphonales: Petalonia fascia<br />Ploidy: N(crusts are diploid sporophytes)<br />Life History: Sporic<br />Other: Growth is diffuse<br />
  • 57. Scytosiphonales: Scytosiphonlomentaria<br />Ploidy: N (crusts are diploid sporophytes)<br />Life History: Sporic<br />Other: growth is diffuse<br />
  • 58. Laminariales: Saccharinalatissima<br />Ploidy: 2N <br />Life History: SporicHeteromorphic, with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />
  • 59. Laminariales: Nereocystisluetkeana<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: Sporicheteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />
  • 60. Sieve elements of Nereocystis<br /><ul><li>Sieve elements are elongated cells located with in the medulla
  • 61. their cross-walls have fields of pored with plasmodesmata
  • 62. used for translocation of photosynthate</li></li></ul><li>Laminariales: Macrocystispyrifera<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: Sporicheteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />
  • 63. Laminariales: Saccharinasessilis<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: SporicHeteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />
  • 64. Laminariales: Alaria sp. <br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: Sporicheteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />
  • 65. Laminariales: Costariacostata<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: Sporicheteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />
  • 66. Laminariales: Egregiamenziesii<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: Sporicheteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />
  • 67. Laminariales Reproduction<br />
  • 68. Desmarestiales: Desmarestiaacuelata<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: SporicHeteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />Other: trichothallicmeristem (at the base of hair) which produces a pseudoparenchymatousuniaxialthallus<br />** only pseudoparenchymatous brown<br />
  • 69. Desmarestiales: Desmarestia sp. <br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: SporicHeteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />Other: trichothallicmeristem (at the base of hair) which produces a pseudoparenchymatousuniaxialthallus<br />** only pseudoparenchymatous brown<br />
  • 70. Plurilocular: found in Ectocarpales<br /><ul><li>Pluriloculargametangia that release hundreds of isogametes
  • 71. each gametophyte (plant) are N and produce gametes by mitosis</li></li></ul><li>Unilocular: found in Ectocarpales<br /><ul><li>Unilocular sporangia with 2N cells that undergo meiosis to produce unicellular N zoospores
  • 72. borne on the diploid plant
  • 73. this thallus is called the sporophyte
  • 74. the meitotically produced zoospores grow by mitosis into gametophytes</li></li></ul><li>Diagram of a brown algal cell<br />
  • 75. Pyrenoids of a brown algal cell<br />
  • 76. Chloroplast of Fucus<br />
  • 77. Spermatangia<br />
  • 78. Polysiphonous<br />
  • 79. Heterocysts<br />
  • 80.
  • 81. Pennate<br />Centric<br />
  • 82. Girdle VIew<br />Valve View<br />
  • 83. Geminata<br />
  • 84. Diatom Silica wall formation<br />
  • 85. VolvoxGonidium<br />
  • 86. Oogonia<br />Antheridia<br />
  • 87. Heterocyst & Akinete<br />heterocyst<br />akinete<br />
  • 88. CRYPTOPHYTA<br />
  • 89. Characteristics<br />NUCLEUS<br /><ul><li>Eukaryotic
  • 90. Uninucleate</li></ul>COLOUR<br /><ul><li>Red
  • 91. Tan
  • 92. Blue-green
  • 93. olive</li></ul>FLAGELLATION<br /><ul><li>2 similar flagella both with mastigonemes
  • 94. Flagella are apical or lateral and originating within a groove</li></ul>MORPHOLOGY<br /><ul><li>Unicellular</li></ul>REPRODUCTION<br /><ul><li>Vegetative: by cell division
  • 95. Sexual: not well known</li></ul>LIFE HISTORY<br /><ul><li>Not well known</li></ul>CHLOROPLAST<br /><ul><li>1 to 2 smooth chloroplasts
  • 96. Thylakoids usually in stacks of 2
  • 97. Chlorophylls a and c
  • 98. Phycobilins present
  • 99. Chloroplast DNA in scattered nucleoids
  • 100. 4 membranes around chloroplast
  • 101. Eyespots when present are within the chloroplast but not associated with the flagella</li></ul>OTHER<br /><ul><li>Have protein plates that act as an anchoring system and is internal to the plasma membrane
  • 102. Ejectosomes line the gullet
  • 103. Storage product is starch and is stored outside the chloroplast envelope, inside the PER</li></li></ul><li>Example of a Cryptophyte<br />Plastids<br />ejectosomes<br />Flagella<br />
  • 104. A Cryptophyte eyespot<br /><ul><li>These eyespots may be one or several layers thick
  • 105. they are located with in the chloroplast but not close to the flagella
  • 106. the eyespot operates by either intercepting light (shading) or reflecting light (increasing the illumination) onto the photoreceptor pigment
  • 107. which is probably localized in either the plasma membrane or chloroplast membranes over the eyespot</li></li></ul><li>Electron micrograph of a cryptophyte<br /><ul><li>The large ejectosomes seen here line the wall of the gullet
  • 108. Part of a smaller ejectosome is visible just beneath the plasmalemma on the lower left side of the cell</li></li></ul><li>Diagram of a longitudinal section of a cryptophyte<br />
  • 109. DINOPHYTA<br />
  • 110. Characteristics<br />NUCLEUS<br /><ul><li>Nucleus with condensed chromatin at interphase</li></ul>COLOUR<br /><ul><li>Brownish
  • 111. Golden-brown
  • 112. Red-brown
  • 113. Can be colourless</li></ul>FLAGELLATION<br /><ul><li>2 highly heteromorphic flagella originating near each other
  • 114. One is flattened and wraps around the cell
  • 115. Other flagellum trails behind</li></ul>MORPHOLOGY<br /><ul><li>Unicellular</li></ul>REPRODUCTION<br /><ul><li>Vegetative: cell division
  • 116. Sexual: by fusion of isogamous or anisogamous gametes</li></ul>LIFE HISTORY<br /><ul><li>Zygotic</li></ul>CHLOROPLAST<br /><ul><li>3, 4 or 5 membranes around the chloroplast
  • 117. Chlorophylls a and c
  • 118. No phycobilins
  • 119. Thylakoids in stacks of 3
  • 120. Scattered DNA</li></ul>EYESPOT<br /><ul><li>Present or not</li></ul>OTHER<br /><ul><li>Storage product is outside the chloroplast and may form a cap over the pyrenoid
  • 121. Cell wall internal if present
  • 122. Has a girdle
  • 123. Has a sulcus
  • 124. Hypotheca is located posterior on area that has the sulcus
  • 125. Epitheca is apical
  • 126. Covered by a theca subdivided into plates with or without cellulose  horns or spines may form</li></li></ul><li>Example of a Dinoflagellate<br />Horns off the theca<br />girdle<br />theca<br />Trailing flagellum<br />
  • 127. Example of a Dinoflagellate 2<br />Displace girdle<br />sulcus<br />
  • 128. Example of a Dinoflagellate 3<br />Ventral View: sulcus and girdle<br />Is flattened therefore has jerky swimming motion<br />Dorsal View: girdle only<br />
  • 129.
  • 130. Interphase nucleus and chromosomes of a dinoflagellate<br /><ul><li>The chromosomes lack histones, are permanently condensed and have a characteristic banded appearance
  • 131. There is a large nucleolus within the nucleus</li></li></ul><li>EUGLENOPHYTA<br />
  • 132. Characteristics<br />NUCLEUS<br /><ul><li>Uninucleate
  • 133. Eukaryotic
  • 134. Chromosomes are condensed during interphase</li></ul>COLOUR<br /><ul><li>Bright green
  • 135. Colourless</li></ul>FLAGELLATION<br /><ul><li>2 heteromorphic flagella originating with in a reservoir (gullet?)
  • 136. Usually only one is emergent
  • 137. Some species do possess 2 or 4 emergent flagella</li></ul>MORPHOLOGY<br /><ul><li>Unicellular</li></ul>REPRODUCTION<br /><ul><li>vegetative: cell division</li></ul>CHLOROPLAST<br /><ul><li>Chlorophylls a and b
  • 138. No phycobilins
  • 139. Store paramylon which is similar to starch
  • 140. 3 membranes around the chloroplast
  • 141. Thylakoids in stacks of 3
  • 142. Smooth and variable in shape and number</li></ul>EYESPOT<br /><ul><li>Present usually in photosynthetic form
  • 143. It is large, anterior, near the reservoir
  • 144. Not located in the chloroplast
  • 145. Associated with flagellar swelling</li></ul>OTHER<br /><ul><li>Cell wall consists of interlocking protein strips
  • 146. Can rapidly change shape (known as metaboly)  only in some species</li></li></ul><li>Example of an Euglenophyte<br />Paramylon bodies<br />Colourless (due to lack of chloroplasts); Exhibit a large range of shape changes (metaboly)<br />
  • 147. Example of an Euglenophyte 2<br />
  • 148. Example of an Euglenophyte 3<br />Show no metaboly<br />
  • 149. Euglena longitudinal section<br />- Note the distinctive outer covering, the pellicle<br />
  • 150. Interphase nuclei of a green alga and a euglenophyte<br /><ul><li>Note the condense chromosomes of the euglenophyte</li></li></ul><li>Euglena<br />- Diagrammatic longitudinal section<br />
  • 151. Eyespot of a euglenophyte<br /><ul><li>The eyespot is composed of loosely packed globules lying outside the chloroplast, next to the reservoir, opposite of the flagellar swelling
  • 152. the swelling is usually on the longer, emergent flagellum and is thought to be the site of the photoreceptor pigment</li></li></ul><li>HAPTOPHYTA<br />
  • 153. Characteristics<br />NUCLEUS<br /><ul><li>Uninucleate
  • 154. Small eurkaryotic</li></ul>COLOUR<br /><ul><li>Golden brown </li></ul>FLAGELLATION<br /><ul><li>2 equal flagella with a third flagellum-like appendage between them  haptonema
  • 155. Originate near each other at the apical end of the cell</li></ul>MORPHOLOGY<br /><ul><li>Unicellular</li></ul>REPRODUCTION<br /><ul><li>vegetative: cell division
  • 156. Sexual: not well known</li></ul>LIFE HISTORY<br /><ul><li>Not well known</li></ul>CHLOROPLAST<br /><ul><li>Chlorophylls a and c
  • 157. No phycobilins
  • 158. 4 membranes around the chloroplast
  • 159. 1 or 2 chloroplasts present
  • 160. Thylakoids in stacks of 3
  • 161. 2 membrane PER
  • 162. No girdle lamella</li></ul>EYESPOT<br /><ul><li>Found in some members
  • 163. Located within the chloroplast</li></ul>OTHER<br /><ul><li>Cell coverings has organic scales
  • 164. Some species have calcified scales (coccoliths)</li></li></ul><li>Example of a Haptophyte<br />Haptonema<br />**The haptonema functions as a food gathering device and in others as a sensory or attachment mechanism  may be coiled or fully extended<br />

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