VILLAGE
IN SEARCH OF INDIGENOUS/TRADITIONAL PRACTICES OF
West Negros University and company
visit Tan-awan at Kabankalan
T...
-Chef Oren Lyons, Onandaga Nation
“Although we are in different boats,
you in your boat and we in our
canoe...We share the...
Research Site
pg.4
Contents In search of indigenous/traditional practices
of Tan-awan village
1		 Research Team
2		 Introd...
Balsahanay Festival
21-22
Local Food Preparation
23-30
Medicinal
Practices
31-35
Contents In search of indigenous/traditio...
Faculty and Staff Researchers:
Victoria E. Demonteverde, MSc., Ismael E. “Maeng” Java, Bayani G. Lacson, Lilibeth P. Eslab...
ndigenous knowledge is a
unique traditional and local
knowledge that exists and
develops around specific
conditions of men...
October 2011	 1st Site Visit, Tan-awan; Orientation: coordination with local government units and administrators
of local ...
Tan-awan Village is one of the barangays of Kabankalan City in Negros
Occidental, Western Visayas, Philippines. It is loca...
On October 2011, the first site to visit Tan-awan
Village was conducted by the researchers for the
preliminary discussions...
Verdant hills roll and the longest river in
Negros Island, the Ilog Hilabangan River, flow
along Tan-awan Village, a Baran...
According to the interviewees,
the good quality of the soil
makes it possible to plant crops
anywhere. To establish the pl...
The research team of West Negros
University formulated two different
questionnaires to analyze this
outstanding and unique...
Most of the interviewees confirmed
that the medium of exchange in
the barter trading has changed
fundamentally. Their ance...
This section documents the legends,
folklore, and local dialects as they
were handed down from generation
to generation fo...
The Origin of
Tan-awan
Long ago, when the eastern part of Kabankalan was not yet developed, the Minoros lived near the riv...
The Origin of the places Balisong, Tumumbo,
Makinigkig, and Orong
Long ago, there were many unnamed places whose names wer...
Long ago before the conquerors came to our country, every community and its citizens have had their own
culture. Tradition...
The objectives of this study are to identify the local songs and dances that are popular in Barangay Tan-awan and their
si...
Through this research, different kinds of folksongs were
collected. Music and dance pieces were reportedly presented
by th...
TITLE: Kasubo Bayo’ng Natawhan
Ermelieta Alpiche Javier, 52 years old
Sitio Dalikanon, Brgy. Tan-awan, Kabankalan City, Ne...
18
TITLE: “PAS-AN SAGING”
Annotator: Mario R. Gabuya
Meaning: To carry bananas on shoulder or on head
Dance Culture: Lowla...
Figure II
A. Starting with R foot, partners take eight walking
steps moving clockwise (cts 1, 2 to a measure).		 			 8M
B....
20
Repeat A partners face audience. 						 2M
Repeat A and B 3 times more.							 12M
Note. Boys do the movement crossing ...
This festival, now going on its 3rd year, is the biggest
celebration of Tan-awan Village that gives an insight about
its c...
22
activities. Moreover, the Rondalla group and the Glee
Club of the Center for Performing Arts and Culture, WNU,
flattere...
This study documents the preparation and ingredients
of local foods in Tan-awan, especially those that are
considered as s...
24
Besol puto
Ingredients:		 Tools:
Coconut milk		 Shredder
Shredded Besol	 Pot
Sugar			Steamer
Salt	
Procedure:
1. Peel t...
25
Ibos nga BesolIngredients:		 Tools:Coconut Milk		 ShredderShredded Besol	 PotSugar	
Salt	
Procedure:
1. Peel the besol....
26
Cassava puto
Ingredients:		 Tools:
Cassava		
Molder
Food Coloring		 Frying Pan
Condensed Milk	 Shredder
Brown Sugar	
Co...
Alupi (1)
Ingredients:		
Tools:
Coconut		
Shredder
Cassava		
Steamer
Brown sugar	
Banana leaf (steamed or braised until so...
28
Alupi (2)
Ingredients:		 Tools:
Cassava		Shredder
Brown sugar	
Banana leaf 	
Procedure:
1. Shred the cassava.
2. Put th...
29
Laswa (recipe 2)
Ingredients:		 Tools:
Onion			Knife
Tomato		 Iron Cooking Pot
Salt			Bowl
Besol			Spoon
Malunggay		 Wo...
30
Laswa (recipe 4)
Ingredients:		 Tools:
Salt			Spoon
Onion			Knife
Tomato		Bowl
Spring onion		 Banana leaf
Bagoong		 Cup...
The indigenous medicinal practices in Tan-awan Village
are as significant as the previously discussed practices. In
a coun...
32
Aside from the respondents, some merchants sell
indigenous medicine and “charms” during the market day.
These include i...
Respondent: Rolandita Onzo Reyes
Age: 60 yrs. Old
Occupation: Midwife
Years of Experience: 45 yrs.
AILMENT	 REMEDY
1. SPAS...
34
neck collar.
12. ASTHMA
	 Herba buena leaves (3 pcs.)
Vicks leaves (3 pcs.)
Eucalyptus leaves (3 pcs.)
•	 Boil into thr...
35
•	 Strain by using clean cloth.
•	 Apply at the affected body part.
•	 Use as an ointment.
3. SINUSITIS/ MUSCLE & BODY ...
The research output was utilized to develop the play “Teatro Balsa”. The theater showcases
the different cultural and indi...
The research findings were validated by the Tan-awan Community on April
2012 and the academic community in West Negros Uni...
April 2012
“Learning and Insight”
by GEORG NAUMANN
GIZ Junior Volunteer
Discovering Tan-awan Village
Coming from a City of...
39
so much to document this life style while it still exists. I think by myself, that it
actually would be much nicer for ...
June 2012
“Learning and Insight”
by ALLAN U. GEAGONI,
Coordinator of Student Personnel Services, WNU
Tan-awan: A Fantastic...
they have kept many of their traditions. Barter trade and the use of balsa (bamboo
raft) are still practiced to a great ex...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
DR. SUZETTE LILIAN A. AGUSTIN
University President
West Negros University
DR. NORBERTO P. MANGULABNAN
Dire...
PHOTO GALLERY
Transport of products using Carabao
Products sold from cities to village
Balsa used to transport farm
produc...
Agricultural
practices
Mode of transport of products from
farms to market
Banana from farm to market
Trading every Friday
PHOTO GALLERY
Balsahanay
Festival
Fluvial parade of decorated Balsa
during the festival
Local Food
Preparation
Recipes prepared from Besol and
other preparations
PHOTO GALLERY
PHOTO GALLERY
All Rights Reserved. 2013 c
Tan-awn,KabankalanCity,NegrosOccidental,Philippines
IN SEARCH OF INDIGENOUS/TRADITIONAL PRACTI...
Tan awan researchers
Tan awan researchers
Tan awan researchers
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Tan awan researchers

  1. 1. VILLAGE IN SEARCH OF INDIGENOUS/TRADITIONAL PRACTICES OF West Negros University and company visit Tan-awan at Kabankalan TAN-AWAN 1 2 3Witness the unique culture of indigenous people A knowledge that features dynamism and various perspective Kabankalan, Negros Occidental, Philippines
  2. 2. -Chef Oren Lyons, Onandaga Nation “Although we are in different boats, you in your boat and we in our canoe...We share the same river of life.”
  3. 3. Research Site pg.4 Contents In search of indigenous/traditional practices of Tan-awan village 1 Research Team 2 Introduction 3 Activity Timeline 5 Methodology 7-10 Agricultural Practices Planting and Harvesting Income Fieldwork and Livestock Barter Trading Barter Trade and Balsa Medium of Exchange The Market Setting 11-14 Legends, Folklore and Local Dialect Origin of Tan-awan The Origin of the places, Tumumbo, Makinigkig and Orong The Legend of Kabiguan
  4. 4. Balsahanay Festival 21-22 Local Food Preparation 23-30 Medicinal Practices 31-35 Contents In search of indigenous/traditional practices of Tan-awan village 15-20 Tan-awan Folksongs and Dances Indigenous Music in the Philippines FOLKSONGS FOLKDANCE and its properties 36 Cultural Utilization 37 Recommendations 38-41 Insights from the Participants 42 Acknowledgments 43-48 PHOTO GALLERY
  5. 5. Faculty and Staff Researchers: Victoria E. Demonteverde, MSc., Ismael E. “Maeng” Java, Bayani G. Lacson, Lilibeth P. Eslabon Ph.D, Jolly Gariando, Rey T. Eslabon Ph.D and Henry Philip G. Laurella Junior Volunteers of German Development Cooperation (GIZ) Jonny Ferdinand Bix-Bongers, Hannah Clara Emde, Georg Naumann and Maximillian Nusch Student Enumerators Name College Bayking, Daygie Mae R. Education Boliboli, Maida M. Education Caspe, Kimberly Joy A. Education Demonteverde, Vickie Joy E. Business and Management Duran, Deanne L. Education Guanzon, Lara Melissa P. Education Ortiz, Mary Jane M. Engineering Consing, Benjie M. Arts and Sciences Decena, Mark Jade P. Engineering Duran, Rollie Jen L. Education Fuentes, Mark Aries V. Education Mones, Romer V. Arts and Sciences Seron, Randy M. Engineering Solanoy, John Rovic G. Education Pictures: Hannah Clara Emde, Georg Naumann, Jonny Ferdinand Bix-Bongers, and Maximilian Nusch Video Editor: Georg Naumann Layout: Ritzy R. Malo-oy and Elmer John E. Basa, The Wesneco Torch Consultants: Norberto P. Mangulabnan, Ph.D., Director of Research, Development and Extension Office Mr. Caesar Pacalioga, Director of Center for Performing Arts and Culture Research Team 1
  6. 6. ndigenous knowledge is a unique traditional and local knowledge that exists and develops around specific conditions of men and women indigenous to a specific geographical area. The study of indigenous knowledge is a multidisciplinary approach that promotes research in varied disciplines such as culture, arts, and other practices. Its dynamism is a result of continued experimentation, innovation, and adaptation that enables itself to blend with science and technology. As such, it is an important basis for local decision making in almost all aspects of community life. This study is essential as it documents the existing indigenous knowledge of Tan-awan and facilitates its transfer to the next generations. The collaboration of several organizations who decided to collect and save Tan-awan’s cultural treasure and the different perspectives of the various stakeholders widened the scope of the study. Tan-awan, one of the rural barangays of the City of Kabankalan, Negros Occidental, is one of the areas Introduction rich in culture and history. However, due to the advent of modern communication technology and other factors, the residents’ awareness of their own culture has diminished throughtheyears.Althoughthenatives belong to the Bukidnon group, they have kept cultural traditions, art form, and other practices that are peculiar or distinct from other indigenous groups. One of these practices is barter trading that happens during Fridays when producers, consumers, and merchants converge for various economic activities. Trading is located along Ilog-Hilabangan River, a major river system in the province. Mode of transportation is unique, since goods are traditionally transported using “balsa”, a raft made of bamboo. This paper further documents the different facets of the village life with focus on its indigenous/ traditional practices. Research outputs were utilized in various forms such as cultural presentation, puppetry, and technical reports. Publications were web-based and in printed form. Finally, research output will be integrated in the curriculum for utilization by students at various levels and disciplines. The objectives of this research project are as follows: 1. To document the language, arts, culture, and festivities of an indigenous group in Tan-awan Village; 2. To study the different aspects of Barter Trade; 3. To identify indigenous medicinal practices and indigenous food and their preparation; 4. To develop a research-based cultural show entitled “Teatro Balsa”; 5. To integrate research findings in the curriculum; and, 6. To publish research results for dissemination and utilization. RESIDENTS FROM TAN-AWAN VILLAGE I 2
  7. 7. October 2011 1st Site Visit, Tan-awan; Orientation: coordination with local government units and administrators of local schools; first contact with key persons for useful insights for preparation. Preparation, Formulation, Validation of Research Instruments Partner Support of GIZ (German Development Cooperation) funding of 2nd Site Visit 2nd Site Visit, Tan-awan; Data Collection: (initial documentation, interviews with key persons, photo and video documentation, field observation) Approval of Support by AUDRN (Asian University Digital Resource Network) and Miriam College Theater Workshops for “Teatro Balsa” -Puppetry Workshop -Scriptwriting Workshop -Puppet Making Workshop -Mu sic Composition Workshop Collection, processing, and analysis of data Initial Data Presentation, Bacolod City Participation in the workshop “Mahara Master Class” by AUDRN in Manila Finalization of Cultural Utilization “Teatro Balsa” 3rd Site Visit Tan-awan, Theater Presentation “Teatro Balsa” (final data collection, validation of data, Balsahanay Festival) Data Finalization Publication of Research Output (Publication of research findings in a booklet for universities to use and as reference for Department of Education in Kabankalan City) Workshops on Integration of local Knowledge in the Curriculum Submission of Final Report to AUDRN Activity Timeline December 2011 December 22-27, 2011 February 2012 February 2012 March 2012 March 19-20, 2012 April 12-16, 2012 July-August 2012 September 2012 October 2012 Research Output Presentation and Validation, Bacolod City (Presentation of research output to academic community in West Negros University) June 15, 2012 3
  8. 8. Tan-awan Village is one of the barangays of Kabankalan City in Negros Occidental, Western Visayas, Philippines. It is located 14 kilometres away from Kabankalan City, along Ilog-Hilabangan River, the longest river in Negros Island. The best way to reach Tan-awan is by Habal-Habal (local name for hired single motorbike), tricycle, or private transportation. It is a 20-30 minute drive from the city proper. The population of Tan-awan as of December 2011 is 7,371. According to the local government of Kabankalan, the General Family income is below Php2,000 per month (Social Class E). Historically, Tan-awan used to be a refuge for evacuees during the Second World War. It served as a sort of watch tower to see unfriendly troops going into the area. Thereby, the word “Tan-awan” (Hiligaynon: verb tan-awon – to see) can be roughly translated as “Viewpoint”. Although the natives belong to the Bukidnon tribe, they have cultural practices that are unique and distinct from other indigenous groups. Tan-awan village has eight Day Care Centers, one primary school, two elementary schools, one secondary school, and three Alternative Learning System Centers. The hinterland is mostly used for cultivation of agricultural products like bamboo, banana, and several varieties of vegetables. However, in recent years, the local government has tried to develop the beautiful countryside for ecotourism. Developed spots like the hot spring in “Mainit” cave or the breath taking waterfalls are now easily reached and worthy of visit. April 2012 was the second year of Tan-awan’s Balsahanay Festival. This festival celebrates the tradition and practices of the traditional “Balsa” and “Barter Trade“. Recently, Tan-awan High School won as the “Brigada Eskwela 2012 Best Implementer Exceptional School Category ,Secondary Level. Research Site Geographical Site 4
  9. 9. On October 2011, the first site to visit Tan-awan Village was conducted by the researchers for the preliminary discussions with officials of the local government units and administrators of the local schools. The intentions and the extent to which the research would be conducted were deliberated. The researchers also visited and conferred with key persons who would be facilitating the research activities. The site visit, therefore, provided insights that were useful in the preparation for the research. This research project has four components, namely: Research, Theater, Integration of Local Knowledge in the Curriculum, and Publication. The research dealt with the different aspects of village life including Barter Trade/Economics and Agricultural Practices; Tan-awan Dances, Folksongs and Local Instruments; Legends, Folklore and Local Dialects; and Local Food Preparation and Medicinal Practices. Qualitative research design involving both structured direct observation and semi-structured interviews were used. It likewise utilized snowball purposive sampling wherein the respondents were recommended by key persons. Data collection methods used were interviews with key persons, photo–videodocumentation,andfieldobservations. Data were collected on December 2011 to May 2012. In the case of food preparation, the respondents were requested to prepare the different kinds of food. A cooking contest was also held on April 16, 2012 to establish the commonly consumed foods in thearea. Respondentswerealsorequestedtodance, sing, or play musical instruments to document their actual performances. Methodology A theater was presented based on the research findings. In preparation, the research group conducted workshops on puppetry, script writing, music composition, and theater production. To facilitate the integration of the indigenous knowledge gained in the curriculum, a book was written to serve as reference material for high school and elementary students of the Department of Education, Kabankalan City. Arrangements on how to integrate the research findings in the curricula of college and graduate studies have been undertaken. Validation of the research findings were conducted in Barangay Tan-awan on April 14-17, 2012 and during the research output validation in West Negros University on June 15, 2012. Research outputs were presented in technical and theater forms. Responses from participants specifically on the integration in the curriculum were noted. Officials of the participating organizations namely: Miriam College/Asian University Digital Resource Network (AUDRN), German Development Cooperation (GIZ), Barangay Tan-awan, City of Kabankalan, and West Negros University were present during the research validation. Research findings were published in printed and electronic form for dissemination and utilization by interestedparties.Inaddition,avideodocumentation of the research was conducted. 5
  10. 10. Verdant hills roll and the longest river in Negros Island, the Ilog Hilabangan River, flow along Tan-awan Village, a Barangay in the City of Kabankalan. The river supplies water to hundreds of thousands in the province and this area is home to 8,000 people including the indigenous tribe in Barangay Tan-awan who still continues its unique agricultural practices. Agricultural Practices 7 To document and conserve these agricultural knowledge and practices, the Research Team conducted several interviews in the area from December 2011 until April 2012. The following text summarizes the outcome of the research.
  11. 11. According to the interviewees, the good quality of the soil makes it possible to plant crops anywhere. To establish the planting conditions, they use the location of their homes as point of reference. Local farmers mostly plant crops including squash, eggplant, string beans, and ampalaya, during different seasons. Coffee is also considered an important crop Land distribution among tribe members enabled most families to own a piece of land. Some of them earn extra income by working and helping their neighbors on their fields. Nevertheless, all family members, parents, and children work on family owned land. Most children start working at the age of 10 to support their families. During planting and harvesting season, children generally do not attend school as they help their parents in the field. The work on the fields is labor intensive and time consuming; thus, it is a challenge for them to focus on school activities. Mostly, the generated family’s income is insufficient to meet their daily needs and expenses. Thus, they engage in other ways of earning money such as trading of harvested goods during the weekly market. Income in the trading center is used to purchase household necessities which are not produced locally. PLANTING AND HARVESTING INCOME "Local farmers mostly plant crops including squash, eggplant, string beans, and ampalaya, during different seasons." “During planting and harvesting season, children generally do not attend school as they help their parents in the field.” 8 in this area. They also plant and harvest diverse variety of fruits such as banana, avocado, papaya, tar-apple, jackfruit and passion fruit. At times, they harvest from numerous species of plants that grow naturally in the hinterland. After harvesting the crops, farmers collect the fresh seeds that are produced by the seed-bearing plants. Subsequently, the seeds are used for the following cropping season. An important part of the annual planting activities are some special rituals that are supposed to guarantee good growing and harvesting for the season. The farmers, therefore, continue practicing unique rituals of gathering and preparing food including chicken or pig. The ritual is called “Damit” that refers to the habit of saying “Thank you” in gratitude of a good season.
  12. 12. The research team of West Negros University formulated two different questionnaires to analyze this outstanding and unique tradition. The questionnaires are packed with questions to elicit data that would establish the practices or habits involved in this weekly early morning trade and also to gather information about elements of local trade in this area. Every Friday morning, while the sun has not yet risen at 4:30 and darkness still surrounds the riverbank, traders and farmers are already at the riverside. They are wide awake before dawn for they have to travel for three to four hours walking, riding, and crossing the Ilog-Hilabangan River several times. “Since I was old enough to understand things, barter trading was already a tradition in Tan-awan village that has become an important part of our lives,” said Rey Medes, former Barangay captain of Tan-awan. Every Friday morning, the riverside around the Tan-awan Village becomes a vast trading area for the local people and the traders from nearby cities to as far as Bacolod City. Native farmers take long walks or use balsa to bring their goods to the market area for trading. Even young children take the challenge to carry the harvested crops of the week, like bananas or live chicken, to the trading zone every week. Similarly, as early as dawn, the town traders are already at the site to get the best deals with the residents. Initial observations revealed that bananas are the most traded products among the planted crops in the area. It was found to be the cheapest and therefore, the most sold and traded commodity in the market. Barter Trading The geographical aspect of Tan- awan Village being surrounded by mountains has played an important role in the logistics of the weekly market activities. Accordingly, the farmers have to use the endemic carabaos, native horses, or even themselves to transport the trading goods over long arduous distances to the riverside. Interestingly, a very traditional way of transporting goods to the trading area is still practiced here. That is the use of the traditional rafts called “Balsa” which is considered an important cultural piece of Tan-awan’s identity. It is an indigenous raft, which is made of bamboo tied with native materials like pisi, uway, and sukdap. These materials serve as the “tie” that would hold the bamboo raft together. As means of transportation, it is common within the trading sector until now. It serves as a means of transport for all kinds of animals, banana-plants, seasonal fruits, and vegetables. After using the raft to float the goods for sale, the native materials that compose the raft are likewise traded to local people and traders who use them to make furniture. Most families own a balsa which they make out of bamboos from their own plantation. Others purchase bamboo fromotherfarmersandothersearnthe balsa through trade. Those who do not own a balsa would ask their neighbors’ accommodation in their balsa for the ride to the trading area. Depending on the volume of transported goods as well as one’s relationship between the two parties, the neighbor might ask for compensation for the transport. Barter Trade and Balsa Fieldwork and Livestock When working in the fields, the respondents use traditional tools like “guna” which is a short weeding tool, reaping hooks, and rakes. Farmers also utilize animals such as carabao or the native horses to plow the fields. In growing plants, the farmers utilize organic fertilizers which they themselves produce out of composted materials. To prevent diseases that threaten their crops, modern pesticides are commonly used. The fields are irrigated with water from springs or river. Other fields were rainfed. Aside from animals found to be useful for the fieldwork, most of the farmers possess livestock including goats, native chicken, cows, and horses. Most of the animals are very valuable to the families. Animals are indispensable and are generally not for sale except when a family cannot afford certain needs; otherwise, it can be used in exchange of goods like personal items or cooking utensils. Since livestock plays an essential part of the daily survival of the families, farmers take explicit care of their animals by providing them with the vitamins. Evidently, the agricultural situation in and around Tan-awan Village has adapted to modern methods. Nevertheless, the area is still mainly influenced by traditional practices like special planting rituals and techniques. The life of the families is mostly dependent on their income from the fieldwork, their yields, as well as from their livestock. 9
  13. 13. Most of the interviewees confirmed that the medium of exchange in the barter trading has changed fundamentally. Their ancestors practiced barter trading by exchanging goods with goods. However, because of the increase of literacy and education of the tribe members and the rising influence of money coming from local and nearby cities, money has become the most important medium of exchange instead of commodity. Due to this impact, the barter trading system is almost gone and is only used in a few individual cases. Currently, the traders prefer trading for money. In the past, according to interviewed respondents, the people did not value the different goods in terms of their prices. They merely bartered their goods for other goods that they needed. But nowadays, the market situation at the riverside has changed, since the use of money has accrued. Some people visit the surrounding cities from time to time and are informed about the market price of certain goods or the prices at which certain goods are commonly being sold in nearby markets. Medium of Exhange The Market Setting All people are allowed to barter their goods without the need for any specified permits. The traders and local farmers are expected to follow certain simple rules, like humility, respect, right pricing, and selling of proper goods. If any problem or misunderstanding occurs, the elder people mediate between the involved parties. Older people enjoy great respect in the tribe especially on this kind of decision making. The radius of the trade is not limited to only one community. People are allowed to bargain within other communities, especially when it comes to seeds and plants. Because most of the exchanged products have to be bought in by the traders, there are instances when very important andneededproductsarenotavailable at the trading zone. Many goods are difficult to get, if the traders do not bring them from the cities. A trip on a motorbike from the trading area to the nearest urban shopping area takes almost 45 minutes and costs around 100 to 150 Pesos, which is an expensive fare, especially for the indigenous people with limited financial capabilities. Also, modernism has influenced the trading habits especially when it comes to the weighing customs. In earlier times, “the power of hand” was well respected. The weight of the goods used to be estimated only by using the hands, but today weighing machines are used to ensure accuracy in measuring the weight of the goods considering that prices are now based on weights or volume. In sum, the market situation at the riverside has undergone several changes in the past centuries due to the growing influence of globalization and the deflection to money as ‘the’ medium of exchange. Barter trading as the central element of the Friday activities in the past has verifiably lost its influence on the economic situation of Tan-awan Village and of the tribes living nearby. Nevertheless, this trading area is the biggest transit point for native goods and has not lost its importance for the provision of the indigenous people in Tan- awan. 10
  14. 14. This section documents the legends, folklore, and local dialects as they were handed down from generation to generation for the succeeding generations. Since most of the young people in the region leave for bigger cities, these old tales are in danger to be lost. For this purpose, the villagers were interviewed for the stories they could tell, thereby, they were video documented. The legends were also presentedtothevillagersforvalidation as to its accuracy. Afterwards, the texts were transcribed in the original language and translated to English. Three Ilongo folklores were collected and translated in English, namely; Origin of Tan-awan; The Origin of the Places Balisong, Tumumbo, Manaligkig kag Orong; and The Legend of Kabiguan. Legends, Folklore and Local Dialect LEGENDS 11
  15. 15. The Origin of Tan-awan Long ago, when the eastern part of Kabankalan was not yet developed, the Minoros lived near the river bank of a vast river surrounded by growing forest trees, root crops, and other food sources. Their most important activity was planting of bananas, corn, sweet potatoes, and especially rice. In the mountainous part of the said area, there was once a strong, handsome, and loving warrior named Katagbak whose vocation was hunting aside from farming. He had a wife named Katagda and two beautiful daughters. One fine day, while he was waiting for the sunrise, he decided to go hunting. He prepared his spear and knife that he would use for hunting. With courage and faith, Katagbak went to the forest with his faithful dog leaving his family in their home. As the afternoon was getting late, Katagbak’s family anxiously waited for his arrival. Then, they saw Katagbak’s dog coming alone. They welcomed the dog with worry. Katagda asked the dog, “Where’s my loving husband?”. The dog didn’t reply. The wife repeated the question for seven times until the dog replied, “He’s coming”. With the assurance that his dear husband was coming, she was so relieved that she didn’t realized that the dog was talking. After an hour, Katagbak arrived with a smile on his face, carrying a big wild boar, called “tanguhan”, which still had a long dagger pierced in his body. The people of the village welcomed him for his big hunt. The people hurriedly prepared for a feast in order to witness the slaughter of the “tanguhan”. In preparation for a big celebration, the Minoros gathered together and danced. The dinner was filled with liquor, foods, and dances. In the middle of the celebration, Katagbak commanded his two daughters to get some banana leaves to be used as plates for the fête. Along the way, they saw a kid of an Aeta swaying in a hammock on a tree. Out of curiosity, the daughters invited the child to the party. In their house, they asked the kid, “What’s your name?”. The child merely stared at them. They offered the child food to eat but only a nod was his response. They requested him to dance, but he only bopped and bopped inside their house. However, every time he jumped and bopped, the corners of the house collapsed and bubbles appeared. The people inside the house vanished. Some people ran but the bubbles chased them and those caught by the bubbles disappeared. Some bubbles stopped at the place formely known as Tan-awan and presently called Maysungo. The last bubble stopped at Sitio Bula, now Brgy. Carol an. The strange incident was known to every place and people of Kabankalan. After the incident, the curious spectators climbed the mountains to see the site where the incident happened. They noticed that the house of Katagbak was already under the clear water. This old story was spread orally from place to place, so that almost all people visited the place. Thus, when the people of Kabankalan were asked where to find someone or where someone went, the response was almost always, “on the mountainous side of the place to see the sunken house of Katagbak under the clear waters”. Tan-awan is a place to see the sunken house of Katagbak. Until now, this story about the sunken house under the clear waters has been the talk of the people of Tan-awan. 12
  16. 16. The Origin of the places Balisong, Tumumbo, Makinigkig, and Orong Long ago, there were many unnamed places whose names were later derived from events that happened or unusual incidents that took place in those places. Usually, the name of a certain place was based on the kind of incident or occurrence that happened in that area. At times, the most dominant physical feature or the topography of the place was the basis. For instance, a flat land would be named plateau and the hilly place would be called a hill. During those early times in the island of Negros, the leaders or chieftains of every place were usually warrior women, known as Amazonas. They were respected by their people. They also had the right to choose whom and when to marry. In Tan-awan, there were also unnamed places because no significant events or occurrences had happened yet. In one of these places, there was a gorgeous and brave Amazona named Tamsi. Many bachelors wanted to marry Tamsi because of her beauty, bravery, and power over some places in Tan awan. One day, Tamsi sent a messenger to tell her people that she was ready to marry a lucky man who would be willing to answer her request. This announcement prompted many strong bachelors from the different places to express their interest. Tamsi decided that she would choose the man she was going to marry by holding a duel where the bachelors were to use balisong or lansitas. She told her plan to all the strong bachelors who accepted her request. To the mountainous area of their place, all the brave bachelors went. Also, the families of the bachelors came and witnessed the duel. When they started the duel, Tamsi simply stood at their side and danced during the duel. In every duel on the mountain, the families of the victorious bachelor danced to celebrate the victory but some families stayed aback having feared the defeat of their beloved son. Because of this event, this mountainous side of Tan awan where the duel with the use of balisong or lansitas was held, was called Balisong. The rear area of the place where the families were seen jumping for victory was called Tumumbo. The place where the people were seen dancing due to loathing was called Makinigkig. The place where people were seen backing –off due to defeat and fear of their son was called Orong. Until this time the names of these places, Balisong, Tumumbo, Makinigkig, and Orong have remained the same. 13
  17. 17. Long ago before the conquerors came to our country, every community and its citizens have had their own culture. Traditions that were conceptualized and practiced by the elders of the community became the norms that must be observed by everyone and violators would be punished by death or eviction from the group. During the early times, people of an unknown place in Tan-awan did not perform wedding ceremonies; thus, it was an accepted practice for couples to live in one roof without the matrimony of marriage. However, they believed that the parents had the right to choose the person their children would live with. Children should therefore abide by their parents’ will regarding the choice of whom to live with. In this place, a couple loved one another secretly beyond the knowledge of their parents despite the friendship between their families. The beautiful and generous lady named Ka Tugis, the only daughter of her parents, was arranged to marry a man of her family’s good neighbor. The man named Alusiman, a handsome, manly, and strong farmer was also fixed to live with a woman chosen by his parents. Both seldom saw each other around a furtive fall in their place where they show their longing and affection to one another. Their rendezvous, albeit brief, were filled with happiness. In this place, they planned their future as a couple until the end of time. Then came the day for Ka Tugis and Alusiman to live with their arranged husband and wife, so they decided to meet again in the falls. There, they promised each other that they would not leave one another and would be with each other’s arms until the end of time. However, they could not disobey their parent’s will for them. They wanted to follow what was being wanted of them yet, they couldn’t resist their desire to be with one another nor the thought of separation. They decided to end their miserable life by committing suicide. Having recognized the failure of their commitment to one another, the couple jumped off the falls while embracing each other. The two were dead when their bodies were recovered. Because the place was unknown, every time anyone would ask where Ka Tugis and Alusiman ended their sorrowful love story, the common answer of the people has been, “on the falls of despair (kabiguan)”. Hence, until now this falls is called, Kabigu-an. The Legend of Kabigu-an as narrated by Pastor Mulleta 14
  18. 18. The objectives of this study are to identify the local songs and dances that are popular in Barangay Tan-awan and their significance and association with the rituals, ceremonies, beliefs, and practices. There is likewise a need to determine the significant steps and why and how these songs and dances are performed. Indigenous Music in the Philippines Traditional music and songs are creative processes of oral transmission that offer a clear view of a certain society. They are usually considered as “lower class music” that provides a contrast to commercialized music and the classical style. It is characterized by the unknown or anonymous identity of its composers and authors. Over hundreds of years ago, indigenous music in the Philippines was influenced by foreign music styles. Years before the Spaniards landed in the Philippines, Hindus, Chinese, and Japanese traders brought their instruments, techniques, and patterns and developed the music in the Philippines significantly. The music was composed of five notes (pentatonic lat: penta-five) and mostly played on early instruments like primitive drums or instruments rhythmic in nature. Additionally, folksongs are musical pieces based on real events such as marriage, death, rural practices, tragic events, or love causes. Most of them are characterized by spiritual content and are played during religious sacrifices. They are supported by dances and choreographies, which visualize the subject matter of the celebrated act. However, these art forms changed rapidly when the Spanish conquest influenced Philippine folksongs, music, and dances through the introduction of European culture. 15 Tan-awan Folksongs and Dances “Traditional music and songs are creative processes of oral transmission that offer a clear view of a certain society.”
  19. 19. Through this research, different kinds of folksongs were collected. Music and dance pieces were reportedly presented by the people at the market area, by Baptist churches, and during assembly events. Furthermore, children and adults serenade during the market day or on special occasions for a fee. These findings indicate that Tan-awan music and dance are associated with social, religious, and economic purposes. The researchers likewise inferred that most of the gathered materials in folk music could not have originated in Barangay Tan-awan. The variety of languages (Cebuano, Hiligaynon and Bukidnon) suggests that even in Tan-awan, multicultural movements are evident. Two songs were retrieved, namely: “Babaying Bukidnon” Folksongs 16 and “Kasubo Bayong Natawhan”. Although the songs are self-written and cannot be defined as “indigenous”, they can be regarded as a significant found. They indicate cultural movements of folksongs in the community and give pure insights in the common life of Tan-awan village via art forms and folk music. Furthermore, researchers found many self- made instruments such as harp, guitar, and “bao”. It becomes apparent that external influence caused the loss of most of their culture and art, but researchers were able to reconstruct dances based on interviews and testimonials. The dance “Pas-an Saging” was composed by the research team. It depicts the movements of merchants bringing bananas for sale. Also, a variety of musical performances and dances was presented by Tan-awan inhabitants during the Balsahanay Festival.
  20. 20. TITLE: Kasubo Bayo’ng Natawhan Ermelieta Alpiche Javier, 52 years old Sitio Dalikanon, Brgy. Tan-awan, Kabankalan City, Negros Occidental I. Kasubo bayo’ng natawhan Nang anak nga pinuy-anan Kon siya akon pasugtan Iya kon tani ako pabanhan II. Sang dose anyos edad ko May nanuyo sa akon nga tawo Nangayo ako sang plaso Bisan mag edad lang sang dise otso III. Sang dise otso na’ng edad ko Naglibog na’ng akon ulo Kay amo ang pagperma Sang papeletas didto sa banwa IV. Naglakat ako sa dalan Ginsundan ako ni ugangan Luha ko sa mata dili mapunggan Kay si nanay akon baya-an V. Adyos na nanay o tatay Tapos na’ng inyo’ng pagbantay Mana-og ako sing hinay-hinay Kay mubalhin sa bag-ong nanay Title: O Babaying Bukidnon Carmen Palata Alpiche, 77 years old Sitio Dalikanon, Brgy.Tan-awan, Kababankalan City, Negros Occidental I. O babaying bukidnon Sa mga kalipay nga indi katu-on Sa mga bulotho-an kay indi katu-on Permi lang sa kasakit (2x) Ang naga-ilo kong dughan II. Si nanay si tatay ang may kasal-anan Nagsiling gid ako nga ila patun-an Ang sabat sa akon (2x) Paiway na lamang III. Mahuya gid ako sa taga-banwanon Sa mga dalaga nga kapareho nakon Sa adlaw kag gab-I permi nagpangaduhoy Ka-ilo kanugon (2x)] Babaying bukidnon 1. O, maiden of the mountain The happiness, you cannot have At school you cannot be Loneliness you are always be (2x) The emptiness of my heart. 2. It’s father’s and mother’s to be blamed I told them to send me to school They answered to me (2x) Never mind about it 3. I’ll be shy, with town people And the ladies like me I always cried day and night Alone, regrettable loss (2x) Maiden of the mount 17 FOLKSONGS 1. It’s a lonely barrio where I was born Habitation for a child If I allow her I would be married soon 2. When I was twelve years old There was a man, who courted me I ask for some time To wait until I’ll reach 18 3. When I was 18 I was confused Because it was the time to sign The marriage contract in town 4. I walked along the road Followed by my mother in law My tears flowed uncontrolled Because I’ll be leaving my mother 5. Farewell mother and father Your guidance towards me is over I’ll step down, very slowly For a transfer to a new mother
  21. 21. 18 TITLE: “PAS-AN SAGING” Annotator: Mario R. Gabuya Meaning: To carry bananas on shoulder or on head Dance Culture: Lowland Christian banana farmers Place of Origin: Brgy. Tan-awan, Kabankalan City Ethnolinguistic Group: Hiligaynon (Visayan) Classification: Occupational Background/Context: “Pas-an Saging” is a Visayan occupational dance, found in Barangay Tan-awan, Kabankalan City. It depicts the different ways of carrying and transporting bananas for sale or for barter while crossing the river or riding a boat. It can be danced on any occa- sion, but it is most appropriate during festivals. Movements/Steps: 1) Balancing movements while riding a boat 2) Washing of feet and face DANCE PROPERTIES Costume: Dancers are dressed in peasant work costumes. Boys carry “tuwang-tuwangan” with bunch of bananas on their shoulder while girls are with “likin” on their head. Music: 2/4, composed of two parts A & B Count: 1 and 2 and, 1 and 2 to a measure Formation: Partners stand opposite each other about eight feet apart; girls stand at their partners’ right when facing the audi- ence. XO XO XO XO INTRODUCTION Take two steps turning R in place, bow to audience (cts. 1 and 2). 2 M Figure I A. Partners face audience. Girls carry banana “saging” on head while boys carry “tuwang-tuwangan” on their shoulder. With R foot leading and knees slightly bent, take 4 close steps R,L,R,L (cts 1,2 to a measure). 4 M B. In a striding position, with R foot forward and L foot in rear, Execute 4 shuffling steps in place (cts 1 and 2 and to a measure). 2 M C. Repeat B pivoting with R, facing opposite direction. 2 M D. Repeat A to C. 8 M 16 M FOLKDANCE
  22. 22. Figure II A. Starting with R foot, partners take eight walking steps moving clockwise (cts 1, 2 to a measure). 8M B. Repeat A moving counterclockwise taking 8 walking steps (cts 1,2 to a measure). 4M C. Girls continue walking for 8 steps turning R around in place while boys assume to place the “tuwang-tuwangan” with “saging” on the floor/ ground for 8 cts (cts. 1,2 to a measure). 4M 16M Figure III Partners face opposite direction, girls facing away from the audience and boys towards the audience. Execute change steps moving sideways to partners place, Moving R to R shoulder toward each other (cts. 1 and 2 to a measure). 4M Repeat A to the left 4M Starting with R foot, execute 8 change steps turning R in every 2 change steps then reverse direction starting L foot, take 4 change steps on the last 4 measure. 16M 24M Figure IV Partners face opposite direction. Starting with R foot, execute 2 escotis steps moving sideward R, boys face the same direction at the start of the first count. 2M 19
  23. 23. 20 Repeat A partners face audience. 2M Repeat A and B 3 times more. 12M Note. Boys do the movement crossing over the “tuwang-tuwangan” . 16M Figure V Partners face audience standing with R shoulder towards the direction A. With R foot leading, partners take 4 walking steps R, L alternately. 2M B. Repeat A making a bigger steps (raise the knees about 45 degrees angle). 2M C. Repeat A and B. 4M D. Repeat A and B turning R about 8M Note: Boys continue the movement for 4 measures. Girls execute the movement for 2 measures, then face the opposite direction (turning L about) and hold the bunch of “saging” to be placed on the floor finishing in a squat position for 2 measures. E. Partners with trunk slightly bent forward, L foot supporting the weight of the body and R foot is placed and extended forward. Execute “panghugas”, hands scooping the water to wash the legs facing R and L alternately. 8M F. Repeat D change position of the legs (R foot supports the weight of the body and L foot extended forward) execute “panghugas” on the face as if scooping the water to wash the face L, R alternately. 8M 24M Figure VI A. Partners take their goods. Girls take the bunch of banana and place it on head while boys carry the “tuwang-tuwangan” for 4 cts and assume standing position for another 4 cts. 8M B. Execute four walking steps moving clockwise girls following the boys. 4M C. Take four change steps continue moving clockwise. 4M D. Repeat B and C counterclockwise. 8M 24M Note: Fig. VI D may be repeated and extended for the exit. 16M
  24. 24. This festival, now going on its 3rd year, is the biggest celebration of Tan-awan Village that gives an insight about its culture and uniqueness. In focus of the celebration stands the traditional “balsa” which used to be the major means of transporting goods and people from the mountain areas to the market place. Without the balsa, trade between people living in the upper mountains and the main village of Tan-awan could not happen. Forthisspecialoccasion,localsandpeoplefromhinterlands offer numerous specialties on a long market with little booths and shops built up along the main road. (Balsa parade, a beauty contest, dance competitions, theater shows and other activities guarantee a varied program and 21 a festive atmosphere.) At night the public plaza featured with music equipment, invites young and old people to dance and party all night long. This year, the festival started on a Friday with market activities, inspirational speeches by local officials and a beauty contest of “Miss Tan-awan” in the evening. On Saturday, games and competitions took place, and after dinner, the “West Negros Night” started on public stage. The whole village was gathered to watch the performances of West Negros University students. The Kalingaw: Teatro Hiligaynon presented a research-based theater presentation with puppets as Masters of Ceremony. This served at the same time as validation of the research Balsahanay Festival “Balsa parades, a beauty contest, dance presentations, theater shows and other activities guarantee a varied program and a festive atmosphere.”
  25. 25. 22 activities. Moreover, the Rondalla group and the Glee Club of the Center for Performing Arts and Culture, WNU, flattered the audience with this cultural presentation. On Sunday, the highlight of Balsahanay Festival, the whole village assembled at the riverbank for the opening ceremony early in the morning. Music was played, flags were raised, and glamorous decorated balsa rafts, constructed only for this special event, entered the site. A competition took place in which the different rafts were ranked according to the criteria: decoration, creativity, and originality. Afterwards everybody joined the procession to the local church where they worshipped together. In the afternoon, the festivity continued with a street parade and dancing leading through the village to the public plaza. A dance presentation among students from Tan-awan elementary and high school was presented. Their dances portrayed the life up in the mountains and the barter trade between villagers and mountain inhabitants in self-developed dance movements. The dancers’ traditional costumes were designed with local materials. Altogether, 240 dancers participated in the presentation. The Balsahanay Festival concluded with the crowning of the “Prince & Princess” of Balsahanay Festival 2012 and the night-long festivities and dancing that turned it into a spectacular fiesta!
  26. 26. This study documents the preparation and ingredients of local foods in Tan-awan, especially those that are considered as specialty in the area and those that are most commonly consumed in the people’s everyday life. Data collection methods included key informant interviews with members of the tribe, mostly women, and actual food preparation with them. A cooking contest was also held on April 16, 2012 to know the commonly prepared food in the area. The traditional way of preparing food is still being observed by some families in Tan-awan. They use an improvised stove made of rocks and firewood for cooking. The firewood is placed above the stove for kiln dry effect. They also use traditional stone grinders to grind corn and rice. Rice grains are removed from hulls by using mortar and pestle. To separate the grains from the hulls, they use 23 “kalalaw” (pan made of native materials). Local brewed coffee termed “cape tupra” is prepared by boiling granules and sieves them using a homemade sieve made of cloth. An earthen jar “banga” is used to store drinking water. The most common delicacies in Tan-awan are made of cassava and besol since they are abundant in this area. Aside from that, they are nutritious and filling and are served as alternative for rice. The common way of preparing them is to shred the cassava or besol first, then extract the juice (in case of cassava) and mix it with sugar, milk or coconut. Then, you either steam it to make puto, or you boil it for other recipes. Five recipes of each were documented. Four unique Laswa recipes with besol as one of the main ingredients were documented. The recipes are as follows: Local Food Preparation
  27. 27. 24 Besol puto Ingredients: Tools: Coconut milk Shredder Shredded Besol Pot Sugar Steamer Salt Procedure: 1. Peel the besol 2. Shred 3. Mix the ingredients 4. Put the ingredients in molder 5. Steam Steaming Time: 10-15 min Respondent: Allan Mallorca Age: 44 years old Occupation: Elementary Teacher in Agriculture Besol yam Ingredients: Tools: Besol (Yam) Pot Ube Powder Brown Sugar Procedure: 1. Peel off the skin of besol. 2. Cut corm into two halves. 3. Scrape the inner part of the corm. 4. Leave a thin outer part of the besol and set it aside. 5. Mix the scraped part with cheese, milk powder, etc. to create a filling. 6. Then fill it into the outer part of the besol. 7. Tie the filled two outer parts together. 8. Boil it in water layered to the content. Cooking Time: 8-12 minutes
  28. 28. 25 Ibos nga BesolIngredients: Tools:Coconut Milk ShredderShredded Besol PotSugar Salt Procedure: 1. Peel the besol. 2. Shred. 3. Mix the ingredients.4. Put the mixture in coconut leaves and wrap.5. Hardboil in coconut milk. Cooking Time: 10-15 min Lahiya/Kalamay Hati Ingredients: Tools: Besol Shredder Coconut Milk Frying Pan Food Coloring Brown Sugar Procedure: 1. Shred the besol. 2. Mix all ingredients in 1:1 proportion. 3. Add food coloring to the mixture. 4. Boil the coconut milk in the frying pan. 5. Cook the mixed ingredients together with the boiled coconut milk. Cooking Time: 30 minutes
  29. 29. 26 Cassava puto Ingredients: Tools: Cassava Molder Food Coloring Frying Pan Condensed Milk Shredder Brown Sugar Coconut Milk Yeast Procedure: 1. Shred the cassava. 2. Extract its juice by using clean cloth. 3. Then add all the ingredients and mix well. 4. Put it into the molder. 5. Boil the water. 6. Steam the puto until cooked. Cooking Time: 30-40 minutes Lanson Ingredients: Tools: Cassava Shredder Brown Sugar Steamer Coconut Milk Procedure: 1. Shred the cassava 2. Extract the cassava’s juice and set aside. 3. Add sugar on the shredded cassava. 4. Steam until cooked. Cooking Time: 30 minutes
  30. 30. Alupi (1) Ingredients: Tools: Coconut Shredder Cassava Steamer Brown sugar Banana leaf (steamed or braised until softened) Procedure: 1. Shred the cassava. 2. Squeeze and then extract the coconut’s milk. 3. Mix all the ingredients. 4. Wrap in a banana leaf. 5. Steam until cooked. Cooking Time: 2 hours of cooking 27 Cassava enpanadawith latik filling Ingredients: Tools:Cassava ShredderCoconut Milk (gata) Frying panCoconut Oil Procedure: 1. Peel off the skin of cassava.2. Shred the cassava until dough-like texture is attained. 3. Squeeze/extract the cassava juice and set aside. 4. Cook the coconut milk until it produces a “latik” 5. Form egg-size dough then flatten. Fill with the right amount of latik. 6. Mold to enclose the latik into the dough.7. Fry the processed dough into the oil of the coconut. Cooking Time: 25-30 minutes Name of Respondent: Lolita PalataAge: 47 Years Old Occupation: Vendor
  31. 31. 28 Alupi (2) Ingredients: Tools: Cassava Shredder Brown sugar Banana leaf Procedure: 1. Shred the cassava. 2. Put the banana leaf into the fire until heated. 3. Extract the cassava. Set aside the juice. 4. Add brown sugar on the shredded cassava. 5. Wrap in banana leaf. 6. Boil until cooked. Cooking Time: 2 hours Name of Participant: Jessie S. Flores Age: 49 Laswa (recipe 1) Ingredients: Tools: Besol Wood String Beans Frying Pan Eggplant Plate Lady’s Fingers Spoon Amaranth Bowl Vine Spinach Squash Shrimp Bagoong Tomato Onion Procedure: 1. Boil the water. 2. Add the following ingredients: tomato, onion, shrimp, and string beans. 3. Afterwards add squash, besol, eggplant, and lady’s fingers. 4. Lastly, add the vine spinach, amaranth, and bagoong. Cooking Time: 19 min Name of Participant: Melly D. Navas Age: 54
  32. 32. 29 Laswa (recipe 2) Ingredients: Tools: Onion Knife Tomato Iron Cooking Pot Salt Bowl Besol Spoon Malunggay Wood Bagoong Stove Water Spinach Chopping board Eggplant Dried Anchovy (dilis) Jute Mallow Leaves Procedure: 1. Boil the water in a pot and add salt, onion, tomato, bagoong, and anchovy. 2. Then add besol, jute mallow leaves, eggplant, water spinach, malunggay and mix the ingredients. Cooking Time: 18 min Name of Respondent: Nalita B. Del Parba Age: 46 Years Old Laswa (recipe 3) Ingredients: Tools: Besol Knife Sponge Gourd Iron Cooking Pot Eggplant Wood Papaya Stone for cooking Vine Spinach Jute Mallow Leaves Malunggay Salt Procedure: 1.Boil the water and add the ingredients in following order: besol, Sponge gourd, papaya, jute mallow leaves, vine spinach, malunggay, and salt. Cooking Time: 16 min Name of Participant: Merlita R. Gustilo Age: 45
  33. 33. 30 Laswa (recipe 4) Ingredients: Tools: Salt Spoon Onion Knife Tomato Bowl Spring onion Banana leaf Bagoong Cup Shrimp Casserole Besol Wood Squash Stove Papaya Sponge gourd Jute mallow leaves Malunggay Procedure: 1. Boil the water. 2. Add salt, onion, tomato, and besol. 3. If the besol is already cooked, add bagoong, shrimp, squash, papaya, sponge gourd, ju mallow leaves, and malunggay. 4. Serve in a bowl and add spring onions before eating. Cooking Time: 20 min
  34. 34. The indigenous medicinal practices in Tan-awan Village are as significant as the previously discussed practices. In a country where people, especially those living in remote areas, have low access to the formal health care system, traditional healing methods provide the alternative. The purpose of this study was to gather and document these indigenous health knowledge and practices of the Tan- awan tribe that persist despite the influences by modern medicine. Six local medical practitioners, aging 38-67 years old (3 Males, 3 Females), were interviewed as respondents. They were midwives “Paltera”, Chiropractor “Manoghilut”, and herbal doctor “manogbulong”. They identified 29 ailments that they can cure with indigenous methods and 31 medicines. In addition, they identified 57 medicinal plants that can cure these ailments: animal bite, anti-abortion, asthma, amoeba, bleeding, cyst, body pain, boils, bone fracture, cough, cripple, dysmenorrheal, dandruff, dizziness, energizer, fever, gallstone, headache, itchiness, loss of appetite, skin disease, sprain, stomach ache , worms, wounds, spasm, tranquilizer, and tuberculosis. In some instances, an ailment can be treated by using two or more plants. These practitioners did not exactly know about the chemical composition of these plants; they just learned how the treatment works from experience. The knowledge was passed from generation to generation over the years through their mothers or former medical practitioners. Medicinal Practices
  35. 35. 32 Aside from the respondents, some merchants sell indigenous medicine and “charms” during the market day. These include incense, kamangyan, romero serba, salong, kabulay, usog, tawas, dalugdog, tawas, bara, hemag, panagang, salidogong, habak, dalugdog, and ginger. There is a substrate termed “alipo” coming from “Mainit Cave” which is used for foot spa and treatment for skin diseases. At present, the people use both traditional and modern medicine for treatment. Traditional medicine is used for common diseases such as cough, fever, minor injury, headache, and minor pains. Furthermore, a health center is available now for maternal and child care, medical checkup, and minor injuries. Major ailments are referred to hospitals in Kabankalan or Bacolod City. On this note, the researchers recognized the need to integrate traditional health knowledge systems into the formal health systems not only to preserve an invaluable and functional aspect of our cultural heritage but more importantly to enhance the formal health delivery system. Nowadays, people lose sight of the value of traditional medicinal practices, medicinal plants, and the healing effects of their composition. Our society is too far influenced by the pharmaceutical industry to consider alternative ways of treatment. Thus, the research output shall be integrated in the curriculum of the Community Health Nursing of the College of Nursing in West Negros University to provide insight to students on the common practices in the community. “On this note, the researchers recognized the need to integrate traditional health knowledge systems into the formal health systems...” Mana Boli-boli
  36. 36. Respondent: Rolandita Onzo Reyes Age: 60 yrs. Old Occupation: Midwife Years of Experience: 45 yrs. AILMENT REMEDY 1. SPASM Salong Tanglad Kaliakai Alibhon Bunlaw, Artamesa (Leaves) quantity of choice • Wash the leaves in running water. • Mix the leaves together and bring to boil for 5 minutes. • Use as bathe. 2. BLEEDING (Pregnant Women) Baston ni San Jose Lubi-lubi (Roots) • Wash the roots thoroughly with running water. • Mix all the roots and bring to boil for 5 minutes until the water changes in color. • Drink (serve as water). 3. ANTI-ABORTION Anonang (Bark of the Tree) • Heat the bark of the tree until it is hot. • Pat it on the navel and bind into the body by using a clean cloth. 4. CRIPPLE Kasla (Leaves) • Place the leaves near the fire until heated. • Pat it on the affected area and wrap into the body by using a clean cloth. Respondent: Teodorico Mirano Age: 40 yrs. Old Years of Experience: more than 10 years AILMENT REMEDY 1. SPASM (Women) Buri (Roots) Mana (Matured Stem) Tagnanam (Matured Stem) Langka-on (Vine) Buli-buli (Stem) Bilinganon (Roots) • Air dry. • Boil in three glasses of water until estimated one glass of solution remains. • Strain and drink. 2. SPASM (Men) Dried leaves of Golden coconut (3 pcs.) Manzanilla leaves (3 pcs.) Tanglad leaves (3 pcs.) Kabugaw leaves (3 pcs.) 33 Brown Sugar (3 tsp.) Mango leaves (3 pcs.) • Boil into three glass of water until estimated 1 of glass of solution remains. • Strain and drink. 3. HEADACHE (Sign of Hypertension) Lampunaya leaves (3 pcs.) Manzanilla leaves (3 pcs.) Abgao leaves (3 pcs.) • Put the leaves into the fire until heated. • Squeeze the leaves until juice is produced. • Apply the extracted juice to the neck and head and massage using hands. • Pat the squeezed leaves on the forehead. 4. TUBERCULOSIS Palagtiki (Roots) • Bring to boil using water leveled on the measure of the roots. • Drink 3 times a day for one month. • Chew the “ubod” of the palagtiki. Spit the residue and swallow the juice. 5. SKIN DISEASE (Scabies) Madre de cacao (Leaves) Palotsina (Leaves) Malunggal (Vines) • Smash the ingredients and mix with salve made of coconut oil. • Rub the solution on the affected skin 6. SKIN DISEASE (Athletes Foot) Alibaka • Squeeze the leaves and rub on the affected foot. 7. ANIMAL BITES Kulukamatis (Fruit) • Heat the fruit under fire. • Roll the fruit, open it, and pat on the bitten body parts. 8. DIZZINESS Baho-baho (Leaves) • Squeeze the leaves; then, pat or rub on the head. • Massage. 9. CYST Dulaw-dulaw (Leaves) • Apply on the affected body part every night until it has subsided. 10. AMOEBA Avocado Tree (Skin) Tar Apple Tree (Skin) • Boil into three glasses of water until one glass of solution is left. • Drink or use as rub. 11. COUGH Payau (Body) • Cut into half and wrap around the neck. Use as
  37. 37. 34 neck collar. 12. ASTHMA Herba buena leaves (3 pcs.) Vicks leaves (3 pcs.) Eucalyptus leaves (3 pcs.) • Boil into three glasses of water until one glass of water is left. • Drink. 13. ENERGIZER/ APPETIZER Mana (Roots) • Boil for 2-3 minutes. • Drink. 14. TRANQUILIZER Tanglad • Boil for 2-3 minutes. • Drink. 15. FEVER WITH COUGH Lagundi leaves (3pcs) • Boil the leaves in water for 10 minutes. • Drink. 16. GALLSTONE Banaba (Leaves or Bark) • Boil the leaves/bark with water for 10 minutes. • Drink every afternoon. 17. BOILS Alugbati • Crush the Alugbati and pat it on the affected body part. Maritana • Squeeze and place on the affected body part. 18. LOSS OF APPETITE Mana (Roots) • Boil with water for 10 minutes. • Drink. 19. DYSMENORRHEA Yahong-yahong (Leaves) • Put the leaves into fire until heated. • Pat it on the abdomen. • Use three times a day. 20. BOILS (red part) Gummamela (Flower) • Crush the flower of Gummamela. • Apply into the affected body part. Respondent: Levita Desol Age: 67 yrs. Old AILMENT REMEDY 1. FEVER Eucalyptus Vicks Pau d’Arco Tahibo Manzanilla Alibhon Artamesa Lampunaya Dila-dila (Leaves) • Mix all the leaves and fry on the pan by using salve with coconut oil. • Strain by using clean cloth. • Use as an ointment. 2. ITCH Madre de Cacao Manunggal Kalachuchi (Leaves) • Mix all the leaves and fry on the pan by using salve with coconut oil. • Strain by using clean cloth. • Apply at the affected body part. • Use as an ointment. 3. SINUSITIS/ MUSCLE & BODY PAIN/ HEADACHE/COUGH Mandalosa Lagundi Kayupkop Lampunaya Manzanilla Kulukugo Alibhon (Leaves) • Mix all the leaves and fry on the pan by using oil (1 liter). • Mix with efficascent oil (1 Bottle). • Use as an ointment. Respondent: Levita Desol Age: 67 yrs. Old AILMENT REMEDY 1. FEVER Eucalyptus Vicks Pau d’Arco Tahibo Manzanilla Alibhon Artamesa Lampunaya Dila-dila (Leaves) • Mix all the leaves and fry on the pan by using salve with coconut oil. • Strain by using clean cloth. • Use as an ointment. 2. ITCH Madre de Cacao Manunggal Kalachuchi (Leaves) • Mix all the leaves and fry on the pan by using salve with coconut oil.
  38. 38. 35 • Strain by using clean cloth. • Apply at the affected body part. • Use as an ointment. 3. SINUSITIS/ MUSCLE & BODY PAIN/ HEADACHE/COUGH Mandalosa Lagundi Kayupkop Lampunaya Manzanilla Kulukugo Alibhon (Leaves) • Mix all the leaves and fry on the pan by using oil (1 liter). • Mix with efficascent oil (1 Bottle). • Use as an ointment. Respondent: Domingo Bantang Occupation: Chiropractor AILMENT REMEDY 1. BONE FRACTURE Kasla • Get a piece of bark and put it into fire until heated. • Pat it on the fractured body part and tie by using clean cloth. • Change it every day. Respondent: Ermelieta Javier Occupation: Farmer AILMENT REMEDY 1. INTESTINAL WORMS Agho (Leaves/Seeds) • Chew the Agho leaves or seeds. • Swallow. 2. DANDRUFF Banana (Variety:Sab-a) • Finely chop and apply on the scalp. • Rinse after three minutes. Madre de Cacao Payao Alibhon Medicinal Plants
  39. 39. The research output was utilized to develop the play “Teatro Balsa”. The theater showcases the different cultural and indigenous practices of Tan-awan Village and is utilized as a medium for dissemination and preservation of local knowledge. The theater was formulated through the following activities: Puppetry Workshop. Puppetry is one of the methods to utilize the research output. In line with this, a puppetry workshop was conducted at West Negros University in January 20-22, 2012 with Mrs. Andrea Bongers, puppet player of Sesame Street Germany, as resource person. Participants were teachers and students from Kalingaw: Ang Teatro Hiligaynon, College of Education/School of Graduate Studies, West Negros University. The participants were trained in the use and manipulation of hand puppets to express contents in a more approachable and understandable way to young and old audiences. The basic techniques of manipulation and working with the voice to create individual and unique figures were the first steps to make this method appropriate to the actors. The participants received an introduction to the world of puppetry and the opportunity to build bridges between complex content and simple demonstration. The cultural presentation of the research output shown in Tan-awan was greatly supported and highly appreciated by the audience. Scriptwriting Workshop. A script writing workshop was conducted in February 2012 in order to translate and convert research results into scripts for the cultural presentation. Seven scripts were written tackling various topics related to the different aspects of life in Tan-awan Village. Music Composition Workshop. Music can be a medium to convey feelings and insights to create a multifaceted research output. A workshop was conducted to train students and some villagers on how to compose songs within the cultural context of Tan-awan village. Basic knowledge in melody, lyrics, rhythm, harmony, timbre, form, and genre were taught. The participants were trained in analyzing their indigenous style and were encouraged to create their own pieces by enhancing the indigenous music. Equipped with these basic skills, the participants were enabled to assimilate their impressions and findings in a form of art to make the research output more appealing and approachable for others. At the end of the workshop, 15 songs were composed by both the students and village participants. Theater workshop. A theater workshop was conducted to enable a cultural presentation that integrates the research output in various cultural methods. Different forms of performing arts were discussed and learned by the students. The output of this workshop was the cultural production “Teatro Balsa” which was also used to validate research findings in Tan-awan Village and in West Negros University. 36 Cultural Utilization
  40. 40. The research findings were validated by the Tan-awan Community on April 2012 and the academic community in West Negros University on June 15, 2012. Thus the following are recommended: Integration in the curriculum. Culture and art can have an active role in self-identity. It reflects who we are as people and how our costumes evolved through times. By integrating this research in the curriculum, students will be able to learn about local and traditional knowledge, a valuable source that is not accessible for anyone. Furthermore, the valuable indigenous knowledge of Tan-awan village will be preserved and transmitted to the succeeding generations through an instructional material that shall be made available to the faculty members and the students. Support of sustainable agricultural practices (organic farming, natural pest control etc.). The indigenous knowledge and practices of Tan-awan village could be useful inputs for sustainable and environmentally friendly farming enterprise, food, and medical industry. Stakeholders are recommended to take a closer look at different farming practices to determine which of these practices can be useful to the present and future generations. Preserve balsa and barter trade. Balsa and barter trading are traditions that render Tan-awan Village unique. They should be protected from modern influences and prevented from their eventual loss. Furthermore, these traditions can be a good source for tourism in Tan-awan. Explore the medicinal value of specific plants using scientific methods. Scientific studies can be conducted to know which of the plants can have application in modern and scientific medical studies. Therefore, stakeholders are recommended to coordinate with chemical and drug firms in conducting studies towards the development of alternative sources of medicine from the flora and fauna that grow well in the area. Finally, these plants can probably have valuable components that are essential for other industries. Explore the potential commercial value of some traditional recipes. The traditional food is a cheap source of nutritious food. The commercial value of some of the recipes can be explored as a delicacy that depicts the culture of Tan-awan Village. 37 Recommendations
  41. 41. April 2012 “Learning and Insight” by GEORG NAUMANN GIZ Junior Volunteer Discovering Tan-awan Village Coming from a City of 3.5 million inhabitants with European, western life standard, it is easy to understand that the world up there in the mountains of Barangay Tan- awan was quite an experience for me. What situation awaits me there? At first there is the small village of Tan-Awan, around 45 minutes by car from the City of Kabankalan. You will be leaving the crowded streets with houses, cars and tricycles, as you pass by the mountains, and civilization becomes rarer. Finally, when you reach the main road of the village, you’ll see one high school, one elementary school, a public plaza, and little houses with sari-sari stores. You may also find one or two little bars to sing karaoke or have a drink with your dear friends. When you turn left on the main road, entering the village, you will see that the road actually goes down. In about 300m you will have a better view of the valley of Tan-awan with its river, mountains, forests and sugarcane fields. Even deeper, behind those trees and hills, people are still living. This particular river is used by the villagers to transport their goods to the weekly market in Tan-awan, on their self- made floats, called “balsa”. As far as I know, the celebration was already traditional and it was only two years ago when the government introduced the “Balsahanay Festival”. Particularly, that includes festive events and celebrations for the Balsa, such as a Miss-Tan- awan competition, a big market with a podium and musical show, a cooking contest, a theater play and of course the great dance competition by the students. But the main part is the glorious downstream procession of the “Balsa” rafts, which were very nicely decorated by plants and natural materials. The most interesting things for me were the market, the dance competition and the “Balsa” procession. Remarkable about the market is that people really walk hours through the depth of the forests to reach the trading site. We interviewed a man who shouldered 42 kg of bananas for two hours to sell them. It is amazing, what a unique way of life he must have, on the one hand very simple depending only on few things, on the other hand very tough carrying these weights for such long time. There is also potential of a low harvest. Places like that already become rarer and rarer and there are locations in the world, where circumstances like that can cause the death of people. In this area, everything seems to work out well. There are no droughts, no dangerous vermin that couldn’t be taken care of, contrariwise, before people would starve to death in the jungle, they would rather move to the city. This is actually already happening to the youth of Tan-awan Village, that is why the research team carries 38 Insights from Participants
  42. 42. 39 so much to document this life style while it still exists. I think by myself, that it actually would be much nicer for this farmer, if he could use a road and a car to transport his bananas to the market, but the people don’t seem to be discontent. They seem to like their life style, so I am just fascinated by it. Furthermore, we met a woman who extracts coconut oil by herself and sells it on the market. It is unbelievable for me, how people are able to do that with such simple instruments. They have a great knowledge about plants, medicine and some elixirs, just as this woman selling a fluid that cleans the skin and frees it from callused skin. Additionally, I personally observed people coming from the mountains by horses; they still depend on those animals for transportation. What a lonely, peaceful life they must have, on the other hand, there must be many sacrifices as well. This does not exist in Western Europe anymore; it is a great chance for the Philippine society to still study this way of life and especially to preserve their local knowledge. In my opinion, it is very important to keep this treasure. But I can also understand the people, who are looking for something new, for technology and different life styles. For me, it is absolute natural for the youth to leave this place to find out more about the world’s new possibilities. The indigenous dance presentation was a great event; they danced in beautiful costumes and in a way, wI have never seen such constructed floats before, simple, but genius. In conclusion, the Balsahanay Festival has been a rich experience for me. Apart from that, we had very good food. We always found quite enough time for sleep and rest. Our work was partly difficult because the villagers spent quite a lot of attention on us. On the one hand, this made it sometimes difficult to document the every-day life of Tan-awan; on the other hand, it was amazing how nicely we were welcomed and how friendly people treated us. Georg
  43. 43. June 2012 “Learning and Insight” by ALLAN U. GEAGONI, Coordinator of Student Personnel Services, WNU Tan-awan: A Fantastic Treasure in the Heart of Nature It was six months ago when I first heard about Tan-awan Village through the bubbly Ismael “Maeng” Java. As he described it, I got an impression that it was a community that is many years behind compared to the lowlands particularly Kabankalan City where it is a part of. I missed joining the research team’s week–long immersion and study of the community last December. My first glimpse of it was through the team’s output presented for critiquing. I was privileged to be invited as one of the critics though I was also adamant. How do I critique something I am oblivious about? To enrich my knowledge of Tan-awan, I have to be there personally. In the midst of the hustle and bustle of office responsibilities, I went there. I had no expectation except to have fun and learn. Since it was their fiesta, the Balsahanay Festival, we were greeted with the sight of a lot of people milling around. The community buildings (barangay hall, health center, elementary and high schools, as well as their activity area) were all concreted. Several houses have concrete foundation that gave me an impression that it may be a rural area but not at all backward as I thought. So, where are the treasures? My first discovery of Tan-awan’s treasure was when I interacted with the mothers preparing our snacks. Besol (yam) coupled with these mothers’ ingenuity and creativity is indeed a treasure. This root crop saved many survivors of Typhoon Nitang in Ilog Town in 1984. When all rice fields were washed out and rice was scarce, besol was among the food substitute. They used to boil it. There in Tan-awan, they cooked ibos, alupe, rilleno, and puto out of besol. The mothers gleefully offered me their food. I believe they have more creative menus made of this root crop. The second treasure I discovered is one common to all Filipinos – one that made us renown worldwide, hospitality. They offered whatever they could afford to their guests. And they made sure we were treated as VIPs. In my three days stay there, we were also served three pieces of lechon. Some though were our provisions but they happily prepared them for us. The barangay captain and the DepEd personnel lavished us with a variety of food typical of a fiesta. My satiety was always reached every meal. Tan-awanons are trustworthy and respectful towards their guests. Whenever we watched an activity in the quadrangle, we just left our belongings inside our tents and sleeping quarters and we never feared that something might get lost. The third treasure was discovered by the research team and was presented during the WNU Night – their culture. Though they have taken steps towards modernization, 40 Insights from Participants
  44. 44. they have kept many of their traditions. Barter trade and the use of balsa (bamboo raft) are still practiced to a great extent in the place not only by the villagers but also by traders from other upland communities making use of the longest river in the Negros Occidental, the Ilog – Hilabangan River. Fruits, root crops, and domesticated animals are brought to Tan-awan on Fridays for this purpose. People from upland barangays of Himamaylan City in the north, businessmen from Kabankalan in the southeast all converge here to do business with the locals and people who raft their way from the oriental side of the island. Another set of culture are the songs, tales, beliefs and rituals that are well preserved by the elders. The Tan-awanons may not be openly admitting it or taking pride of it before, but the research output opened their eyes to their treasure. They now see it as a heritage with a sense of pride. In the midst of dying cultures in several communities, theirs are well – preserved and will soon be well – documented. The Balsahanay Festival is yet another treasure born out of this unique culture. Although it is only on its second year, this fledgling festival shows a lot of promise to become a tourist attraction as it converts the Tan-awanon’s beliefs, traditions, daily chores, livelihood and aspirations as a people into a dance. The Kalingaw – Ang Teatro Hiligaynon of West Negros University led by Ismael “Maeng” Java readily responded to the invitation to help shape the authenticity, concept, and other aspects of this festival. Balsahanay Festival also features fluvial parade of beautifully adorned rafts in the winding river into the area where the barter trade activity is held every Friday. This year, the fluvial parade was followed by a street parade and culminated in the mass attended by the barrio folks. On our last day, I could not wait to experience yet another treasure – the river. Winding though the rugged mountains is the wide and serene Ilog – Hilabangnan River. Its moss–covered stones tell us they were rarely trodden by men or animals. While many portions are deep, there are spots we can just wade through. Trekking through this graceful winding river necessitated that we cross to the other side a couple of times. Occasionally, we would see rapids but most part of it are clean water flowing calmly downstream. Our trek covered around two kilometers upstream. Had we gone further, we could have seen dozens of waterfalls ranging from as low as five feet to some bigger falls as tall as fifty feet. In one spot where the rocks provided shade from the blistering summer noontime heat, we decided to take a dip and cool ourselves down. The clean flowing water and the magnificent view of the mountain serving as backdrop made up for a perfect getaway. The summer heat and the long trek drained my energy but dipping in the river was a great compensation. It was all worth it. Our lunch was brought there. Another lechon! There were no utensils so we have to cut down bananas to have improvised plates. The last time I experienced eating like this was thirty six years ago in Mindanao. Visiting Tan-awan was an experience worth more than any other escapades. Discovering the treasures of Tan-awan was even more exciting. I know there is more to discover when I go back there. 41 Allan u. geagoni
  45. 45. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT DR. SUZETTE LILIAN A. AGUSTIN University President West Negros University DR. NORBERTO P. MANGULABNAN Director, Research, Development and Extension Office West Negros University MR. CAESAR L. PACALIOGA Director, Center for Performing Arts and Culture West Negros University HONORABLE RAUL C. RIVERA Councilor and Provincial Board Member Kabankalan City, Negros Occidental HONORABLE BENJIE M. MIRANDA Barangay Captain, Barangay Tan-awan Kabankalan City, Negros Occidental DR. ELISA G. BRONOLA Superintendent Department of Education Division of Kabankalan Kabankalan City, Negros Occidental MS. TERESITA T. CADAGAT Principal Tan-awan Elementary School Brgy. Tan-awan, Kabankalan City MR. ROMEO G. POYOGAO Head Teacher Bugtong Elementary School Brgy. Tan-awan, Kabankalan City PASTOR RENANTE S. MULETA Coordinator Association of South East Asian Christian Ministry Research Critics Dr. Norberto P. Mangulabnan Dr. Teresita J. Guadalupe Mrs. Ma. Luna C. Dela Cerna Mr. Allan U. Geagoni 42
  46. 46. PHOTO GALLERY Transport of products using Carabao Products sold from cities to village Balsa used to transport farm products Native horses used for transport
  47. 47. Agricultural practices Mode of transport of products from farms to market Banana from farm to market Trading every Friday
  48. 48. PHOTO GALLERY
  49. 49. Balsahanay Festival Fluvial parade of decorated Balsa during the festival
  50. 50. Local Food Preparation Recipes prepared from Besol and other preparations
  51. 51. PHOTO GALLERY
  52. 52. PHOTO GALLERY
  53. 53. All Rights Reserved. 2013 c Tan-awn,KabankalanCity,NegrosOccidental,Philippines IN SEARCH OF INDIGENOUS/TRADITIONAL PRACTICES OF TAN-AWAN VILLAGE

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