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M learning

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  • 1. IVÁN CEPERO BARMÓN Universidad de Granada MOBILE LEARNING In School and Adult Education
  • 2. 2 Index 1. Introduction................................................................................................ 3 2. Definition .................................................................................................... 4 2.1. E-Learning ........................................................................................... 4 2.2. M-Learning........................................................................................... 4 3. Advantages and disadvantages of M-Learning....................................... 6 3.1. Advantages.......................................................................................... 6 3.2. Disadvantages..................................................................................... 7 4. The use of M-learning in school and in the adult education.................. 8 4.1. ML in adult education ......................................................................... 8 4.2. ML in schools. ................................................................................... 10 5. Conclusion ............................................................................................... 11 6. Webgraphy ............................................................................................... 11
  • 3. 3 1. Introduction For several years, we have seen how technological advances have introduced different devices that handle digital information and at the same time, facilitate the user mobility. With the evolution of wireless networks, it is easy to understand how the phones have gained importance in education. More and more schools are moving toward mobile learning in the classroom as a way to take advantage of a new wave of electronic devices that offer portability and ease of use on a budget. Netbooks, iPads, cell phones, iPods, e-readers and even PDAs are increasingly becoming the tools of choice for today's educators, and it is easy to see why. In this work we will study how apply the Mobile Learning in two areas, in the schools and in the adult education.
  • 4. 4 2. Definition 2.1. E-Learning To explain the concept of M-Learning, it is necessary to talk about the concept of E-Learning. The E-Learning is a teaching and learning method based on Internet. The name is an abbreviation of the term "Electronic Learning". With this method we can speak about a distance education without the need for face meetings or having to go to class. This is possible thanks to the facilities that the Internet gives us. The E-Learning offers advantages such as: The student doesn’t have to go to class; he can take the course from home. Internet gives us many methods and resources which facilitate learning. The student is the focus of the learning process, and participates in the construction of knowledge. Now the teacher is not only a transmitter of knowledge, is a guide that should help students in their learning process. Immediate update featuring Internet allows the student always has an updated education. The constant communication between the participants of this process. Once we have seen the concept of E-Learning, we can talk about the M-Learning. 2.2. M-Learning The advent of mobile technology in our lives is an unstoppable reality social and economic, which exceeds the educational and cultural spheres. This incorporation changes the social and educational environment and we must incorporate it to the processes of learning and teaching. The M-Learning or Mobile learning has been defined for several expert in this area. Some definitions are:
  • 5. 5 According to Quinn (2000), the M-Learning or Mobile Learning, is the same as the E-Learning with the difference that the M-Learning is through portable devices with Internet access. These devices can be Smartphone, table PC, laptop's, portable computer... Quinn thinks that the Mobile Learning is an extension of the E-Learning but the M-Learning offers independence of space and time. With this we can get Internet access all day from anywhere. Harris (2001) defines the Mobile Learning as “the point at which the mobile computing and E-learning are intercepted to produce a learning experience anytime, anywhere. According to him the mobile Learning includes the use of mobile phone, PDA... anything that allows the user to access to the course resources wherever he is.” “Mobile learning is an emerging paradigm in a state of intense development driven by the confluence of three technology flows, ambient computing power, communication and development environment for user’s intelligent interfaces.” Sharples(2002). “M-Learning is the acquisition of any knowledge and skills through the use of mobile technology at any time and place" Geddes (2009). Mobile Learning constitutes the use of "mobile technology" at the service of associated processes with the teaching and the learning. It provides modern methods to support the learning process by using mobile instruments, such as laptops and computer tablets, MP3 players, smart phones and mobile phones and it is becoming one of the solutions to the problems facing the education sector. M-learning takes on a special meaning what has been called "open learning methodology" or "flexible learning". This learning methodology places particular emphasis on the active role and responsibility of the student. In this sense, the construction of knowledge and skills development is personal responsibility. Based on this view, are especially important theories of constructivist learning, collaborative learning, situated learning and connective.
  • 6. 6 When we talk about mobile devices, the most important device is the smart phone by their size and their services. Mobile services have special characteristics that can be summarized in the following points: Accessibility. There aren’t limitations in time or space to use the services. Convenience. Services (phone, calendar ...) are packaged and they make the operations where and when we want and when you can. Immediacy. There aren’t delays between the impulse and the act. Location. Being the person located in a geographical location all times, the mobile operators can carry out a geographical and spatial segmentation services and content. Personalization. Terminal and services are adaptable to the needs and preferences of the users. Ubiquity. Enable communication from anywhere and anytime. After explaining the M-Learning we will approach it in two specific areas: At school and adult education. 3. Advantages and disadvantages of M-Learning 3.1. Advantages M-Learning is the most current version of distance education, and it has countless benefits in their favour. Some characteristics of ML are: Learning anytime & anywhere: You don’t need be in a particular place or learning a given time. The mobile device can be used anywhere and anytime. A mobile device is cheaper than a pc. More people have a mobile device than a pc. More freedom and flexibility of learning because we have the mobile phone available the 24 hours of the day.
  • 7. 7 Greater autonomy. You can customize the mobile device easier than a computer. All online activities training space (thousands) are available for mobile devices. Their size allows the mobility with the user. The use of ML increases the user’s motivation. The use of headphones, which is more absorbent than a book. Instant access to data and warnings. Users have quickly access to messages, emails, reminders and news generated in real time. Easy navigation and adaptation of content considering the navigability, the processor and the speed connection of these devices. Mobile devices allow instant interaction between student and teacher. We have at our disposal support games to the formation process. The variety of mobile games, promotes the creativity and the collaboration. "Just in time, just for me". What the student wants, when the student wants. 3.2. Disadvantages Mobile devices have problems associated with the usability because they have small screens; in general, we can say that this is the major disadvantage of mobile devices; particularly in some phones is hard to read a text medium, because the amount of visible information is limited and makes the reader have to be moving through the text to read it. This disadvantage makes the navigation is limited. Additionally, some mobile phones tend to be too compact, a problem when interacting with them. Another problem that offers the small screen is the difficulty of typing on it. Another problem is the price, which is a disadvantage that can’t be ignored. In addition, technology changes very quickly, the devices have to be updated frequently. But as we said before, mobile devices are cheaper than computers. Also the price of the books is very high (in
  • 8. 8 Spain a book of school can cost about 40 €). With mobile devices we don’t need buy books. I think that it isn’t a disadvantage. Batteries generally last in intensive use from 2 to 4 hours. This is a problem because we don’t speak about a totally mobile device because we need to rely on a plug to charge the battery. 4. The use of M-learning in school and in the adult education Although ML has different applications in adults and children also it has some uses in common as: To find information on the Internet; consultation of multimedia materials: video, animation, audio; consultation of digital dictionaries and encyclopaedias; podcast; material production; to read digital books; to listen audio books; to take notes, audio, video; to make photos, videos; file sharing and interaction in social networks; access to the online platform where information is housed; booster pills, exercises, activities; Educational Apps for curriculum knowledge; to send additional information of the subject; to record the teacher's explanations; to record an experiment; documents edition; create a library of sounds or images. These are some of the applications of M-Learning in the classroom (adults and children). As we can see, nowadays, the ML and EL is a supplement in the classroom, but what, they are trying is to become a major element in education. 4.1. ML in adult education Adult education has converged with the concept of lifelong education with the meaning that all educational processes are understood as being carried out within the context of lifelong learning or adult education.
  • 9. 9 The concept of lifelong education was expanded through the addition of the specification "for all". Lifelong education is for all. The concept of adult education includes: - The idea of education as a permanent process converging with lifelong education. - The emphasis on the social, economical and cultural development of the person. - The need for increasing inclusion and participation of disadvantaged groups through the education for all. The key features of using mobile technology for learning are its personalization capability and extended reach. This has attracted more and more learners, especially adult learners, for whom the work-life balance is critical. Combined with good planning, mobile thecnologies can encourage creativity and innovation by both learners and teacher. The idea of having learning separated by an extended period of time from when a person actually attempts to use the learning has to be challenged. Nowadays adult education doesn't seem to be embracing m-learning as a way of improving their student's online experience. It's important take a systems view of all the elements that need to be in place in a mobile learning environment, such as: the communication infrastructure, the mobile devices, learners and techers. Each of these elements is essential to ensure the effective adoption of mobile technologies in higher education. The M-Learning focuses on adult education can be the future, not too far, in order to don’t have to attend class. Nowadays we already have enough online resources to study without any problem anywhere, thanks to mobile devices. We have named some applications previously.
  • 10. 10 4.2. ML in schools. Mobile learning technologies offer teachers and students a more flexible approach to learning. In 2001, Marc Prensky warned us, "Our students have changed radically. Today's students are no longer the people our educational system was designed to teach." He went on to describe how these "digital natives" are being exposed to more gadgets and technology than was ever thought possible. This is having a profound effect on the ways in which children learn. They are more engaged in learning when using the latest technological gadgets, because it is what they are most used to interacting with. Our students don't just want mobile learning, they need it. A recent study funded by the Department of Education, looked at the link between learning, and the PBS Kids educational gaming app, Martha Speaks Dog Party. The study found that after children had used the app every every day for two weeks, the vocabulary of Title 1 children between three and seven years old improved by as much as 31 percent. Studies like these help underline the academic potential that mobile learning devices can have to enrich the learning process for students. They are versatile, motivating, and active learning tools. Students are more engaged and motivated to learn when they use mobile devices, and research shows that academic performances can improve. We as educators need to take note of this, and look for safe, productive ways to integrate mobile learning devices into our curriculums. Mobile learning makes it possible to extend education beyond the physical confines of the classroom and beyond the fixed time periods of the school day. It allows students to access content from home, communicate with teachers, and work with other people online. The value of mobile devices is that they allow students to connect, communicate, collaborate and create using rich digital resources.
  • 11. 11 5. Conclusion The Mobile learning can generate a radical change in the educational process, learning through mobile devices will generate new approaches to pedagogical concepts, not just about knowing how to teach a subject or do understand it, but to live with technology as a tool for daily labors, promoting the research and the independent learning in students. mobile learning may well be understood as a new way of personal learning that never ends, a new technological-pedagogical model that points to a new dimension in education process. 6. Webgraphy - http://www.iseamcc.net/eISEA/Vigilancia_tecnologica/informe_4.pdf - http://www.cfp.us.es/e-learning-definicion-y-caracteristicas - http://www.e-abclearning.com/definicione-learning - http://carolinaizarra.wordpress.com/81-2/ - http://www.unesco.org/new/es/unesco/themes/icts/m4ed/ - http://www.uam.es/proyectosinv/idlla/docs/01-04.pdf - http://serviciosgate.upm.es/docs/asesoramiento/guia_implementacion_m ovil.pdf - http://www.escuela20.com/nativos-digitales-inmigrantes-digitales- prensky/articulos-y-actualidad/10-maneras-en-las-que-el-aprendizaje- movil-revolucionara-la-educacion_2574_42_4069_0_1_in.html - http://www.edutopia.org/pdfs/guides/edutopia-guia-aprendizaje- dispositivos-mobiles-espanol.pdf
  • 12. 12 - http://edutec.rediris.es/Revelec2/Revelec45/pdf/Edutec-e_n45-Madrid- Maryorga-Nunez.pdf - http://www.escuela20.com/mleaerning-tecnologia-educativa/articulos-y- actualidad/5-ventajas-y-5-desventajas-del- mlearning_3175_42_4680_0_10_in.html - http://www.mymobile-project.eu/IMG/pdf/Handbook_Lessons- Recommendations.pdf - http://es.scribd.com/doc/93370531/Mobile-Learning-in-Adult-Education - http://www.brookings.edu/research/papers/2013/09/17-mobile-learning- education-engaging-students-west - http://www.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=3754742