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v1.1        More from the Less of Design         Game and Level Design with the 80 / 20 Principle                  IVAN BE...
COMMENTARY: the original talk was given at Free Play(Melbourne, 2007) where I was invited to talk on design. Itwas based o...
TALK OVERVIEW                                       100%     This talk should cover:     ➔ An overview of the theory behin...
TALK OVERVIEW                                       100%     This talk should cover:     ➔ An overview of the theory behin...
THE MODULAR NATURE OF GAMESSimply put:➔All   games are comprised of smallercomponents: levels➔ Levels are comprised of eve...
THE MODULAR NATURE OF GAMESSimply put:➔All   games are comprised of smallercomponents: levels➔ Levels are comprised of eve...
THE MODULAR NATURE OF GAMESSimply put:➔All   games are comprised of smaller   Commentary: Players want more from their pla...
THE LOPSIDED SUCCESS OF GAMESSuccessful developers understand:➔Thatdue to technology and budget (time &money) constraints,...
THE LOPSIDED SUCCESS OF GAMESSuccessful developers understand:➔Thatdue to technology and budget (time &money) constraints,...
THE LOPSIDED SUCCESS OF GAMESSuccessful developers understand:➔Thatdue to technology and budget (time &        Commentary:...
THE 80/20 PRINCIPLEAlso known by:➔The Pareto Law,➔   Principle of Least Effort,➔   Principle of Imbalance,                ...
THE 80/20 PRINCIPLEAlso known by:➔The Pareto Law,➔   Principle of Least Effort,➔   Principle of Imbalance,                ...
THE 80/20 PRINCIPLEStates the following:➔That  80% of the end-result isderived from just 20% of thecontributing effort.➔ W...
THE 80/20 PRINCIPLEStates the following:➔That  80% of the end-result isderived from just 20% of thecontributing effort.➔ W...
THE 80/20 PRINCIPLE... HISTORICALLY
THE 80/20 PRINCIPLE... HISTORICALLY Utilised at the heart of many industries, such asthe automobile industry –  first by t...
THE 80/20 PRINCIPLE... HISTORICALLY
THE 80/20 PRINCIPLE... HISTORICALLY  Also the driving force   behind the increasing rate of performance andquality of comp...
THE 80/20 PRINCIPLE... HISTORICALLYIt doesnt just apply to the effective  aspects, but to the ineffective aswell – 80% of ...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS                     Ive utilised a CS                    hostage map of mine              ...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS                        Ive utilised a CS                       hostage map of mine        ...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELSIn the level example 80/20 was utilised:➔In its initial planning phase, resulting in a well...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELSIn the level example 80/20 was utilised:➔In its initial planning phase, resulting in a well...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS                     Modular                  “lego-block”                  building set   ...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS      Commentary: It is much easier to finish      something than it is to start it. By    ...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS                     It creates many                    varied play spaces                 ...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS                     Another example of                     this at work. Also             ...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS                     Interiors utilised                    the same elements in            ...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS                     But in some cases                    more unique mixes or             ...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS                     Including unique                     structures like                  ...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS                          Including unique                          structures like        ...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS                                   Including unique                                   struc...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS                        Elements like                    additional scripting              ...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS                        Elements like                    additional scripting              ...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELSYou could also  use a fixed  machinegunfrom the tower   as well.
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELSYou could also  use a fixed  machinegunfrom the tower   as well.However, these were     exe...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELSA switch within   the tower,  controlled asecurity gate...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS                       This gate, was                        the only way                  ...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS                       This gate, was                        the only way                  ...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS                         This gate, was                          the only way              ...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS                      Other scripting,                       added ways into               ...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS                       Another way in,                      were via tunnels.              ...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS                       Another way in,                      were via tunnels.              ...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS                        Another way in,                       were via tunnels.            ...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS                    The whole map, was                    scripted to support              ...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Pick-ups, as found   in singleplayer  levels, were also   added. They were   low-end weapo...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Used in the map, my prototype was   utilised todefine the shape, size and look of   the mo...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Used in the map, my prototype was   utilised todefine the shape, size and look of   the mo...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Atmospheric elements like time-of-day, time-of-year, weatherin way of environmental sound,...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Atmospheric elements like time-of-day, time-of-year, weatherin way of environmental sound,...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS  Most CS maps at the time, failed to utilise atmospheric          ambient sound in their l...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS This map, had the  tension buildingrumbling thunder andchirping crickets of   a summer sto...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Inside areas had differing    sounds for differentthematic impact, such as thewhine of gen...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS   Its easy to forget how much sound adds to theexperience, even if the bare minimum, when ...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS                 Made use of a black-ops                  “bio-weapons research            ...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELSCommentary: As the playerprogresses through the game, heencounters the same mission-       ...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS                      Most maps at the                       time – and most               ...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELSThe map is a large      Most maps at the non-linear space,       time – and most     with m...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS                       You can play                        around the                      ...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS                      You can play                      on top of the                      ...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS                       You can play                        underneath                      ...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS                       You can play                         through                       b...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS              Pacing (linearity / nonlinearity)              can also drastically change th...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS                   Pacing (linearity / nonlinearity)                   can also drastically...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS However, it was     Pacing (linearity / nonlinearity)also the source of   can also drastic...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS                   Half-Life engine at                  that time, was 5 years             ...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS      Limited faces, apredetermine limit, not a  realistic limit but anoutdated one. Result...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS               The level was never meant to be a               final release, just an examp...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELSSummarising some key points:➔The building-set was designed to be as genericand modular as p...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELSSummarising some key points:➔There was a stronger than usual scenario andtheme present in t...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Summarising some key points: ➔There was a stronger than usual scenario and theme present i...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS        Same level, better textures,            better results...?!
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELSSummarising some key points:➔ Though I have aptitude, I am not an artist.Creating new art a...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELSSummarising some key points:➔ Though I have aptitude, I am not an artist.Creating new art a...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELSAreas that could have been better from the start:➔Should   have realised that at least sour...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELSAreas that could have been better from the start:➔Should   have realised that at least sour...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELSAreas that could have been better from the start:➔Should   have realised that at least sour...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELSAreas that could have been better from the start:➔Should   have realised that at least sour...
NOW APPLIED TO GAMES...Common traps, mixing up needs with wants:➔ Mistaking a scenario, however good, as areplacement for ...
NOW APPLIED TO GAMES...Common traps, mixing up needs with wants:➔ Mistaking a scenario, however good, as areplacement for ...
NOW APPLIED TO GAMES...
NOW APPLIED TO GAMES...Fantastic raw technology.
NOW APPLIED TO GAMES...Fantastic raw technology.                Great visual                              effects =       ...
NOW APPLIED TO GAMES...Fantastic raw technology.                Great visual                              effects =       ...
NOW APPLIED TO GAMES...Fantastic raw technology.                 Great visual                               effects =     ...
NOW APPLIED TO GAMES...
NOW APPLIED TO GAMES...  Modelling ofmissing back-end game mechanics  like: soft /   hard cover.
NOW APPLIED TO GAMES...  Modelling ofmissing back-end game mechanics  like: soft /   hard cover.Modelling of the  importan...
NOW APPLIED TO GAMES...  Modelling of                             Now we aremissing back-end                              ...
NOW APPLIED TO GAMES...  Modelling of                             Now we aremissing back-end                              ...
NOW APPLIED TO GAMES... demos    Commentary: Playable prototype / gameplay     are another expression and effective use of...
NOW APPLIED TO GAMES...In the arena of the professionals:➔  More methodologies and practices that eitherutilise this princ...
NOW APPLIED TO GAMES...In the arena of the professionals:➔  More methodologies and practices that eitherutilise this princ...
NOW APPLIED TO GAMES...
NOW APPLIED TO GAMES...   It is important to remember, that 20% ofthe features in way of  available tools, or  tools / fea...
NOW APPLIED TO GAMES...                         Tools allow designers to simply                         and quickly create...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED POORLYThere are cases where less is less and more iseven more of less. So, here are some examplesto ...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED POORLY
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED POORLY                 Having both a real-time and turn-                 based option to play the ga...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED POORLY
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED POORLYCommentary: Creating unique non-generic objects that are highlyrecognisable and complex struct...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED POORLY
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED POORLY   Causing players toexhaust time and effortin reaching interesting     and attractivelocation...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED POORLY
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED POORLYPart of the Fallout experienceup until Fallout Tactics, werethe “Random Encounters.” These wer...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED POORLYPart of the Fallout experienceup until Fallout Tactics, werethe “Random Encounters.” These wer...
THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED POORLYPart of the Fallout experienceup until Fallout Tactics, werethe “Random Encounters.” These wer...
IMPORTANT TO REMEMBERYou may be thinking that this is perhaps a “lazy”approach to design. It is not:➔ Important to realise...
IMPORTANT TO REMEMBERYou may be thinking that this is perhaps a “lazy”approach to design. It is not:➔ Important to realise...
IMPORTANT TO REMEMBERYou may be thinking that point clear, you will find     Commentary: to make a this is perhaps a “lazy...
IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER
IMPORTANT TO REMEMBERCommentary: You could say in Fallout Tactics, that this “building-set”concept was taken to the extrem...
IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER
IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER               When the more the level              assets / art is modular.              Then the ea...
IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER                                When the more the level   Commentary: In contrast to the generic buil...
IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER
IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER              The use of prefabricated               structures and objects,             allows us to...
IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER              The use of prefabricated               structures and objects,             allows us to...
IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER
IMPORTANT TO REMEMBERThese bunkers, are all created  from a range of individual   generic tiles built up in    layers. The...
IMPORTANT TO REMEMBERThese bunkers, are all created  from a range of individual   generic tiles built up in    layers. The...
Fallout Tactics MP LevelFINAL EXAMPLE...              - The Junkyard
Fallout Tactics MP LevelFINAL EXAMPLE...                  - The Junkyard                      Prefab “cargo”              ...
A limited range of       Fallout Tactics MP Level                                     - The Junkyard  objects used in  var...
A limited range of        Fallout Tactics MP Level                                      - The Junkyard  objects used in  v...
A limited range of           Fallout Tactics MP Level                                         - The Junkyard  objects used...
AN 80/20 CONCLUSION...By understanding and using the 80/20 principleyou will find that:➔  It is the 20% minority of a leve...
Apply this principlesuccessfully, with alittle know how. And  one day you might   make the next...
Apply this principlesuccessfully, with alittle know how. And  one day you might   make the next...                        ...
Apply this principlesuccessfully, with alittle know how. And  one day you might   make the Commentary: Always focus on the...
TO LEARN MORE OF 80/20 TRY...➔Book:   The 80/20 Principle, Richard Koch.       Richard has a few books devoted to the     ...
TO LEARN MORE OF 80/20 TRY...➔Book:   The 80/20 Principle, Richard Koch.       Richard has a few books devoted to the     ...
More From Less -- Ivan Beram
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More From Less -- Ivan Beram

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More From the Less of Design. Game and Level Design with the 80/20 Principle - by Ivan Beram. The updated and extended presentation delves into the use of this principle, or an expression of it, within the context of game development in way of game and level design; using the author\'s experiences working in the industry, with examples taken from his own CS map and also from credited titles: Far Cry and Fallout Tactics.

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  1. 1. v1.1 More from the Less of Design Game and Level Design with the 80 / 20 Principle IVAN BERAM – GAME & LEVEL DESIGNER ● FALLOUT TACTICS (MICRO FORTÉ) ● FAR CRY (CRYTEK)sELFiNDUCEDcOMA.com
  2. 2. COMMENTARY: the original talk was given at Free Play(Melbourne, 2007) where I was invited to talk on design. Itwas based on a design feature published in Developmagazine (2003). A bit ironically, it in itself was based on atalk I was invited to give on design at the GDC (San Jose,2002) but due to circumstances, I was unable to give.Knowing how useless most talk slides are without theprepared speech – a series of simple points, or a series ofimages, bordering on meaningless. Ive rewritten mine inmore detail allowing someone to read the slides and have abetter idea of what I actually meant by them. Especially ifthey didnt attend the talk, hopefully providing clarity.These slides have also been updated and expanded for thisweb version. Enjoy!
  3. 3. TALK OVERVIEW 100% This talk should cover: ➔ An overview of the theory behind the underlying principle discussed. ➔ The principle applied to level design – with an example level. ➔ The principle applied to game development. ➔ The principle applied poorly. 20% 0%0% 80% 100%
  4. 4. TALK OVERVIEW 100% This talk should cover: ➔ An overview of the theory behind the underlying principle discussed. ➔ The principle applied to level design – with an example level. ➔ The principle applied to game development. ➔ The principle applied poorly. 20% With the odd digression. 0%0% 80% 100%
  5. 5. THE MODULAR NATURE OF GAMESSimply put:➔All games are comprised of smallercomponents: levels➔ Levels are comprised of even smallercomponents: game mechanics➔ Mechanics are comprised of even smallercomponents yet: game objects.
  6. 6. THE MODULAR NATURE OF GAMESSimply put:➔All games are comprised of smallercomponents: levels➔ Levels are comprised of even smallercomponents: game mechanics➔ Mechanics are comprised of even smallercomponents yet: game objects.From this base of largely generic (andmodular) components, we create complexity andvariation in the players gaming experience.
  7. 7. THE MODULAR NATURE OF GAMESSimply put:➔All games are comprised of smaller Commentary: Players want more from their playingcomponents: levels tired of being confronted with experiences, they grow the same graphics and gameplay of old. They want➔ Levels are comprised of even smaller more variation and depth in their playing experience;components: game mechanics they want every inch of the game world to be new, exciting and entertaining. And even though budgets do➔ Mechanics are comprised of even smaller increase in order to meet such demands, it nevercomponents yet: game objects. Focusing on the seems quite enough if not inadequate. key 20% helps us in meeting their expectations, with our limited less, in way of budget and resources.From this base of largely generic (andmodular) components, we create complexity andvariation in the players gaming experience.
  8. 8. THE LOPSIDED SUCCESS OF GAMESSuccessful developers understand:➔Thatdue to technology and budget (time &money) constraints, that this is a necessity.➔ They use this constraint so as to focus onwhat will give them the most returns for effort.➔ But they have done so, either intentionallyor not, by utilising an underlying principle.
  9. 9. THE LOPSIDED SUCCESS OF GAMESSuccessful developers understand:➔Thatdue to technology and budget (time &money) constraints, that this is a necessity.➔ They use this constraint so as to focus onwhat will give them the most returns for effort.➔ But they have done so, either intentionallyor not, by utilising an underlying principle.This is not a new astounding discovery, theunderlying principle has been known andutilised in a diverse range of industries.
  10. 10. THE LOPSIDED SUCCESS OF GAMESSuccessful developers understand:➔Thatdue to technology and budget (time & Commentary: If we look at successfulmoney) constraints, ascertain that a necessity. titles, we may that this is they have better utilised their fixed budgets for➔ They use this constraint so as to focus on developing components that enabledwhat will them to create more with their less – effort. give them the most returns for creating more diversity and complexity.➔ But they have done so, eithercreated Those less successful, have intentionallyor not, by utilising complex and less modular fewer more an underlying principle. components – less creating less.This is not a new astounding discovery, theunderlying principle has been known andutilised in a diverse range of industries.
  11. 11. THE 80/20 PRINCIPLEAlso known by:➔The Pareto Law,➔ Principle of Least Effort,➔ Principle of Imbalance, EFFORT RESULTS➔ Less is More,➔ The Iceberg Effect,➔ Function before Form➔ KISS (Keep-It-Simple-Stupid)And the list goes on...
  12. 12. THE 80/20 PRINCIPLEAlso known by:➔The Pareto Law,➔ Principle of Least Effort,➔ Principle of Imbalance, EFFORT RESULTS➔ Less is More,➔ The Iceberg Effect, These are all differing➔ Function before Form expressions, of the same➔ KISS (Keep-It-Simple-Stupid) principle atAnd the list goes on... work.
  13. 13. THE 80/20 PRINCIPLEStates the following:➔That 80% of the end-result isderived from just 20% of thecontributing effort.➔ While the majority of effort, EFFORT RESULTSwill only contribute a minority tothe end results – the flip-side.➔ It is not a static ratio but canbe found as: 90/5, 60/30, etc.The lopsidedness, is alwaysthe same, rarely 50/50
  14. 14. THE 80/20 PRINCIPLEStates the following:➔That 80% of the end-result isderived from just 20% of thecontributing effort.➔ While the majority of effort, EFFORT RESULTSwill only contribute a minority tothe end results – the flip-side. It does not just apply to the➔ It is not a static ratio but can effectivebe found as: 90/5, 60/30, etc. aspects, but also to theThe lopsidedness, is always ineffective.the same, rarely 50/50
  15. 15. THE 80/20 PRINCIPLE... HISTORICALLY
  16. 16. THE 80/20 PRINCIPLE... HISTORICALLY Utilised at the heart of many industries, such asthe automobile industry – first by the Japanese, then later in the west.
  17. 17. THE 80/20 PRINCIPLE... HISTORICALLY
  18. 18. THE 80/20 PRINCIPLE... HISTORICALLY Also the driving force behind the increasing rate of performance andquality of computer chipsin achieving moores law.
  19. 19. THE 80/20 PRINCIPLE... HISTORICALLYIt doesnt just apply to the effective aspects, but to the ineffective aswell – 80% of bugs (symptoms) are caused by 20% of the code; 80%of poor gameplay stems from 20% (of the deficiencies) of the game. Also the driving force behind the increasing rate of performance andquality of computer chipsin achieving moores law.
  20. 20. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
  21. 21. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Ive utilised a CS hostage map of mine called: Biohazard. With pics showing both old and newer texturing.
  22. 22. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Ive utilised a CS hostage map of mine called: Biohazard. With pics showing both old and newer texturing. Though the map is multiplayer focused, there are many singleplayer elements in place. This was intentional, in that I wanted to demonstrate competency not just in multiplayer 3D level design, but also, in the often more complex singleplayer 3D level design and scripting. In this case heavily scripted with a popular (at the time) multiplayer bot, with over 700 scirpted waypoints.
  23. 23. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELSIn the level example 80/20 was utilised:➔In its initial planning phase, resulting in a welldefined high-level concept to be achieved, withclear goals and methods.➔Resulting in utilising a modular (less from more)design approach in creating a flexible building set.➔This allowed for rapid prototyping, testing andproduction of the base level itself – and gameplayfrom very early on.
  24. 24. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELSIn the level example 80/20 was utilised:➔In its initial planning phase, resulting in a welldefined high-level concept to be achieved, withclear goals and methods.➔Resulting in utilising a modular (less from more)design approach in creating a flexible building set.➔This allowed for rapid prototyping, testing andproduction of the base level itself – and gameplayfrom very early on.Key to use: focus on the 20% that will get you 80% of the end result. Be results focused.
  25. 25. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
  26. 26. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Modular “lego-block” building set with optional objects (80%)
  27. 27. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Commentary: It is much easier to finish something than it is to start it. By rapidly filling in the blank canvas (level) with these generic building components, we now only need finish (polish) it. Applying the 20% of effort Modular that will attain 80% of the end result, “lego-block” and a unique level and playing experience. Sometimes building set limitations, provide advantages as with optional well. objects (80%)
  28. 28. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
  29. 29. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS It creates many varied play spaces and interesting nooks – some with a “sandbox” quality.
  30. 30. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
  31. 31. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Another example of this at work. Also shows some of the elements with a “snap-on” nature – like walkways.
  32. 32. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
  33. 33. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Interiors utilised the same elements in differing mixes.
  34. 34. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
  35. 35. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS But in some cases more unique mixes or elements were added.
  36. 36. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
  37. 37. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Including unique structures like this tower.
  38. 38. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Including unique structures like this tower.This is a key aspect to 80/20 design. As it is this 20% that is the differentiator and quality adder
  39. 39. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Including unique structures like this tower. This tower, like much of the existing internal objects. Were actually downloaded prefabs which were heavily modified toThis is a key aspect to better fit my purposes, as well as, 80/20 design. As it is limit poly count. Prefabs saved this 20% that is the creation time, even if, a great deal differentiator and was built from scratch. quality adder
  40. 40. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
  41. 41. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Elements like additional scripting more commonly found in singleplayer: gives 80/20.
  42. 42. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Elements like additional scripting more commonly found in singleplayer: gives 80/20. In this case, mines that could be detonated from the tower...
  43. 43. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
  44. 44. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELSYou could also use a fixed machinegunfrom the tower as well.
  45. 45. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELSYou could also use a fixed machinegunfrom the tower as well.However, these were exercises in scripting; as CS itself would not count any frags from these towardsa players score...
  46. 46. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
  47. 47. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELSA switch within the tower, controlled asecurity gate...
  48. 48. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
  49. 49. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS This gate, was the only way to get the hostages out without a hitch.
  50. 50. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS This gate, was the only way to get the hostages out without a hitch.
  51. 51. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS This gate, was the only way to get the hostages out without a hitch.However, it was not the only way into thehostage area...
  52. 52. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
  53. 53. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Other scripting, added ways into the facility, such as blowing an entry hole in the outer fence...
  54. 54. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
  55. 55. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Another way in, were via tunnels. Claustrophobic, and offering little cover from attack.
  56. 56. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Another way in, were via tunnels. Claustrophobic, and offering little cover from attack.
  57. 57. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Another way in, were via tunnels. Claustrophobic, and offering little cover from attack. They were alsomined, and needed night-vision to traverse...
  58. 58. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
  59. 59. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS The whole map, was scripted to support play by bot (AI) players...
  60. 60. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
  61. 61. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Pick-ups, as found in singleplayer levels, were also added. They were low-end weapons, like a bolt-action rifle; but, they could provide a player only armedwith a pistol, withan edge early on in the match of games to be played.
  62. 62. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
  63. 63. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Used in the map, my prototype was utilised todefine the shape, size and look of the modular buildings withinthe entire level.
  64. 64. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Used in the map, my prototype was utilised todefine the shape, size and look of the modular buildings withinthe entire level. Design was planned out to begin with, creating a high-level concept and a methodology of production – modular building design allowing for rapid prototyping and construction of base level.
  65. 65. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
  66. 66. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Atmospheric elements like time-of-day, time-of-year, weatherin way of environmental sound, lighting and effects. Can create two very different levels with drastically different gameplay, even if you do not change anything else.
  67. 67. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Atmospheric elements like time-of-day, time-of-year, weatherin way of environmental sound, lighting and effects. Can create two very different levels with drastically different gameplay, even if you do not change anything else. In this case, this darkened room, drastically alters the tone of gameplay to the same room if it were lit – a small change can make a big difference (80/20).
  68. 68. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
  69. 69. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Most CS maps at the time, failed to utilise atmospheric ambient sound in their levels. At all.
  70. 70. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS This map, had the tension buildingrumbling thunder andchirping crickets of a summer storm.Along with the storm skybox, it created the feeling of impending feverish ferocity. Most CS maps at the time, failed to utilise atmospheric ambient sound in their levels. At all.
  71. 71. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
  72. 72. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Inside areas had differing sounds for differentthematic impact, such as thewhine of generators, hum ofcomputers, or, the throbbingof viral fermentation vats.
  73. 73. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
  74. 74. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Its easy to forget how much sound adds to theexperience, even if the bare minimum, when we tend to focus on what we can see foremost...
  75. 75. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
  76. 76. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Made use of a black-ops “bio-weapons research gone awry” theme, with thematic hints, so as to add further differentiation to the playing experience from the status quo – as well as to act as a “scenario wrapper” for common mission mechanics.
  77. 77. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELSCommentary: As the playerprogresses through the game, heencounters the same mission- Made use of a black-opsmechanics (ambush, assault, “bio-weapons researchevade, locate, etc) in differing gone awry” theme, withmixes. They are differentiated via thematic hints, so as toa scenario-wrapper – supported add furthervia environments, entities and differentiation to thegame mechanics. A good playing experience fromscenario can be utilised in the status quo – as wellcreating a diverse and originalplaying experience for the player. as to act as a “scenarioIt is one of the areas that can wrapper” for commonimpact the most in creating mission mechanics.“diversity” (80/20).
  78. 78. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
  79. 79. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Most maps at the time – and most still for CS. Were a series of rooms linked by corridors, creating the illusion of a large space.
  80. 80. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELSThe map is a large Most maps at the non-linear space, time – and most with many still for CS.interesting paths. Were a series of rooms linked by corridors, creating the illusion of a large space.
  81. 81. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
  82. 82. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS You can play around the buildings...
  83. 83. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
  84. 84. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS You can play on top of the buildings...
  85. 85. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
  86. 86. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS You can play underneath buildings...
  87. 87. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
  88. 88. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS You can play through buildings...
  89. 89. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
  90. 90. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Pacing (linearity / nonlinearity) can also drastically change the gameplay of a level. Something also dependent on linearity, is the revisiting of locales from another perspective. For example, you see an upper walkway that you currently cannot reach. Later on you find yourself on this walkway, seeing where you have been. Twisting paths let you see areas from a new perspective, providing a renewed experience from the same space. Providing new tactical options and challenges.
  91. 91. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Pacing (linearity / nonlinearity) can also drastically change the gameplay of a level. Something also dependent on linearity, is the revisiting of locales from another perspective. For example, you see an upper walkway that you currently cannot reach. Later on you find yourself on this walkway, seeing where you have been.This approach to Twisting paths let you see areas design, let me from a new perspective, providingmaximise playing a renewed experience from thearea: more from same space. Providing new less (80/20). tactical options and challenges.
  92. 92. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS However, it was Pacing (linearity / nonlinearity)also the source of can also drastically change the my technical gameplay of a level. Somethingheadache. The old also dependent on linearity, is the engine, was not revisiting of locales from another perspective. For example, you designed for it see an upper walkway that you (80/20 at work). currently cannot reach. Later on you find yourself on this walkway, seeing where you have been.This approach to Twisting paths let you see areas design, let me from a new perspective, providingmaximise playing a renewed experience from thearea: more from same space. Providing new less (80/20). tactical options and challenges.
  93. 93. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
  94. 94. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Half-Life engine at that time, was 5 years old and based on the original Quake 2 engine. It was designed to run on much older hardware, and, did not make full use of current techs capabilities.
  95. 95. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
  96. 96. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Limited faces, apredetermine limit, not a realistic limit but anoutdated one. Resulted in the levels development being plagued by a weirdbrush-entity popping bug, where objects would disappear and reappear.
  97. 97. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
  98. 98. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS The level was never meant to be a final release, just an example of work. However, if I had kept these “limitations” in focus from the start – done more thorough research and testing. Done this part of the 80/20 equation, I would have achieved a better end result with less headaches.
  99. 99. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELSSummarising some key points:➔The building-set was designed to be as genericand modular as possible, with elements able to bemixed-matched to create something unique andcomplex from innately simple objects.➔ Few unique elements were created and added,but, these added the 20% that gives the 80% of theend result – at least in art.➔ Due to design goals, level had far more sandbox-esque scripting complexity (bots, triggers, items,etc), that would be more commonly found insingleplayer levels than a Counterstrike map.
  100. 100. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELSSummarising some key points:➔There was a stronger than usual scenario andtheme present in the level. This was intentional.
  101. 101. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Summarising some key points: ➔There was a stronger than usual scenario and theme present in the level. This was intentional. Levels are made up ofgeneric game / mission mechanics. It is thescenarios that we wraparound these that make the “difference” (80/20). Otherwise a level would be just more of the same that came before.
  102. 102. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS
  103. 103. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELS Same level, better textures, better results...?!
  104. 104. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELSSummarising some key points:➔ Though I have aptitude, I am not an artist.Creating new art assets like textures and modelswas a NO as far as I was concerned, however...
  105. 105. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELSSummarising some key points:➔ Though I have aptitude, I am not an artist.Creating new art assets like textures and modelswas a NO as far as I was concerned, however... Clearly good art can do wonders. Just make sure that you follow the principle of function before form: interactivity. In this case, the sculpture has a scenario function.
  106. 106. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELSAreas that could have been better from the start:➔Should have realised that at least sourcing art forthe level. Would have resulted in a better finish.
  107. 107. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELSAreas that could have been better from the start:➔Should have realised that at least sourcing art forthe level. Would have resulted in a better finish.Interface into the game world is a visual one, we are visual creatures.
  108. 108. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELSAreas that could have been better from the start:➔Should have realised that at least sourcing art forthe level. Would have resulted in a better finish.Interface into the game world is a visual one, we are visual creatures.➔Technology. If I had done this part of theplanning, done my research into how to achievemy goals (one large “room” with Half-Life engine!),I would not have wasted as much time fixing bugs.
  109. 109. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED TO LEVELSAreas that could have been better from the start:➔Should have realised that at least sourcing art forthe level. Would have resulted in a better finish.Interface into the game world is a visual one, we are visual creatures.➔Technology. If I had done this part of theplanning, done my research into how to achievemy goals (one large “room” with Half-Life engine!),I would not have wasted as much time fixing bugs. 80/20 at work, this time 80% of my headachescame from 20% of the bugs in pushing old tech.
  110. 110. NOW APPLIED TO GAMES...Common traps, mixing up needs with wants:➔ Mistaking a scenario, however good, as areplacement for gameplay – games are an activeentertainment, not a passive one.➔Mistaking art as a substitute for gameplay –function before form, so where is the interactivity?➔Mistaking technology for gameplay – sure itcreates great visuals, but again, where is theinteractivity, where is the functionality?
  111. 111. NOW APPLIED TO GAMES...Common traps, mixing up needs with wants:➔ Mistaking a scenario, however good, as areplacement for gameplay – games are an activeentertainment, not a passive one.➔Mistaking art as a substitute for gameplay –function before form, so where is the interactivity?➔Mistaking technology for gameplay – sure itcreates great visuals, but again, where is theinteractivity, where is the functionality? What these have in common, is that they have taken the 80% that was easy to create, andmistaken it for the 20% that matters the most.
  112. 112. NOW APPLIED TO GAMES...
  113. 113. NOW APPLIED TO GAMES...Fantastic raw technology.
  114. 114. NOW APPLIED TO GAMES...Fantastic raw technology. Great visual effects = great art.
  115. 115. NOW APPLIED TO GAMES...Fantastic raw technology. Great visual effects = great art. Traces of an interesting scenario.
  116. 116. NOW APPLIED TO GAMES...Fantastic raw technology. Great visual effects = great art. Traces of an interesting scenario. Where was the gameplay... ?!
  117. 117. NOW APPLIED TO GAMES...
  118. 118. NOW APPLIED TO GAMES... Modelling ofmissing back-end game mechanics like: soft / hard cover.
  119. 119. NOW APPLIED TO GAMES... Modelling ofmissing back-end game mechanics like: soft / hard cover.Modelling of the important and missing front- end behaviours to AI.
  120. 120. NOW APPLIED TO GAMES... Modelling of Now we aremissing back-end getting game mechanics somewhere: a like: soft / playable demo! hard cover.Modelling of the important and missing front- end behaviours to AI.
  121. 121. NOW APPLIED TO GAMES... Modelling of Now we aremissing back-end getting game mechanics somewhere: a like: soft / playable demo! hard cover.Modelling of the important and And it does not missing front- need to be 100%. end behaviours Just enough to to AI. achieve 80/20!
  122. 122. NOW APPLIED TO GAMES... demos Commentary: Playable prototype / gameplay are another expression and effective use of 80/20. They focus development so as to achieve your Modelling vision, sooner. It does so by focusing on the projects of Now we aremissing back-endorder to bring your vision to life and 20% needed in getting gamedemonstrate a viable concept. It may do so with mechanics somewhere: a like: soft / various elements missing or implied in place – not playable demo! complete robust systems, but quick and dirty solutions hard cover. to fill in the pieces. It is not meant to be the final result, just a template and validator for the rest of the game. Doing so earlier as a polished vertical-slice – in modern development nomenclature – will solidify theModelling of the / vision within everyones mind. games concept important and And it does not missing front-Cry didnt just focus on the 80% that 100%. However, Far need to be end everyone else had (indoor) but the 20%Just enough to behaviours that no one else AI. (outdoor and a compelling AI). achieve 80/20! to had You will have to do the same with your game.
  123. 123. NOW APPLIED TO GAMES...In the arena of the professionals:➔ More methodologies and practices that eitherutilise this principle or tend to have it at the veryheart of them, are becoming the norm: OOprogramming, analysis and design – Agile / XP.➔ Tools: today are becoming more object-orientedand “end-results-sooner” driven: WYSIWYG.
  124. 124. NOW APPLIED TO GAMES...In the arena of the professionals:➔ More methodologies and practices that eitherutilise this principle or tend to have it at the veryheart of them, are becoming the norm: OOprogramming, analysis and design – Agile / XP.➔ Tools: today are becoming more object-orientedand “end-results-sooner” driven: WYSIWYG. Tools themselves are a powerful expression and facilitators of the 80/20 principle, however...
  125. 125. NOW APPLIED TO GAMES...
  126. 126. NOW APPLIED TO GAMES... It is important to remember, that 20% ofthe features in way of available tools, or tools / features you will develop; will provide you with the 80% in way of productivity that you really needed.
  127. 127. NOW APPLIED TO GAMES... Tools allow designers to simply and quickly create content for your game. Tools that reduce the number of stages between asset It is important to creation and visualisation in-game, remember, that 20% of reduce the likelihood thatthe features in way of something can go wrong – available tools, or WYSIWYG (80/20). Both Fallout tools / features you Tactics and Far Cry had such will develop; will editors, allowing for playtesting of provide you with the levels from within the actual editor. 80% in way of productivity that you really needed.
  128. 128. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED POORLYThere are cases where less is less and more iseven more of less. So, here are some examplesto help you NOT use the 80/20 principle poorly.Or more importantly, not use it as an excuse todo less – believe me, most gamers will not befooled by such attempts at laziness ;).
  129. 129. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED POORLY
  130. 130. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED POORLY Having both a real-time and turn- based option to play the game as in Fallout Tactics. Each required compromises so the other could work, resulting in two modes but with neither achieving their full potential. Creating a diminished overall experience for the player, along with, an increase in production time due to balancing. Its generally a waste of development resources as well.
  131. 131. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED POORLY
  132. 132. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED POORLYCommentary: Creating unique non-generic objects that are highlyrecognisable and complex structures, and then using them all over theplace; the player will notice this repetition, even if you differentiate thesein some way – which depending on context, may be difficult to achieve. Itcan only work in a limited or “special case” context, like the premise for alevel and only for that level. An example of this taken to the extreme, isthe original Halo. Whole level sections (not just singular objects), terrain,objects, enemies and even scripting. Repeated over and over again tothe brink of repetitive canyon and valley, nauseating boredom.
  133. 133. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED POORLY
  134. 134. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED POORLY Causing players toexhaust time and effortin reaching interesting and attractivelocations, with nothing interesting to find,such as an obstacle toovercome or a reward tobe found; can leave the player feeling frustrated – function before form.
  135. 135. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED POORLY
  136. 136. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED POORLYPart of the Fallout experienceup until Fallout Tactics, werethe “Random Encounters.” These were mini-missions randomly generated as the player traversed the game map from one mission to the next.
  137. 137. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED POORLYPart of the Fallout experienceup until Fallout Tactics, werethe “Random Encounters.” These were mini-missions randomly generated as the player traversed the game map from one mission to the next. Though historically part of the RPG game, and we as the development studio were contracted to develop them. They added very little to the strategy (RTT / TBT) game beyond some “special” encounter novelty.
  138. 138. THE PRINCIPLE APPLIED POORLYPart of the Fallout experienceup until Fallout Tactics, werethe “Random Encounters.” These were In my opinion, they actually detracted from the overall mini-missions randomly generated the title by player quality of as the their generic gameplay traversed theWhich was ill-suited compared to the blandness. game map from specificity of the tactical squad gaming of the Fallout one Tactics missions the next.nothing beyond irritating mission to – achieving and frustrating the player more than necessary. The time and resources spent on these could have been part Though historically better utilised in polishingof the RPG of the game. we as other aspects game, and the development studio were contracted to develop them. They added very little to the strategy (RTT / TBT) game beyond some “special” encounter novelty.
  139. 139. IMPORTANT TO REMEMBERYou may be thinking that this is perhaps a “lazy”approach to design. It is not:➔ Important to realise that though this approach isnot a “lazy” one, it is however an economical one.➔Otherwise you will merely overwork yourself withtrying to create something far too perfect in everylittle minor detail – regardless of its “impact.”➔ You will also still need to do the other 80%,however, you should be able to do this far moresmartly:
  140. 140. IMPORTANT TO REMEMBERYou may be thinking that this is perhaps a “lazy”approach to design. It is not:➔ Important to realise that though this approach isnot a “lazy” one, it is however an economical one.➔Otherwise you will merely overwork yourself withtrying to create something far too perfect in everylittle minor detail – regardless of its “impact.”➔ You will also still need to do the other 80%,however, you should be able to do this far moresmartly: Th!nk: modular building-set = quick 80% majority. Th!nk: unique structures = 20% key minority.
  141. 141. IMPORTANT TO REMEMBERYou may be thinking that point clear, you will find Commentary: to make a this is perhaps a “lazy”approachnot all of the “80%” need be attempted. Some that to design. It is not: of it is crucial, as you do need such tech / features➔ Important to realise the core gameplay. However, – as they are part of that though this approach isnot a much is one, itthathowever an economical one. “lazy” just fat is can be trimmed in that it adds very little or nothing to the end-result to warrant the➔Otherwise you will merely overwork yourself with effort. But what you really must be vigil against, istrying that createof your level / mod /too perfect inthe to which will actually takefar game.diminish every end quality something away andlittle minor detail – regardless of its “impact.” Which you implement depends on what your (core➔ You will also still need whetherthe other it in gameplay) vision is and to do it supports 80%,however, you rich interactive experience.this far more creating a should be able to dosmartly: Th!nk: modular building-set = quick 80% majority. Th!nk: unique structures = 20% key minority.
  142. 142. IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER
  143. 143. IMPORTANT TO REMEMBERCommentary: You could say in Fallout Tactics, that this “building-set”concept was taken to the extreme due to the tile-based 2D engine andtools – even if 2D was also a limitation. Not only where the tiles verymodular in use, but the NPCs themselves were very versatile. You couldset their individual hair, skin, armour and clothing colours – along withwhat weapons and equipment they had, and, AI scripting. Allowinggreater depth in control in creating variation in experience for the player.
  144. 144. IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER
  145. 145. IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER When the more the level assets / art is modular. Then the easier it is to diversify and create something “original” and complex from the generic. It also has a tendency to become more functional in usage to a finer-grain – like this “tactical” gaming focused junkyard.
  146. 146. IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER When the more the level Commentary: In contrast to the generic building modular. assets / art is set, excessive objects that appear different but it is to Then the easier act exactly the same as another or others. and create diversify Leads to a lot of unnecessary clutter in design “original” and something and confusion in the player. Like two weapons with generic. complex from the differing models, sounds It also has yettendency to and animations, a have exactly the same stats – same gameplay. become more functional in Or, a race that is exactly the sameto another, usage as a finer-grain – just cosmetically different. Worse than“tactical” gaming like this this, are those that do nothing at all – a focused junkyard. tease. Something that demands investigation to see what it does, but, will never do anything interesting at all.
  147. 147. IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER
  148. 148. IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER The use of prefabricated structures and objects, allows us to quickly create a base structure – once we have our foundation, all that is left is to differentiate it to create something unique.
  149. 149. IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER The use of prefabricated structures and objects, allows us to quickly create a base structure – once we have our foundation, all that is left is to differentiate it to create something unique. Having a building set and tools, allow us to rapidly create complex and varied structures from a limited number of high quality (gameplay focused / tested) components.
  150. 150. IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER
  151. 151. IMPORTANT TO REMEMBERThese bunkers, are all created from a range of individual generic tiles built up in layers. These tiles were created for another purpose, but due to their flexible nature, I was able to createthese functional level assets.
  152. 152. IMPORTANT TO REMEMBERThese bunkers, are all created from a range of individual generic tiles built up in layers. These tiles were created for another purpose, but due to their flexible nature, I was able to createthese functional level assets. Created in varying orientations, these were then used as “prefabs” all over the entire St. Louis map and could be easily customised, so as to differentiate them further in appearance or for gameplay.
  153. 153. Fallout Tactics MP LevelFINAL EXAMPLE... - The Junkyard
  154. 154. Fallout Tactics MP LevelFINAL EXAMPLE... - The Junkyard Prefab “cargo” containers made up of multiple tiles. Easily customised with windows, doorways, hatches and ladders.
  155. 155. A limited range of Fallout Tactics MP Level - The Junkyard objects used in varied groups tocreate unique areasof play – some even help tell a story. Prefab “cargo” containers made up of multiple tiles. Easily customised with windows, doorways, hatches and ladders.
  156. 156. A limited range of Fallout Tactics MP Level - The Junkyard objects used in varied groups tocreate unique areasof play – some even help tell a story. Prefab “cargo” Unique structures containers made up used once off to of multiple tiles.create more distinct Easily customised areas of play. with windows, doorways, hatches and ladders.
  157. 157. A limited range of Fallout Tactics MP Level - The Junkyard objects used in varied groups to A unique complex levelcreate unique areas created from a limitedof play – some even range of simple objects help tell a story. – with effective tools. Prefab “cargo” Unique structures containers made up used once off to of multiple tiles.create more distinct Easily customised areas of play. with windows, doorways, hatches and ladders.
  158. 158. AN 80/20 CONCLUSION...By understanding and using the 80/20 principleyou will find that:➔ It is the 20% minority of a level that will benefitfrom your effort, and give the most results.➔ The same applies to a campaign of missions;20% will carry the rest which are merely more ofthe same – filler to put it bluntly.➔ 20% of a levels mission mechanics, comprisethe 80% of the derived player enjoyment.➔20% of a games mechanics / features, give riseto 80% of the games quality in gamingexperience.
  159. 159. Apply this principlesuccessfully, with alittle know how. And one day you might make the next...
  160. 160. Apply this principlesuccessfully, with alittle know how. And one day you might make the next... Just remember to focus on the 20% that will make you stand out from the rest!
  161. 161. Apply this principlesuccessfully, with alittle know how. And one day you might make the Commentary: Always focus on the 20% next... that will give you the 80% of end results, in whatever it is you are undertaking. In Just this manner, you cant go wrong. The end remember to result, the vision, is usually summarisedfocus on the in the form of a concept brief: executive 20% that summary, high-concept, vision statement, will make one-liner (or paragrapher). you stand out from the If you dont have one, why not... ? In fact I created one for my Counter-Strike map – rest! there was even one for this presentation in the form of an abstract.
  162. 162. TO LEARN MORE OF 80/20 TRY...➔Book: The 80/20 Principle, Richard Koch. Richard has a few books devoted to the 80/20 principle.➔Online: a search string of “80/20 rule” or “ParetoPrinciple” should bring up helpful pages. Try the same search on Wikipedia.org, to find links to the other principles listed at the start.
  163. 163. TO LEARN MORE OF 80/20 TRY...➔Book: The 80/20 Principle, Richard Koch. Richard has a few books devoted to the 80/20 principle.➔Online: a search string of “80/20 rule” or “ParetoPrinciple” should bring up helpful pages. Try the same search on Wikipedia.org, to find links to the other principles listed at the start.I hope youve come away with how toeffectively apply this underlying principleto your designs. Whether it be: levels, gamemods, indie games, and, commercial titles.And I hope it helps you as it has helped me!
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