History ProjectSEKOLAH BOGOR RAYA The Apartheid System By: Ardine, Ivana & Ribka
What is „Apartheid‟?• Derived from Afrikaans word for „Apartness‟ or „Separation‟.• The term came into usage in the 1940s.• Definition: A system of laws as well as social, economical and political policy of total racial segregation and discrimination of the non-white people.• It was enforced by National Party Government of South Africa in 1948.
History • South Africans were forced to get out of their land or were used as labor. • 19th century: Separation of 4 states (two ruled by British, two by Afrikaners). – Black people have no rights.• 1910: 4 states were joined, the Whites ruled these states. The Black people dont have parliamentary rights. • 1913: the Land Act is established. This act does not allow black people to buy land that are outside their reserves. • The National Party used the term "apartheid" as a part of
Apartheid System• South Africans were boxed into four categories, which are: – Bantu (black people). – White. – Colored (mixed race). – Asian (Indian/Pakistani). This was called the Population Registration Act (1950).
Laws that strengthenedApartheid in the 1950s 1. Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act (1949) 2. Population Registration Act (1950): Every person’s race recorded. 3. Group Areas Act (1950): people of specific races were to live in different residential and business regions. 4. Bantu Authorities Act (1951): denationalize Africans by giving them rights to have rights in "homelands" (African reserves) but stripping them off from South African citizenship. Africans in these lands must have passports to enter South Africa. 5. Prevention of Illegal Squatting (1951): Minister of Native Affairs have the right & power to move the Black to resettlement camps from public or privately-owned land. 6. Land Act (1954 & 1955): People who are not white cannot live in certain areas. 7. Abolition of Passes & Coordination of Documents Act (1952): Africans must carry a "pass-book" that contained their details and records any crime committed.
Laws that strengthened Apartheid in the 1950s• (cont.) Other laws: people between races cant interact with each other, public facilities and educational standards are separated, some races can only work in specific jobs, non-white people cannot participate in the government, non-white unions were limited.• 80% of South Africa was controlled by the whites when these laws were established.
Resettlement Camps • 3.5 million black South Africans were removed by the government from 1960-1983 – In 1960-1983, non-whites were removed in the enforcement of Group Areas Act – 860,000 people have to move, so communities can be divided racially• Black South Africans‟ district were destroyed by the government to built „White Area‟. During this, 18 people were killed and 230 were injured. • Many dispossessed land and homes, the „Black Spots‟
Resettlement Camps (cont.) • They were isolated into an overcrowded poor area called the „Resettlement Camps‟ in Bantustan (homeland), where there were no job prospects. Many lost their old jobs and not allowed to find replacement jobs. • The camps became a place for woman, children, elderly, and the sick. Basically everyone that‟s unnecessary for the white‟s economy. • This movement was initiated and benefited only the British. – Because they want no financial responsibility for the black people‟s welfare. – To take the Blacks‟ political right & citizenship of South Africa
Pro & Anti Apartheid Pro Icon: Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd • Born in Amsterdam, 8 September 1901 • Moved to South Africa in 1903 • A very smart & educated man • Did social work for Afrikaners --> became interested in politics • Strongly favored separation of races • Represented the National Party in 1950 – Involved in Education section --> limited Black academic curriculum. • 1958: Became Prime Minister – Under his rule, South Africa was not allowed to be a Commonwealth Member because of racial discrimination. – Called the Architect of Apartheid because he spread apartheid. • Laws established under Verwoerds rule: – 1958: Promotion of Black Self-Government Act --> Set up governments in "homeland" territories for Black people. – 1959: Bantu Investment Corporation Act --> transferring capital to the "homeland" territories so Black people can have jobs – 1959: Extension of University Education Act --> set up universities for Black, Colored & Indian people. – 1967: Physical Planning & Utilization of Resources Act -- > developing industries in "homeland" areas for speeding up relocation of Black people • Died on 9 April 1961 (shot twice)
His Quotes“There is no place for him [the African] in theEuropean community abovethe level of certain forms of labor. Within his own community, however, all doors are open. For thatreason it is to no avail for him to receive a training which has as its aimabsorption in the European community, where he cannot be absorbed.” -Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd
Pro & Anti Apartheid Anti Icon: Nelson Mandela• A leader of ANC (African National Council)• Always fight to stop the Apartheid system but never did any violence fight to stop it.• He was sentenced to life imprison for 27 years started in 1946 for treason and sabotage.• He still worked and taught when he was imprisoned and at this time his anti-apartheid message became popular.• Nelson Mandela was the representative of black people.• He is a leader and peacemaker in the battle against apartheid system.• Many people helped him when he fought for the apartheid system and finally he won the battle.• In 11th February 1990, Nelson Mandela has released from prison and he became president of South Africa.
His Quotes “Your tireless and heroic sacrifices have made it possible for me to be here ...I place the remaining years of my life in your hands”“For to be free is not merely to cast off ones chains, but to live in a way that respects and enhances the freedom of others.”"Today is a day like no other before it.“ – (when he casts his vote at the 1994 election).
The end of Apartheid • The apartheid system began to fall apart in the 1980s. • Factors causing the Black to realize that Apartheid have to end: – 2 million unemployed blacks – Decreasing white minority – Continued strong black resistance – Suffering economy because of international sanctions – The fall of communism in Eastern Europe in 1989, this had removed the bad dreams for African National Congress (ANC). As before Eastern Europe supported the anti-Black government’s oppressive policies.
The end of Apartheid (cont.) • Finally in February 1990, Nelson Mandela was released from prison and ANC was unbanned by De Klerk. They both worked together toward multiracial South Africa. Since then, the Apartheid system started to collapse. • The apartheid officially end in April 27, 1994 when the first democratic election was held in South Africa. The ANC won by a huge difference, Nelson Mandela became • the president. The Government of National Unity was formed. And so, the Apartheid was over.
References• Robinson, Alonford James. "Apartheid -- Africana." Available: http://www.africanaencyclopedia.com/aparthei d/apartheid.html. Last accessed 25 February 2012.• "The History of Apartheid in South Africa." Available: http://www-cs- students.stanford.edu/~cale/cs201/apartheid.hist.html. Last accessed 25 February 2012.• "Apartheid Origins". Available: http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/featu res/storyofafrica/12chapter6.shtml. Last accessed 25 February 2012.• Noguchi, Mai. "Apartheid". Available: http://www.english.emory.edu/Bahri/apart.htm l. Last accessed 25 February 2012.• Johnson, Bridget. “Apartheid”. Available: http://worldnews.about.com/od/ad/g/apartheid.htm. Last accessed 14 February 2012.• “The end of Apartheid.” Available: http://www.historywiz.com/end.htm. Last accessed 28 February, 2012.• Boddy-Evans, Alistair. “Apartheid FAQ: When Did Apartheid End?” Available: http://africanhistory.about.com/od/apartheidfaq/f/HowEn ded.htm . Last accessed 28 February, 2012.• Nelson Mandela [online] Available at <http://www.nelsonmandelas.com/apartheid.php> [Accessed 28 February 2012]• Forced Removals [online] Available at <http://overcomingapartheid.msu.edu/multimedia.php?id =5> [Accessed 1 March 2012]• A death in Parliament: Hendrik Verwoerd, 1966 [online] Rob Marsh [accessed 13 July 2009]• Encyclopedia of World Biography on Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd [online]. Thomson Gale [accessed 13 July 2009]