+Do Italian
startups live in
the city?
The role of
territorial contexts
in the new forms of
innovative
entrepreneurship
SA...
+
0. Agenda
1.  Theoretical framework
2.  The research questions
3.  Methodology
4.  Startups: first results
5.  Limitatio...
+
Why Startups should live in the city?
Theoretical background
Cities as places of innovation
n  Relational factors:
n  ...
+
The research questions
1.  What kind of capital (human, social, etc..) is mobilized by
those who are creating these comp...
+
Methodology
n  We created a map and invited startups to join.  440 startup joined by
May-June 2012 (at present they are...
+
Features of the Companies
n  Sectors:
n  apps.
n  consulting and business services
n  social media
n  Business oppo...
+
Results: Individual level (1)
n  Gender
n  Startuppers are men: 89%
n  11% are women
(in Italy female enterpreneurs
a...
+
Results: Individual level (2)
n  High human capital:
n  73% has a university degree
n  22% has a Master or PhD
n  27...
+
Results: Relations / internal
n  Families with high human capital
but no entrepreneurial tradition
(12% father, mother ...
+
Results: Relations / external
n  The reference system of the
respondents is "profane":
n  It is important to be
apprec...
+
Results: Relations / networks
n  Informal
exchanges:
n  information on
technology
n  information on
markets
n  infor...
+
Results: Relations / networks
Nodes Ties Density
formal 156 109 0.0045
informal 175 144 0.0047
Mean Median
formal 813 Km...
+
Results:The territorial dimension (1)
n  Fundamental criteria in the
choice of headquarters:
1.  Low cost
2.  Proximity...
+
Results: Regulation (1)
n  Law n.221/2012 (Decree Law Growth 2.0), Section IX
innovative startup: exemptions, tax break...
+
Results: Regulation (2)
Listed on the register of innovative companies:Who did it?
n  12.5% women vs 10.5% men did
n  ...
+
Conclusions
1.  What kind of capital (human, social, etc..) is mobilized by
those who are creating these companies? Main...
+
Limitations and next steps
n  Phenomenon in its nascent state, exploratory analysis à this
survey allows to build hypo...
+
@ivanapais
@ceciliamanzo
cecilia.manzo@unifi.it
ivana.pais@unicatt.it
Thanks!
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Do italian startups live in the city?

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Do italian startups live in the city?

  1. 1. +Do Italian startups live in the city? The role of territorial contexts in the new forms of innovative entrepreneurship SASE Conference, Milan June 27-29, 2013 Ivana Pais Università Cattolica, Milan Cecilia Manzo University of Florence
  2. 2. + 0. Agenda 1.  Theoretical framework 2.  The research questions 3.  Methodology 4.  Startups: first results 5.  Limitations and next steps 6.  Conclusions
  3. 3. + Why Startups should live in the city? Theoretical background Cities as places of innovation n  Relational factors: n  Formal and informal interactions among professionals that favour the diffusion and contamination of knowledge (Storper & Venables 2004, Asheim et al 2007) n  Dialogue and development:“conversations” that give birth to new ideas, innovation both radical and incremental (Lester & Piore 2004) n  Involuntary factors: Buzzing as non-intentional exchange of information and practices (Bathelt et al 2004, Asheim et al 2007) n  Infrastructural advantage: Material (transport) and immaterial (broadband) n  Links to Universities and Research institutions: n  Scientific entrepreneurship (spin-offs) n  Strategic guidance of research n  Human capital formation
  4. 4. + The research questions 1.  What kind of capital (human, social, etc..) is mobilized by those who are creating these companies? 2.  What is the role of the collaboration networks (formal and informal)? 3.  What is the role of the territorial context? 4.  What is the role of regulation?
  5. 5. + Methodology n  We created a map and invited startups to join.  440 startup joined by May-June 2012 (at present they are 603) n  All participants were given a questionnaire (CAWI method) and we gathered 305 responses (July-September 2012)
  6. 6. + Features of the Companies n  Sectors: n  apps. n  consulting and business services n  social media n  Business opportunity: n  new needs of the consumer / customer; n  new technology n  exploitation of undervalued resources n  Clients: n  48% individual consumers and families n  46% other companies n  4% public institutions n  2% no-profit n  Factors of competitiveness: n  innovation of products / services n  high quality n  process innovation
  7. 7. + Results: Individual level (1) n  Gender n  Startuppers are men: 89% n  11% are women (in Italy female enterpreneurs are 24%) n  Age n  More than half (52%) belings to the «post» generation (under 33) n  only 5% «boomers» (over 46)
  8. 8. + Results: Individual level (2) n  High human capital: n  73% has a university degree n  22% has a Master or PhD n  27% has attended courses for startuppers n  Motivations: n  To give shape to an idea (72%) n  To be autonomous (44%) n  To put themselves to test (40%) n  Other features of startuppers: n  78% has other activities n  freelance 31%, n  other startups 15%, employee 13% n  student 9%) n  Serial entrepreneurs: n  31% has already created other companies n  only 16% of the total bankrupt or closed
  9. 9. + Results: Relations / internal n  Families with high human capital but no entrepreneurial tradition (12% father, mother 4%) n  84% of respondents have at least an associate (on average, associates are 3), with personal characteristics similar to those of the respondents: these are mainly former colleagues or former classmates. n  The size of the company is very limited: n  it is not uncommon that the workforce of the company is constituted just by the shareholders (59%) n  on average, startups have 1 employee, 2 stable collaborators and 3 occasional collaborators. n  The channels of recruitment of employees and collaborators are very open: n  word of mouth in a professional environment (32%) n  online (13%) n  Relational skills are the most highly valued.Technical expertise was chosen by only 3% of respondents. n  The most important features to make the team working: n  shared vision n  passion n  trust
  10. 10. + Results: Relations / external n  The reference system of the respondents is "profane": n  It is important to be appreciated by the clients (47%), followed by employees (21%).The relationship with other entrepreneurs (12%) is higher than even the one with with shareholders (10%). n  Major problems: n  finding resources (financial, human, physical) n  development of the idea n  administrative procedures. n  Weak networks of financing: n  45% self-financed and looking for funding n  12% self-financed not looking for funding, n  9% venture capital and business angels, n  6% public funding, n  5% relatives n  4% banks n  2% friends n  1% crowdfunding n  Participation to firms’ associations: 21%
  11. 11. + Results: Relations / networks n  Informal exchanges: n  information on technology n  information on markets n  information on business management n  Formal exchanges: n  information on markets n  technology n  information on technology 0 2 4 6 8 10 consulting business service centers financial institutions associations public bodies universities, research centers clients suppliers competitors quality frequency
  12. 12. + Results: Relations / networks Nodes Ties Density formal 156 109 0.0045 informal 175 144 0.0047 Mean Median formal 813 Km 85 Km informal 810 Km 75 Km
  13. 13. + Results:The territorial dimension (1) n  Fundamental criteria in the choice of headquarters: 1.  Low cost 2.  Proximity to home 3.  Proximity to universities or research centers n  Where are the HQs n  11% coworking n  7% university incubators n  6% accelerators n  5% other incubators n  3%technology parks n  Market: n  Regional 8% n  Domestic 46% n  Foreign (Europe) 19% n  Foreign (non-European) 28% n  Link between the startups and traditional activities of the territory n  Rome: Music, Arts, Cinema n  Milan: Consulting, Advertising and Social Commerce n  Turin:“Makers” and Media n  Naples: Civil Society and Participatory Labs
  14. 14. + Results: Regulation (1) n  Law n.221/2012 (Decree Law Growth 2.0), Section IX innovative startup: exemptions, tax breaks, exemptions from the corporate law governing special working relationships n  Special section of the register of companies devoted to innovative startups n  June 10, 2013: 853 companies. n  Among the companies we interviewed only 13% has now entered in the register of innovative startups
  15. 15. + Results: Regulation (2) Listed on the register of innovative companies:Who did it? n  12.5% women vs 10.5% men did n  16% graduated vs 7% with secondary school diplomas n  23% among boomers (over 46) vs. 12% among the post (under 33) n  15% startup based in the provincial capital vs. 7% based elsewhere
  16. 16. + Conclusions 1.  What kind of capital (human, social, etc..) is mobilized by those who are creating these companies? Mainly human capital (opposite result than the rhetoric that accompanies startup). 2.  What is the role of the collaboration networks (formal and informal)? Weak, with consequences on the availability of social and financial capital 3.  What is the role of territorial context? The most important factor, enables different forms of capital 4.  What is the role of regulation? Low effectiveness, strengthens existing allocations of capital
  17. 17. + Limitations and next steps n  Phenomenon in its nascent state, exploratory analysis à this survey allows to build hypotheses to be tested n  Self-selected sample à new analysis of the register of innovative startups n  Integration and comparison with analysis of digital relationships (e.g. network of followers on Twitter) n  Policy indications
  18. 18. + @ivanapais @ceciliamanzo cecilia.manzo@unifi.it ivana.pais@unicatt.it Thanks!

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