OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) Case Study: Anil Nembang
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OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) Case Study: Anil Nembang

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OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) Case Study: Anil Nembang OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) Case Study: Anil Nembang Document Transcript

  • Anil Nembang-C0478BSBS1013 Data Communication, Network and Digital Communication Student Name: Anil Nembang Student ID: C0478BSBS1013 Lecturer: Mr. Nigel Kermode Cardiff Metropolitan University
  • Anil Nembang-C0478BSBS1013 Questions 1. In TCP/IP, there are 2 main types of Interior Routing Protocols (IRPs) namely distance vector routing protocols, such as RIP, and link state routing protocols, such as OSPF and IS-IS. Write a short report (no more than 750 words) that explains each of the 6 terms in bold and why each is significant in the context of a data network. 2. Compare and contrast the role of areas in the 2 main link state routing protocols, namely OSPF and IS-IS. You should briefly examine the role of virtual links in OSPF. Write your answer in the form of a short report of no more than 750 words. 3. Consider the following case study which depicts a network for the London School of Routing; it comprises a number of routers and PCs. The interior routing protocol for the entire network is to be OSPF and the network manager has decided to partition the network into 4 areas as shown: You are to develop an addressing scheme and apply the appropriate addresses/subnet masks to the router interfaces and the 2 PCs. You should also specify the configuration of the OSPF areas (paying particular attention to the requirement for a virtual link) You are not required to use the Packet Tracer tool but you may wish to experiment with it. A Packet Tracer file of the Central London Infrastructure of the London School of Routing is included with this assignment to help you get started. If you do use Packet Tracer you might wish to demonstrate that your combined addressing and routing scheme works by pinging between the 2 PCs in both directions. Whether you choose to use Packet Tracer or not, write a short report of no more than 1000 words explaining the logic behind your addressing scheme and your configuration of the OSPF routing protocol for the Central London Infrastructure of the London School of Routing.
  • Anil Nembang-C0478BSBS1013 Table of Contents 1 TCP/IP Architectural Model: ........................................................................................................... 4 2 Interior Routing Protocol (IRP):....................................................................................................... 5 2.1 Distance Vector Routing Protocol: .......................................................................................... 6 2.1.1 3 Routing Information Protocol (RIP):................................................................................ 6 Link State Routing Protocol:............................................................................................................ 6 3.1 3.2 4 Open Shortest Path First (OSPF): ............................................................................................ 6 Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS): ............................................................ 7 Area: ................................................................................................................................................ 7 4.1 Importance of area in OSPF: ................................................................................................... 7 4.2 Importance of area in IS-IS:..................................................................................................... 8 4.2.1 4.3 5 IS-IS Levels: ...................................................................................................................... 8 Role of virtual link: .................................................................................................................. 9 Open Shortest Path First Configuration: ......................................................................................... 9 5.1 Addressing in Area 99 (OSPF Multiaccess network): ............................................................ 10 5.2 OSPF Configuration on the Network ..................................................................................... 11 6 PC-X pinging PC-Y: ......................................................................................................................... 13 7 Tracing route form PC-X to PC-Y: .................................................................................................. 14 8 Virtual Link Screenshot: ................................................................................................................ 15 9 Reference: ..................................................................................................................................... 16
  • Anil Nembang-C0478BSBS1013 1 TCP/IP Architectural Model: The TCP/IP protocol suit is named for two of its most important protocols: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP). A less used name for it is the Internet Protocol Suit, which is the phrase used in Official Internet Standards Documents. The main design goal of TCP/IP was to build an interconnection of networks, referred to as an internetwork or Internet, that provides universal communication services over heterogeneous physical networks. The clear benefits of such an internetwork is the enabling of communication between hosts in different networks, perhaps separated by a large geographical area (Praziale L. et al, 13/12/2006). Figure 1: Internet examples: Two interconnected sets of networks, each seen as one logical network Another important aspect of TCP/IP internetworking is the creation of a standardize abstraction of the communication mechanisms provided by each type of network. Each physical network has its own technology-dependent communication interface, in the form of programming interface that provides basic communication functions. TCP/IP provides communication services that run between the programming interfaces of a physical network and user application. TCP/IP protocols are modelled in four layers (Praziale L. et al, 13/12/2006).
  • Anil Nembang-C0478BSBS1013 Figure 2: The TCP/IP protocol stack : Each layer represents a package of functions (source) Figure 3: Detailed architecture model with example (Source) 2 Interior Routing Protocol (IRP): Routing is the process of moving packets across a network from one host to another. It is usually done dedicated device called router. Interior Routing Protocol is also known as Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP). IRP passes information between routers within Autonomous System (AS). Autonomous System is the unit of router policy, either single network or group of networks that is controlled by a common network administrator (or a group of administrators) on behalf of single administrative entity such as business enterprise, university, business division etc. Networks within and autonomous system communicate routing information to each other using an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP). An autonomous system shares routing information to other autonomous system using Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). The routing information can also be used by the internet protocol (IP) or other network protocols to specify how to route transmissions (techtarget.com, 2013).
  • Anil Nembang-C0478BSBS1013 2.1 Distance Vector Routing Protocol: A routing protocol is a set of rules used by routers to determine the most appropriate paths into which they should forward packets towards their intended destinations. A packet is most fundamental unit of data transmission on the internet or other TCP/IP networks. Distance Vector Routing Protocol is a simple routing protocol used in packet switched networks that utilizes distance to decide the best packet forwarding path. Distance is typically represented the hop count. A hop is the trip that a packet takes from one router to another as it traverse a network on the way to its destinations. Distance Vector Routing Protocols are simple, require little management, and are efficient for small networks. However, they have poor convergence properties and do not scale well. Convergence is the process of routers updating their routing tables (i.e. built in database) and agreeing with each other on optimal routes for forwarding packets (Linfo.org, 2012). 2.1.1 Routing Information Protocol (RIP): Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a standard-based, distance vector, Interior Routing Protocol used by routers to exchange routing information. RIP uses hop count to determine the best location between two paths. Hop count is the number of routers that the packet need to traverse to reach the destination network. The maximum number of allowable hops a packet can traverse in an IP network implementing RIP is 15. In RIP network, each router broadcasts its entire RIP table to its neighbouring routers every 30 seconds. When a router receives neighbour RIP tables, it updates its own routing table and send the updates to neighbour tables. 3 Link State Routing Protocol: Link State Routing is complex routing technique in which each routers shares information with other routers about the reach ability of other networks and the metrics (metric is the measurement of performance in product or system like program or network) to reach the other networks in order to determine the best path. The metric is based on hops, link speeds, traffic congestions and other factors as determined by network designers. In link state routing, every router on the network receives the map of the connectivity of the network in the form of graph showing which nodes (computers, network devices, routers, switches) are connected to which other nodes. Each router then independently calculates the best next hop for every possible destination in the network. The collection of best next hops forms routing table of a router. Link state routers use Dijkstra's algorithm to calculate the lowest cost path invented by Dutch computer scientist Edsger Dijkstra. 3.1 Open Shortest Path First (OSPF): OSPF (Open path first) is router protocol used in large autonomous system network that is used installed in many of today's corporate network. OSPF is designated by the Internet Engineering Taskforce (IETF) as one of several Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP).
  • Anil Nembang-C0478BSBS1013 Using OSPF a host that changes to a routing table or detects a change in a the network immediately multicasts the information to all other hosts in the network so that all will have same routing information. Unlike RIP where the entire routing table is sent in every 30 second, the hosts using OSPF sends only the part that has changed and only when the change take place. Rather than counting simple number of hosts, OSPF uses extra information consisting description of link state. In OSPF user can also assign cost metric so that certain paths are given priority. 3.2 Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS): Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) protocol is an intra-domain Open System Interconnection (ISO) dynamic routing protocol specified in International Organization for Standardization. The protocol is designed to operate in OSI connectionless Network Service (CLNS). A two level hierarchy is used to support large routing domains. A large domain may be administratively divided into number of areas. Routing within an area is referred to as level 1 routing. Routing between two areas is called level 2 routing. Level 1 intermediate system keeps track of the routing within in an area. Level 2 routing Intermediate System keeps track of the path to destination areas. On broadcast multi-access media, a designated Intermediate System (DIS) is elected and will conduct the flooding over the media. (Cisco.com, 2012) 4 Area: An area is a logical connection of networks, routers, and links that have the same identification. Areas limit the scope of route information distribution. A router within an area must maintain a topological database for the area to which it belongs. The router does not have detailed information about a network topology outside the area and hence reducing the size of its database.     Every time the route flaps, it initiates shortest-path-first algorithm calculations on all routers in that area. This cause high CPU utilization. The size of routing table will be small The link-state topology becomes more manageable. Significantly reduces Link State Database (LSDB) 4.1 Importance of area in OSPF: OSPF networks in an autonomous system are administratively grouped into areas. Within an area, the topology database contains only information about the area, link-state advertisements are flooded only to nodes within the area, and routes are computed only within the area. The topology of a n area is hidden from the rest of the AS, thus significantly reducing routing traffic in the AS. OSPF has only two level of hierarchy. One backbone are and all other stub areas attached to backbone area. Areas are used to group routers into manageable groups that exchange routing information locally, but summarizes that routing information when adverting the routes externally. Area Boarder Router (ABR) are used to connect the areas. Each area will elect a Designated Router
  • Anil Nembang-C0478BSBS1013 (DR) and a backup designated router (BDR) to assist flooding Link State Advertisements (LSAs) throughout the area. 4.2 Importance of area in IS-IS: Two-level hierarchy is used to support large routing domains. A large domain may be administratively divided into areas. Routing within an area is referred to as Level 1 routing. Routing between area is referred to as Level 2 routing. A level 2 intermediate system keeps track of the path to destination areas. A level 1 intermediate system keeps track in its own area. For a packet destined for another area, a level 1 IS sends the packet to the nearest Level 2 IS in its own area, regardless of what destination area is. Then the packet travels via Level 2 routing to the destination area. Figure 4: L1, L2 and L1L2 routers in IS-IS (source) 4.2.1    IS-IS Levels: Level-1 routers: o has neighbours only on the same area. o Has Level 1 LSDB (Link State Database) with all routing information for the area. Level-2 routers: o May have neighbours in the same or other areas o Has level-2 LSDB with all routing information about inter-area. Level-1-2 routers: o May have neighbours on any areas. o Has two separate LSDBs : level-1 LSDB and level-2 LSDB IS-IS does not have a backbone area as such OSPF. Instead the backbone area of IS-IS is the contiguous collection of Level-2 capable routers. ISIS area borders are links not the routers which makes IS-IS more flexible and scalable. (Smith P.,2009).
  • Anil Nembang-C0478BSBS1013 4.3 Role of virtual link: In large networks with many areas, in which direct connectivity between all areas and the backbone area is physically difficult or impossible. So, virtual link is configured to connect non-contiguous non-backbone area to backbone area. Virtual links are also used to establish link among non-contiguous backbone areas. link acts as a tunnel which forwards LSAs to the backbone area via second intermediate area called transit area. Figure 5: Virtual Link (source) 5 Open Shortest Path First Configuration: In all OSPF network areas except OSPF Area 99, the routers have a point to point connection. Since these are point to point connections, the given address range can be sub netted into a /30 range which will give two usable addresses for the two connecting interfaces between devices. e.g. The OSPF network Area 120 has four point to point connection between the router serial interfaces (s) and one point to point Ethernet (e) connection to the PC. The address range of 11.22.33.0 /24 has been assigned to that area so this means that since there are 5 point to point connections we can subnet the range into 5 /30 subnets. Each range having four addresses. The usable addresses will be the second and third addresses of each range. The first address (Network) and the last address (Broadcast) are not usable. Using Area 120 as an example: 11.22.33.0/30 Available address 11.22.33.0 11.22.33.1 11.22.33.2 11.22.33.3 PC X- Earls Court Usability Unusable (Network address) Usable usable Unusable (Broadcast address) Allocation × PC-X (f/0) Earls court (f/0) ×
  • Anil Nembang-C0478BSBS1013 11.22.33.4 / 30 Available address 11.22.33.4 11.22.33.5 11.22.33.6 11.22.33.7 11.22.33.8/30 Available address 11.22.33.8 11.22.33.9 11.22.33.10 11.22.33.11 11.22.33.12 /30 Available address 11.22.33.12 11.22.33.13 11.22.33.14 11.22.33.15 11.22.33.8 /16 Available address 11.22.33.16 11.22.33.17 11.22.33.18 11.22.33.19 Earls Court–Kensington Usability Unusable (Network address) Usable Usable Unusable (Broadcast address) Allocation × Earls court (S0/0/0) Kensington (S0/0/0) × Kensington-Westminster Usability Unusable (Network address) Usable Usable Unusable (Broadcast address) Allocation × Kensington (s 0/0/1) Westminster (s 0/0/1) × Westminster–Chelsea Usability Unusable (Network address) Usable Usable Unusable (Broadcast address) Allocation × Westminster (s 0/0/0) Chelsea (s 0/0/0) × Chelsea–Earls Court Usability Unusable (Network address) Usable Usable Unusable (Broadcast address) Allocation × Chelsea (s 0/0/1) Earls court (s 0/0/1) × /30 sub netting scheme gives two usable addresses and the number of IP addresses required in each point to point connection is also two. Therefore the IP addresses will not be wasted. One of the logics of CIDER is to optimally utilise the IP addresses. 5.1 Addressing in Area 99 (OSPF Multiaccess network): This sub netting addressing scheme applies to all the other areas within the Central London Infrastructure except Area 99 which is OSPF Multiaccess network. All three routers in this area access the transit switch. Sub netting addressing scheme of /29 is applied in this area as we need 3 IP addresses. /29 gives 8 addresses among which only 6 are usable. And 3 IP addresses among 6 are allocated to interfaces of 3 routers in Area 99. (if /29 sub netting scheme is applied, fewer IP addresses will be wasted in comparison to any other sub netting scheme in this context). Available IP addresses 33.44.55.0 Usability Unusable (Network Address) Allocation ×
  • Anil Nembang-C0478BSBS1013 33.44.55.1 33.44.55.2 33.44.55.3 33.44.55.4 33.44.55.5 33.44.55.6 33.44.55.7 Usable Usable Usable Usable Usable Usable Unusable (Broadcast Address) London Bridge (f/0) Peckham Rey (f/0) Bermondsey (f/0) Wasted Wasted Wasted × 5.2 OSPF Configuration on the Network Since the interior routing protocol will be OSPF and the network has been partitioned into four areas, OSPF will have to firstly be enabled on all the routers within the network with the following Router(config)#router ospf process-number The process number is a number given to distinguish the OSPF from other processes on the router Now that the Routers on the network have been enabled to run OSPF. The OSPF process will need to know which networks are going to have their routes advertised and what areas they belong to. To do this, the following command will be used Router(config-router)#network address wildcard-mask area area-number The network address will be the first address of the sub net IP range assigned to the interface wild card mask of 4 groups of 8 bits. The 0 bit means no other network outside the range will be advertised whereas the 1 bit means that any address with IP range can. i.e. 11.22.23.0 0.0.0.255 means any address outside 11.22.33.x won’t be advertised but any address within the .252 subnet will. So for the area 120, the earls court OSPF configuration will looks like this. Earls Court(config)#router ospf 1 Earls Court(config)#network 11.22.33.12 0.0.0.255 area 120 Earls Court(config)#network 11.22.33.16 0.0.0.255 area 120 The routers that are between two areas, in this case Westminster, London Bridge and Bermondsey are known as ABRs or Area Border Routers. As they advertise routes from different areas, they are configured to show the network of all the area networks they have borders with as shown below using the Westminster router Westminster(config)#router ospf 2 Westminster(config)#network 11.22.33.0 0.0.0.255 area 120 Westminster(config)#network 11.22.33.4 0.0.0.255 area 120 Westminster(config)#network 22.33.44.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 Westminster(config)#network 22.33.44.4 0.0.0.255 area 0 The Area 99 has a 3560 multilayer switch connected to three routers. London Bridge, Bermondsey and Peckham. The London Bridge router being the designated router which means it’s the central point for all the incoming LSA’s while The Peckham Rye router is the Backup designated router, with
  • Anil Nembang-C0478BSBS1013 the Bermondsey router being the ABR router between Area 99 and Area 123. Since /29 sub netting is done in Area 99, the subnet mask will be 255.255.255.248. The Central London infrastructure has four areas within the autonomous system. One area should be the backbone area while all the other areas must be connected to the backbone area in order to get central routing information. In this case the Area 0 is the backbone router. Area 120 and 99 is connected to Area 0. Area 123 is connected to Area 99 but not Area 0 as a result area 123 will not be able to get central routing information. In order to overcome this, a virtual link is set up between the Bermondsey router and the London bridge router. Area 99 will be known as the transit area where the virtual link is to be set up. The virtual link should be configured on both the London Bridge ABR router and the Bermondsey ABR router. The configuration will look like this: Bermondsey(config)#router ospf 2 Bermondsey(config)#network 44.55.66.0 0.0.0.255 area 123 Bermondsey(config)#network 33.44.55.0 0.0.0.255 area 99 Bermondsey(config)#area 99 virtual-link “London Bridge Router ID” London Bridge(config)# router ospf 3 London Bridge(config)# network 33.44.55.0 0.0.0.255 area 99 London Bridge(config)# network 22.33.44.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 London Bridge(config)# network 22.33.44.4 0.0.0.255 area 0 London Bridge(config)# area 99 virtual-link “Bermondsey Router ID” The router ID is usually the highest IP address on the router or the loopback address. The loopback address is used for testing connection on the network. Or, any 32 bit IP address can be assigned as Router ID with following command: Router(config)#router ospf process-id Router(config)#router-id (32-ip address) In this project 2.2.2.2 and 1.1.1.1 are assigned to ARBs in London Bridge and Bermondsey respectlively. Ex: London Bridge (config)#router-id 2.2.2.2 Now that a virtual link has been created, all the routers on the network should now have all the routes advertised on their respective routing tables.
  • Anil Nembang-C0478BSBS1013 6 PC-X pinging PC-Y: This is the screenshot where PC-Y with IP address 44.55.66.6 is responding to the ping command of PC-X with IP address 11.22.33.1. Figure 6: Ping form PC-X to PC-X
  • Anil Nembang-C0478BSBS1013 7 Tracing route form PC-X to PC-Y: Figure 7: Tracing route from PC-X to PC-Y
  • Anil Nembang-C0478BSBS1013 8 Virtual Link Screenshot: Figure 8: Virtual-link
  • Anil Nembang-C0478BSBS1013 9 Reference: Praziale L, Britt T. D, Davis C., Forrester J. & Liu W. TCP/IP tutorial and technical overview [Online] Verified at: http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks/pdfs/gg243376.pdf [Accessed:03/12/2013] Techtarget.com (N/A) Interior Gateway Protocol [Online] Verified at: http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/IGP[Accessed: 04/12/2013] Cisco.com (N/A) OSPF virtual link [Online] verified at: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk365/technologies_configuration_example09186a00801ec9ee.s html [Accessed: 30/11/2013] Linfo.org (N/A) Distance vector routing definition [Online] verified at: http://www.linfo.org/distance_vector.html [Accessed: 05/12/2013] Computernetworking.com (N/A) Routing information protocol [Online] verified at: http://computernetworkingnotes.com/routing-static-dynamics-rip-ospf-igrp-eigrp/riprouting.html[Accessed:06/12/2013] Techtarget.com (N/A) ISIS (Intermediate System-Intermediate System Protocol) [Online] Verified at: http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/IS-IS [Accessed: 08/12/2013] Cisco.com (10/09/2012) Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System Protocol [Online] Available at: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6599/products_white_paper09186a00800a3e6f.shtml [Accessed:30/11/2013] Smith P. (09/04/2009) ISIS tutorials [Online] Verified at: http://www.menog.org/presentations/menog-4/MENOG4-ISIS-Tutorial.pdf [Accessed:08/12/2013]