The romanian educational systemPresentation Transcript
PROJECT: EDUCATION, CULTURE, HISTORY
Comenius Multilateral Partnership T his project has been funded with support from the European C o m mission. this publication reflects the views only of the author, and the commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
ROMANIAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM
Romanian Education al System’s Description
The Romanian educational structure consists in a vertical system of schooling. Five main components represent the fundamental pillars of this system:
Upper secondary education,
Vocational education and training,
1. Pre-school education (kindergarten)
Pre-school education is not yet part of the compulsory cycle, and attendance is correlated with income and social class. Pre-school education is designed for children who are 3 to 7 years old.
The compulsory cycle of education consists of four years of primary, four years of middle school and two years of lower secondary education .
All Romanian pupils normally will begin primary education at the age of 7 but may be admitted at the age of 6 if they are "at an appropriate stage of mental and physical development" and have completed the final pre-school year. Pupils may leave school at the age of 16.
3. Non compulsory education ( Upper secondary education) - High school - Vocational education: Vocational schools Apprentice schools
The structure of high school is:
A) theoretical orientation:
Sciences profile, specialization: math – informatics and natural sciences
Humanities profile, specializations: philology and social sciences
B) technological orientation:
Exploitation of natural resources and environment protection profile
C) aptitude based orientation:
Almost 1300 institutions are public (financially sustained by the state), but an increasing number of private schools have emerged in recent years.
Public upper secondary education is free. Textbooks are offered free of charge to the pupils from economically disadvantaged families.
High school education in Romania normally lasts for four years (from IX th grade to XII th grade) in day classes or five years in evening classes. After they have finished the XII th (or the XIII th ) grade, pupils have to pass the Bachelorette in order to apply for further education.
Graduates from apprentice schools (named professional schools) do not have the right to apply for higher education programs.
Higher education (college)
Higher education offers specialization in a certain field. After having accepted the Bologna system, most Universities in Romania propose three or four years of License studies.
Admission is ensured by a competitive entrance examination and it is accessible for bachelorette diploma holders.
Post graduate studies (t wo years of Master studies and another three years of Doctoral studies) complete the Higher education.
Higher education is mainly public but also private.
Responsibility and Administration
The Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sports
- formulates and implements educational policies and strategies.
initiates Government decisions.
approves the curricula, the national assessment standards and the education units network.
is responsible for the distribution of the financial resources from the state budget to the school inspectorate.
The School Inspectorate
( there is one in each of the 40 counties)
-distributes the financial resources to schools.
-appoints and revokes the headmasters.
-is responsible for the teaching staff policy and the approval of the trades and specializations that are to be taught.
The School Unit
is responsible for the organization and implementation of training programs and the way the financial resources are used.
Submits to the inspectorate the list of trades and specializations that are to be taught.
4 Post high school Tertiary education- non university 3 Non compulsory 18 XIII 3 High school - upper cycle - Upper secondary 3 17 XII High school -upper cycle- 2 16 XI Completion year 15 X 2 High school -lower cycle- Arts and trades school Lower secondary 1 Compulsory 14 IX 13 VIII General / middle school - 12 VII 11 VI 1 10 V 9 IV Primary school Primary education 8 III 7 II 6 I 5 Preparatory group for school 0 Kindergarten Pre school education Non compulsory 4 Middle group 3 Beginners Age Grade ISCED Education levels Qual. Type >19 6 5 University - master Tertiary education - university 5 4 Non compulsory University - bachelor