Weather and Climate

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Weather and Climate

  1. 1. WeatheriTutor.comClimate&By iTutor.comT- 1-855-694-8886Email- info@iTutor.com
  2. 2. Water in the atmosphere Higher temperatures cause liquid water molecules to movefaster. These water molecules become water vapor in theatmosphere. When liquid water is converted into water vapor, theprocess is called evaporation.As temperature increasesevaporation increasesAtmospheric Pressure increasesevaporation decreases© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  3. 3. Cloud formation Through the process of evaporation and transpiration,water moves into the atmosphere. Water vapors then join with dust particles to create clouds. Different conditions cause different clouds. Cumuliform clouds include: Cirrocumulus Altocumulus Cumulus CumulonimbusCirrocumulus AltocumulusCumulus Cumulonimbus© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  4. 4. Cloud formation Stratiform clouds form when a large mass of stableair gradually rises, expands, and cools. Stratiform clouds include: Cirrostratus Altostratus Stratus NimbostratusCirrostratusAltostratus Stratus Nimbostratus© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  5. 5. Cloud formation Sometimes a cloud formationcombines aspects of bothcumuliform and stratiformclouds. We call these cloudsstratocumulus clouds. Cirrus clouds are thin linesof ice crystals high in the sky,above 6,000 meters. They are just a thin streak ofwhite across a blue sky.Stratocumulus cloudsCirrus clouds© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  6. 6. Rain Rain is the result of a cooling airmass. Cooling an air mass is likewringing out a wet sponge. Tiny droplets form a cloud orfog. Larger droplets fall as rain.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  7. 7. Snow Snow usually forms whenboth ice crystals and waterdroplets are present in thesky. The water droplets attach toice crystals and freeze. When the ice crystals arelarge enough, they will fallto the ground as snow.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  8. 8. Air masses and fronts An air mass is a large body of airwith consistent temperature andmoisture characteristicsthroughout. Two air masses that affect theUnited States are the continentalpolar air mass and the maritimetropical air mass.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  9. 9. Fronts A cold front occurs when cold air moves in andreplaces warm air.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  10. 10.  A warm front occurs when warm air moves inand replaces cold air.Fronts© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  11. 11. Low- and high-pressure areas When a cold front moves intoa region and warm air isforced upward, an area oflow pressure is created nearEarth’s surface at theboundary between the twoair masses. A center of high pressure tends to be found where a stablecold air mass has settled in a region.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  12. 12. Thunderstorms Thunderstorms occur because ofconvection in the atmosphere. The downdraft and updraft forma type of convection cell called astorm cell within the cloud.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  13. 13. Lightning Lightning is a bright spark of light that occurs within astorm cloud, between a cloud and Earth’s surface, orbetween two storm clouds.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  14. 14. Hurricanes A hurricane is a tropicalcyclone with wind speeds ofat least 74 miles (119 km)per hour. The Saffir – SimpsonHurricane Scale is one scaleused for rating hurricanes.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  15. 15. Tornadoes A tornado, like ahurricane, is a systemof rotating windsaround a low-pressurecenter. As the rotating windpattern narrows andlengthens, it forms afunnel cloud.funnel cloud© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  16. 16.  Storm patterns across the globe can happen in cycles. Usually the trade winds blow warm water from east towest across the Pacific Ocean. Every so often the trade winds weaken and the warmwater reverses direction.El Nino Southern Oscillations© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  17. 17.  Along with warm water comes greater thunderstormactivity across the Pacific. This change in wind flow, air pressure, and thunderstormactivity is known as the El Niño Southern Oscillation.El Nino Southern Oscillations© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  18. 18. Climates &Biomes© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights ReservedBy iTutor.comT- 1-855-694-8886Email- info@iTutor.com
  19. 19.  Climate depends onmany factors: latitude, precipitation, elevation, topography, and distance from largebodies of water.Biomes and climate© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  20. 20.  Scientists divide the planet into climate regions calledbiomes. Earth has six main biomes: deserts, grasslands, temperatedeciduous forests, rainforests, taiga, and tundras. Each biome has a unique set of plants and animals thatthrive in its climate.Biomes and climate© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  21. 21. DesertsGrasslandsTemperate deciduous forests RainforestsTaigaTundras© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  22. 22.  Each biome has a unique set of plants and animals thatthrive in its climate. The Serengeti is home to thousands of predators speciesand 1.6 million herbivores.Biomes and climate© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  23. 23.  Humidity is related toplant and animaldiversity. From the poles to theequator, humidity andthe diversity of plantsand animal increases.Biomes and climate© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  24. 24.  At the equator, sunlight isdirect and intense. As a result, the averageyearly temperature at theequator is 27 °C (80 °F),while at the North Pole it is-18 °C (0 °F).Biomes and climate© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  25. 25. Plants and animals in biomes A biome consists of plant andanimal communities. The plants and animals in acommunity survive in a sharedenvironment. Within a biome, there are manyinterrelated ecosystems. An ecosystem is made up of theplants and animals that livethere, plus nonliving things likesoil, air, water, sunlight, andnutrients.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  26. 26. Meteorology A meteorologist is a person who uses scientific principles toexplain, understand, observe, or forecast Earth’s weather.Many meteorologists have college degrees in physics,chemistry, or mathematics.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  27. 27. The EndCall us for moreInformationwww.iTutor.comVisit1-855-694-8886

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