The SkeletalSystemT- 1-855-694-8886Email- info@iTutor.comBy iTutor.com
The Skeletal System The framework of the body, consisting of bones andother connective tissues, which protects and supportsthe body tissues and internal organs.Copyright reserved. 2012 The E Tutor The skeletal system servesmany important functionsincluding:1. It protects the vital organssuch as the brain, heart,and lungs.2. It gives your body shapeand form.3. It allows for movement.4. It produces blood cells andstores minerals.
What is bone? Compact bone provides most ofthe strength and support. Cancellous bone has manyopen spaces like a sponge.Copyright reserved. 2012 The E Tutor In many bones (like the femur), thecancellous bone protects the innermostpart of the bone called bone marrow. Bone marrow is a thick, jelly-like layerthat makes blood cells or stores fat.
Functions of BoneAll the bones in your body make up your skeletal system The functions of the Bone:1. Support – provides framework, supports soft tissues andprovides points of attachment for skeletal muscles.2. Protection – internal organs are protected by skeleton,ex. Heart and lungs are protected by ribs.3. Movement – when muscles contract, they pull on bonesand produce movement.4. Mineral Storage – homeostasis mechanism thatdeposits and removes calcium and phosphorus ondemand.5. Blood Cell production – red bone marrow producesblood cells; a process called hematopoietic.6. Storage of energy – yellow bone marrow stores lipids,an important source of chemical energy.Copyright reserved. 2012 The E Tutor
Classification of bone1. Long – Long bones arelonger than they are widewhereas Ex. legs, toes,arms, fingers2. Short- include the bones ofthe wrist (carpal) and ankles(tarsal)3. Flat – are thin and relativelybroad Ex-cranial, sternum,ribs, scapulas4. Irregular – have complexshapes that do not fit easilyinto any other category Ex.vertebraeCopyright reserved. 2012 The E Tutor Bones are grouped according to their shape
A long bone has a central shaft, ordiaphysis and an expanded portion ateach end or epiphysis. The diaphysis surrounds a centralmarrow cavity. The ends or epiphyses are covered bycartilageCopyright reserved. 2012 The E TutorCartilage Smooth, rubbery blue-white connectivetissue Acts as a shock absorber between bones Elastic than bone Makes up the flexible parts of theskeleton such asthe outer earthe tip of the nose
Articular Cartilage Covers the surfaces of bones thatform joints Make smooth joint movementpossible Protect the bones from rubbingagainst each otherCopyright reserved. 2012 The E Tutor The place where two bones meet is calleda joint. Some joints are fixed while others move. Your joints have their own lubricatingfluid called synovial fluid. This fluid helps them move freely.Joints
Types of Joints Different types of joints make a wide range of motionspossible These includeSuturesSymphysesSynovial jointsCopyright reserved. 2012 The E Tutor206 bones in all 22 bones in skull 6 in middle ears 1 hyoid bone 26 in vertebral column 25 in thoracic cage 4 in pectoral girdle 60 in upper limbs 60 in lower limbs 2 in pelvic girdle
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