Plate Tectonics II

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Plate Tectonics II

  1. 1. T- 1-855-694-8886 Email- info@iTutor.com By iTutor.com
  2. 2.  Imagine a single plate, moving in one direction on Earth’s surface.  One edge of the plate—the divergent boundary—moves away from things.  The opposite edge—called the leading edge or convergent boundary bumps into anything in the way. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved Plate Boundaries
  3. 3. Plate Boundaries  An edge of a lithospheric plate that slides by another plate is called a transform fault boundary. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  4. 4. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved Plate Boundaries
  5. 5.  Divergent boundaries are found in the ocean as mid- ocean ridges.  A divergent boundary is the line between two plates where they are moving apart.  This type of boundary is found over the rising plume of a mantle convection cell.  Divergent boundaries can also be found on continents as rift valleys.  When a rift valley forms on land, it may eventually split the landmass. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved Plate Boundaries
  6. 6. Divergent Boundaries © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  7. 7. Convergent Boundaries  When oceanic plates collide, one subducts under the other.  This forms a valley in the ocean floor called a trench. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  8. 8. Convergent Boundaries  There are three styles of convergent plate boundaries  Continent-continent collision  Continent-oceanic crust collision  Ocean-ocean collision Continent-continent Ocean-ocean collision Continent-oceanic © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  9. 9. Convergent Boundaries Ocean-ocean collision © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  10. 10.  The oceanic plate must subduct under the continental plate.  A continental plate is simply too buoyant to subduct under an oceanic plate. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved Convergent Boundaries
  11. 11. Collision of Nazca and south American Plates Continent- oceanic crust collision © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  12. 12. Mountains And Convergent Boundaries  The continents cannot be sucked into the trench because their granite rocks.  The two continents collide!  Mountain ranges are formed when continents collide. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  13. 13. Formation of Himalayas  India used to be an island, but about 15 million years ago it crashed into Asia (see map).  As continental crust was pushing against continental crust the Himalayan mountain belt was pushed up.  ―Mountains‖ were also pushed down into the mantle as the normally 35 km thick crust is approximately 70 km thick in this region. Mt Everest is the highest altitude mountain on our planet standing 8,840 meters high. This means that below the surface at the foot of the mountain the crust is a further 61 km deep!! © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  14. 14. Transform Boundaries  Where plates slide past each other  The third type of boundary are transform boundaries, along which plates slide past each other.  The San Andreas fault, adjacent to which the US city of San Francisco is built is an example of a transform boundary between the Pacific plate and the North American plate. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  15. 15. Transform Fault Boundaries  A good clue for locating transform faults is offsetting.  When seen from above, the feature will appear to make a zig – zag . © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  16. 16. Slickenslides, evidence of plate boundaries  The effect of rock moving against rock is evidence of plate boundaries.  The rock surface moving to the right is called slickensides because it is smooth and polished. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  17. 17. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  18. 18.  Hot mantle plumes breaching the surface in the middle of a tectonic plate What are Hotspot Volcanoes? The Hawaiian island chain are examples of hotspot volcanoes. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  19. 19. Where do earthquakes form? Figure showing the tectonic setting of earthquakes
  20. 20. The End Call us for more Information: www.iTutor.com 1-855-694-8886 Visit

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