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1.
Percentages
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2.
Percentages
Calculating percentage is one of the simplest and most
useful of mathematical tricks.
It's one of the simplest ways of quantifying things and
presenting comparative ratios.
You will need to know how to calculate percentages as it is
a concept used in almost every field where quantification is
involved.
Let me first define what percentage means and then
explain a simple formula for calculating percentages.
3.
What is Percentage
'Per-Centage' literally means 'per 100 pieces' of anything,
which is one way of specifying the fraction of a complete
whole.
Simply put, a percentage value is a fraction multiplied by
100.
A portion of the whole; a
part.
A way of representing a
fraction with the
denominator of 100
0.15
100
15
Equals a
percentage of 15
So 15% means 15 per 100
(15% of this box is green)
4.
How to Calculate Percentages
Let's say I have a basket of fruits. Out of a total of 20
fruits, 5 are apples, 10 are oranges and 5 are
pineapples. Then the percentage of all three fruits in the
basket is calculated in the following way.
First determine the 'part' and the 'whole'. Here the 'Whole'
is the fruit basket containing 20 fruits and the parts are 5
apples, 10 oranges and 5 pineapples.
Secondly, you must determine the fraction of fruits in
basket, that are apples, oranges and pineapples. That is,
you must establish the fractions. Here the fractions are:
Fraction of the Apples in Basket = 5/20 =1/4
Fraction of Oranges in Basket = 10/20 =1/2
Fraction of Pineapples in Basket = 5/20 =1/2
So, one can now say that one-fourth of the fruits are apples,
half are oranges and another one-fourth are pineapples.
5.
Once the fraction has been established, calculating
percentages is extremely simple.
The percentage of apples in the basket is calculated using
following formula.
Percentage (%) = (Part/Whole) x 100
Therefore, in the example presented above,
Percentage of Apples = 5/20 x 100 = ¼ x 100 = 25%
Percentage of Oranges = 10/20 x 100 = 1/2 x 100 = 50%
Percentage of Pineapples = 5/20 x 100 = ¼ x 100 = 25%
6.
Given the whole and the percent, find the part.
Given the whole and the part, find the percent.
Given the percent and the part, find the whole.
Calculations with Percents
% When the whole and percent are given the part can be
found by multiply the percent by the whole
Percent x Whole
% The percent must be put into decimal form prior to
being multiplied, that can be done by dividing the
percent by 100
Percent /100 = decimal
7.
Finding a fraction of a quantity
Find 4 of 20
5
or 4 × 20
5
Find 1 of 20
5
20 ÷ 5 = 4
So: 4 of 20 is
5
4
4 4× = 16
To do this in one step we can look at the question
4 × 20
5
4
= 16
Divide by 5 and show it by crossing out the 5 on the bottom
and cross out the 20 and replace with 4 (the answer to 20 ÷ 5)
Example
8.
Example 1:
Find 12% of 200 12 × 200
100
2
= 24
cancel common factors
Example 2:
Find 40% of 270 40 × 270
100
= 108
cancel common factors
Example 3:
Find 35% of 14
cancel common factors
4
10
≡
35 × 14
100
= 4.97
20
≡
0.7
Using this method to find percentages of a quantity
9.
The End
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