Money and Banking System

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  • 1. T- 1-855-694-8886 Email- info@iTutor.com By iTutor.com
  • 2. What is Money? ―Money is whatever is generally accepted in exchange for goods and services — accepted not as an object to be consumed but as an object that represents a temporary abode of purchasing power to be used for buying still other goods and services.‖ — Milton Friedman (1992) • A medium of exchange: an asset used to buy and sell goods and services. • A store of value: an asset that allows people to transfer purchasing power from one period to another. • A unit of account: a unit of measurement used by people to post prices and keep track of revenues and costs. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  • 3. • The main thing that makes money valuable is the same thing that generates value for other commodities: • The demand (for money) relative to its supply. • People demand money because it reduces the cost of exchange. • If the purchasing power of money is to remain stable over time, its supply must be limited. When the supply of money grows rapidly relative to goods and services, its purchasing power will fall. Why is Money Valuable? © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  • 4. How the Money Supply is Measured • Two basic measurements of the money supply are M1 and M2. • The components of M1 are: • Currency, • Checking deposits, and,(including demand deposits and interest-earning checking deposits) • Traveler's checks. • M2 (a broader measure of money) includes: • M1, • savings, • time deposits, and, • money market mutual funds. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  • 5. The Composition of Money in the U.S. • The size and composition of the two most widely used measures of U.S. money supply (M1 & M2) are shown above. Money Supply, M1 (in billions) Currency (in circulation) Demand deposits Other checkable deposits Traveler’s checks Total M1 $850 407 334 5 $1,596 Money Supply, M2 (in billions) M1 Savings deposits a Small time deposits Money market mutual funds Total M2 $1,596 4,445 1,308 979 $8,328 $1,596 $8,328 The M1 and M2 Money Supply of the U.S –––––––––– (as of May 2009) –––––––––– © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  • 6. Credit Cards versus Money • Money is an asset. • The use of a credit card is merely a convenient way to arrange for a loan. • Credit card balances are a liability. • Thus, credit card purchases are not money. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  • 7. • The banking industry includes: • commercial banks, • savings and loans, and, • credit unions. The Business of Banking • Banks are profit-seeking institutions: • Banks accept deposits and use part of them to extend loans and make investments. Income from these activities is their major source of revenue. • Banks play a central role in the capital market (loan able funds market): • They help to bring together people who want to save for the future with those who want to borrow for current investment projects.
  • 8. The Functions of Commercial Banking Institutions Assets Vault cash Reserves at the Fed Loans outstanding U.S. government securities Other securities Other assets Total Checking deposits Savings and time deposits Borrowings Other liabilities Net worth Consolidated Balance Sheet of Commercial Banking Institutions April 2009 (billions of $) Liabilities $ 40 672 7,051 1,265 1,412 1,630 $ 12,070 $ 600 6,851 2,400 928 1,291 $ 12,070 • Banks provide services and pay interest to attract checking, savings, and time deposits (liabilities). • Most of these deposits are invested and loaned out, providing interest income for the bank. • Banks hold a portion of their assets as reserves (either as cash or deposits with the Fed) to meet their daily obligations toward their depositors. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  • 9. • The U.S. banking system is a fractional reserve system; banks are required to maintain only a fraction of their assets as reserves against the deposits of their customers (required reserves). • Vault cash and deposits held with the Federal Reserve count as reserves. • Excess reserves (actual reserves in excess of the legal requirement) can be used to extend new loans and make new investments. • Under a fractional reserve system, an increase in deposits will provide the bank with excess reserves and place it in a position to extend additional loans, and thereby expand the money supply. Fractional Reserve Banking © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  • 10. Bank New cash deposits: Actual Reserves New Required Reserves Potential demand deposits created by extending new loans Initial deposit (bank A) Second stage (bank B) Third stage (bank C) Fourth stage (bank D) Fifth stage (bank E) Sixth stage (bank F) Seventh stage (bank G) $1,000.00 $200.00 160.00 102.40 81.92 65.54 52.43 800.00 $800.00 512.00 128.00640.00 640.00 512.00 409.60 409.60 327.68 327.68 262.14 262.14 209.71 Total $5,000.00 $1,000.00 $4,000.00 All others (other banks) 1,048.58 209.71 838.87 Creating Money from New Reserves • When banks are required to maintain 20% reserves against demand deposits, the creation of $1,000 of new reserves will potentially increase the supply of money by $5,000. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  • 11. How Banks Create Money by Extending Loans • The lower the percentage of the reserve requirement, the greater the potential expansion in the money supply resulting from the creation of new reserves. • The fractional reserve requirement places a ceiling on potential money creation from new reserves. • The actual deposit multiplier will be less than the potential because: • Some persons will hold currency rather than bank deposits, and, • Some banks may not use all their excess reserves to extend loans. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  • 12. The Federal Reserve • The Federal Reserve (the Fed), created in 1913, is the central bank for the United States. • The Federal Reserve is responsible for the creation of a stable monetary climate for the entire U.S. economy. • It controls the money supply of the U.S., • serves as a ―banker’s bank‖ or ―bank of last resort‖ for U.S. banks, and, • regulates the banking sector. • In short, the Federal Reserve is responsible for the conduct of U.S. monetary policy. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  • 13. The Public: Households & businesses Commercial Banks Savings & Loans Credit Unions Mutual Savings Banks The Federal Reserve System • The Board of Governors is at the center of Federal Reserve operations. • The board sets all the rates and regulations for the expository institutions. • The seven members of the Board of Governors also serve on the Federal Open Market Committee FOMC). • The FOMC is a 12-member board that establishes Fed policy regarding the buying and selling of government securities. Federal Reserve Board of Governors 7 members appointed by the president, with the consent of the U.S. Senate 12 Federal Reserve District Banks (25 branches) Open Market Committee Board of Governors & 5 Federal Reserve Bank Presidents (alternating terms, New York Bank always represented). © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  • 14. Philadelphia3 San Francisco 12 1 Boston 4 Cleveland9 Minneapolis 11 Dallas Washington, D.C. (Board of Governors)10 Kansas City 7 Chicago 5 Richmond 2 New York Atlanta6 St. Louis 8 The Federal Reserve Districts • The map indicates the 12 Federal Reserve districts and the cities in which the district banks are located. • Each district bank monitors the commercial banks in their region and assists them with the clearing of checks. • The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System is located in Washington D.C. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  • 15. The Independence of the Fed • The independence of the Federal Reserve system is designed to strengthen the ability of the Fed to pursue monetary policy in a stabilizing manner. • Fed independence stems from: • The lengthy terms of the members of the Board of Governors (14 years), and, • The fact that the Fed’s revenues are derived from interest on the bonds that it holds rather than allocations from Congress. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  • 16. The Four Tools the Fed Uses to Control the Money Supply • The Fed has four major tools that it can use to control the money supply: • Reserve requirements • Setting the fraction of assets that banks must hold as reserves (vault cash or deposits with the Fed), against their checking deposits. • Open market operations • The buying and selling of U.S. government securities and other assets in the open market. • Extension of Loans • Control of the volume of loans to banks and other financial institutions. • Interest paid on bank reserves • Setting the interest rate paid banks on reserves held at the fed. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  • 17. • Reserve requirements: a fraction of checking deposits banks must hold as reserves (vault cash and deposits with the Fed) against these liabilities • When the Fed lowers the required reserve ratio, it creates excess reserves for commercial banks allowing them to extend additional loans, expanding the money supply. • Raising the reserve requirements has the opposite effect. • Open Market Operations: the buying and selling of U.S. Treasury bonds and other financial assets by the Fed • This is the primary tool used by the Federal Reserve to control the money supply. • Note: the U.S. Treasury bonds held by the Fed are part of the national debt. • When the Fed buys bonds … the money supply expands because: • bond sellers acquire money • bank reserves increase, placing banks in a position to expand the money supply through the extension of additional loans © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  • 18. • When the Fed sells bonds … the money supply contracts because: • bond buyers exchange money for bonds • bank reserves decline, causing them to extend fewer loans Extension of Loans by the Fed • Historically, member banks have borrowed from the Fed primarily to meet temporary shortages of reserves. • The discount rate is the interest rate the Fed charges banks for short-term loans needed to meet reserve requirements. • Other things constant, an increase in the discount rate will reduce borrowing from the Fed and thereby exert a restrictive impact on the money supply. Conversely, a lower discount rate will make it cheaper for banks to borrow from the Fed and exert an expansionary impact on the supply of money.
  • 19. • Discount Rate and Federal Funds Rate • The discount rate is closely related to the interest rate in the federal funds market, a private loanable funds market where banks with excess reserves extend short-term loans to other banks trying to meet their reserve requirements. • The interest rate in this market is called the federal funds rate. Controlling the Federal Funds Rate • Announcements after the regular meetings of the Federal Open Market Committee often focus on the Fed’s target for the fed funds rate. • The Fed controls the federal funds rate through open market operations. • The Fed can reduce the fed funds rate by buying bonds, which will inject additional reserves into the banking system. • The Fed can increase the fed funds rate by selling bonds, which drains reserves from the banking system. • While the media often focuses on the Fed’s target fed funds rate, open market operations are used to control this interest rate. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  • 20. Longer-Term Loans Extended by the Fed • Prior to 2008, the Fed extended only short-term discount rate loans, and they were extended only to member banks. • In 2008, the Fed established several new procedures for the extension of credit and began extending longer-term loans, including some to non-banking institutions. • The most important of these was the Term Auction Facility (TAF) which created an auction procedure through which depository institutions bid for credit provided by the Fed for an 84 day period. • In 2008, the Fed also began making loans to non-bank financial institutions such as insurance companies and brokerage firms and these loans have often been for lengthy time periods (5-10 years). • Like the discount rate loans, these new types of loans inject additional reserves into the banking system and thereby exert an expansionary impact on the money supply.
  • 21. Interest Rate Fed Pays on Reserves • If the Fed wants banks to extend more loans and thereby expand the money supply, it will set the interest rate it pays on excess reserves very low, possibly even zero. • In contrast, if the Fed wants to reduce the money supply, it will increase the interest rate paid banks on excess reserves. This will provide them with an incentive to hold more reserves, which will reduce the money supply. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  • 22. Federal Reserve Policy Expansionary Monetary Policy Restrictive Monetary Policy 1. Reserve Requirements Reduce reserve requirements because this will create additional excess reserves and induce banks to extend more loans, which will expand the money supply. Raise reserve requirements because this will reduce the excess reserves of banks and induce them to make fewer loans, which will contract the money supply. 2. Open Market Operations Purchase additional U.S. Securities and other assets, which will increase the money supply and also expand the reserves available to banks. Sell U.S. securities and other assets, which will decrease the money supply and also contract the reserves available to banks. 3. Extension of Loans Extend more loans because this will increase bank reserves, encouraging banks to make more loans and expand the money supply. Extend fewer loans because this will decrease bank reserves, discourage bank loans, and reduce the money supply. 4. Interest Paid on Excess Bank Reserves Reduce the interest paid on excess reserves because this will induce banks to hold less reserves and extend more loans, which will expand the money supply. Increase the interest paid on excess reserves because this will induce banks to hold more reserves and extend fewer loans, which will contract the money supply. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  • 23. Recent Fed Policy, the Monetary Base, and the Money Supply • Prior to the financial crisis of 2008, the Fed controlled the money supply almost exclusively through open market operations – the buying and selling of Treasury Securities. • During 2008, the Fed reduced its holding of Treasury Securities (see table below, line 1), but vastly expanded its purchase of corporate bonds, mortgage backed securities, and commercial paper issued by private businesses (see table below, line 2). • Moreover, there was a huge increase in Fed loans to non- banking institutions such as brokerage firms and insurance companies (see table below, line 5 on ―Loans to Other Institutions‖). • As the table below shows, Fed assets ballooned from $940 billion in July 2008 to $2,299 billion in December 2008. • This vast increase in the purchase of assets and extension of loans by the Fed led to a sharp increase in bank reserves and the monetary base. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  • 24. The Monetary Base • The monetary base is equal to the currency in circulation plus the reserves of commercial banks (vault cash and reserves held at the Fed). • The monetary base is important because it provides the foundation for the money supply. • The currency in circulation contributes directly to the money supply, while the bank reserves provide the underpinnings for checking deposits. • The expansion in Fed purchases and extension of loans caused the monetary base to approximately double during the 9 months following August 2008. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  • 25. Monetary Base, M1, and Excess Reserves, 1990-2009 • Prior to mid-year 2008, the monetary base grew gradually year-after-year and excess reserves were negligible. • Under these conditions, the monetary base and M1 money supply moved together. • In the second half of 2008, the Fed injected a massive amount of reserves into the banking system and both the monetary base and excess reserves soared. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  • 26. Why Aren’t the Banks Using Excess Reserves to Make Loans? • Because of the weak economy, the demand for loans that are highly likely to be repaid is weak. • The Fed has pushed the interest rate on Treasury bills and other short-term loans to near zero. • There is considerable uncertainty about the future and therefore banks are reluctant to make long-term commitments. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  • 27. • The Federal Reserve: • is concerned with the monetary climate of the economy • does not issue bonds • is responsible for the control of the money supply and the conduct of monetary policy The Functions of the Fed and Treasury • The U.S. Treasury: • is concerned with the finance of the federal expenditures • issues bonds to the general public to finance the budget deficits of the federal government • does not determine the money supply © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  • 28. The Changing Nature of Money • In the past, economists have often used the growth rate of the money supply to gauge the direction of monetary policy. • Rapid growth was indicative of expansionary monetary policy, while, • slow growth (or a contraction in the money supply) was indicative of restrictive policy. • Recent financial innovations and structural changes have changed the nature of money and reduced the reliability of money growth figures as an indicator of monetary policy. • The introduction of interest earning checking accounts in the early 1980s reduced the opportunity cost of holding checking deposits and thereby changed the nature of the M1 money supply. • In the 1990s, many depositors shifted funds from interest earning checking accounts to money market mutual funds. Because money market mutual funds are not included in M1 this also reduced the comparability of the M1 figures across time periods. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  • 29. Currency Interest-earning checkable deposits The Changing Nature of M1 • In the 1980s, deregulation lead to a rapid growth of interest- earning checking deposits (that now make up approximately one quarter of the M1 money supply). • As the opportunity cost of holding these checkable deposits is less than for other forms of money, today’s money supply figures are not exactly comparable with the pre-1980 figures. Billions of $ Total $1,596 150 300 450 600 750 900 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 $855 $334 $407 Demand deposits M1 2010 © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  • 30. Three Factors that have Changed the Nature of Money • In addition, three other factors are altering the nature of money and reducing the value of the money growth figures as an indicator of monetary policy: • Widespread use of the dollar abroad: At least one-half and perhaps as much as two-thirds of U.S. dollar currency is held abroad, and these holdings appear to be increasing. These dollars are included in the M1 money supply even though they are not circulating in the U.S.. • Increasing availability of low-fee stock and bond mutual funds: Because stock and bond mutual funds are not included in any of the money aggregates, movement of funds from various M1 and M2 components into these mutual funds distorts both the M1 and M2 figures. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  • 31. • Debit cards and electronic money: Increased use of debit cards and various forms of electronic money will reduce the demand for currency. Like other changes in the nature of money, these innovations will reduce the reliability of the money supply figures as an indicator of monetary policy. • Innovations and dynamic changes have altered the nature of money. Economists now place less emphasis on the growth rate of the money supply figures as a monetary policy indicator. • Most economists now rely on a combination of factors to evaluate the direction and appropriateness of monetary policy. • We will follow this procedure as we consider the impact of monetary policy in subsequent chapters. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  • 32. The End For more information call us 1-855-694-8886 Visit www.iTutor.com