Market Intervention

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Market Intervention

  1. 1. Market Intervention T- 1-855-694-8886 Email- info@iTutor.com By iTutor.com
  2. 2. Market intervention  If a competitive market is free of intervention, market forces will always drive the price and quantity towards the equilibrium.  However, there are times when government feels a need to intervene in the market and prevent it from reaching equilibrium.  While often done with good intentions, this intervention often brings about undesirable secondary effects.  Market intervention often comes as either a price floor or a price ceiling. Quantity Prices © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  3. 3. Price Floor  A price floor sets a minimum price for which the good may be sold.  Price floors are designed to benefit the producers providing them a price greater than the original market equilibrium.  For example, the government imposed price floors for certain agricultural commodities, such as wheat and corn. At a price floor, greater than the market equilibrium price, producers increase the quantity supplied of the good. However, consumers now face a higher price and reduce the quantity demanded. The result of the price floor is a surplus in the market. Surplus Price QuantityQd QsQ © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  4. 4. Price Ceilings  Price ceilings are intended to benefit the consumer and set a maximum price for which the product may be sold.  The ceiling price must be below the market equilibrium. Shortage Price Quantity Price Ceiling A maximum price  Shortage if below equilibrium  Controlled Rent  Black markets Qd Qs © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  5. 5. Consumer Surplus Economic surplus  In a competitive market, the economic surplus which is the combined area of the consumer and producer surplus is maximized. Quantity Prices Producer surplus Economic Surplus = Consumer Surplus + Producer Surplus © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  6. 6. Deadweight Loss – Price Floor  When a price floor is imposed, there is a loss in the economic surplus (Area A and B) known as deadweight loss.  Since consumer surplus is the area below the demand curve and above the price, with the price floor the area of consumer surplus is reduced from areas B, C, and E to only area E.  Producer surplus which is below the price and above the supply or marginal cost curve changes from area A and D to D and C. Quantity Prices Price Floor A BC D E © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  7. 7. Deadweight Loss – Price Ceilings  A price ceiling also creates a deadweight loss of area A and B.  The consumer surplus area changes from areas E and B to E and C and the producer surplus area is reduced from A, C, and D to only D. Quantity Prices Price Ceiling A B C D E © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  8. 8. Excise Tax  Another government market intervention is the imposition of a tax or subsidy.  An excise tax is a tax levied on the production or consumption of a product.  To consumers, the tax increases the price of the good purchased moving them along the demand curve to a lower quantity demanded. Quantity Prices Q1 Q0 P1 P0 P2 Tax Due to the tax, the new equilibrium price (P1) is higher and the equilibrium quantity (Q1) is lower. While the consumer is now paying price (P1) the producer only receives price (P2) after paying the tax. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  9. 9. The End For more information call us 1-855-694-8886 Visit www.iTutor.com

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