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Geometry of Molecules & Ions
 

Geometry of Molecules & Ions

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    Geometry of Molecules & Ions Geometry of Molecules & Ions Presentation Transcript

    • T- 1-855-694-8886 Email- info@iTutor.com By iTutor.com
    • A central metal atom bonded to a group of molecules or ions is a metal complex. If the complex bears a charge, it is a complex ion. Compounds containing complexes are coordination compounds.
    • The molecules or ions coordinating to the metal are the ligands. They are usually anions or polar molecules.
    • Three categories of isomerization 1. Structural isomers: atoms connected in different ways 1. Coordination isomers 2. Linkage isomers 2. Geometric isomers: ligands have different spatial arrangement 1. Cis-trans isomers 2. Octahedral complex isomers 3. Optical isomers: nonsuperimposable mirror- images (enantiomers)
    • Coordination isomers Coordination ligand exchanges places w/uncoordinated counter-ion Ex: [Co(NH3)5Br]Cl vs. [Co(NH3)5Cl]Br
    • Either one of atoms in NO2 - can bond to metal When O, nitrito: ONO- When N, nitro: NO2 - Different color compounds
    • Occurs in sq-planar: MA2B2 And octahedral complexes: MA4B2
    • 8 MX3Y3 Fac (facial) isomer Three identical ligands at corners of a triangular face of octahedron Mer (meridian) isomer Three identical ligands at corners of a triangular meridian (inside octahedron)
    • Absorbs all colors-but- the one you see or Reflects most colors but absorbs the complimentary
    • The colors of complex ions are due to electronic transitions between the split d sublevel orbitals The wavelength of maximum absorbance can be used to determine the size of the energy gap between the split d sublevel orbitals Ephoton = h = hc/ =
    • The strength of the crystal field depends in large part on the ligands strong field ligands include: CN─ > NO2 ─ > en > NH3 weak field ligands include: H2O > OH─ > F─ > Cl─ > Br─ > I─ crystal field strength increases as the charge on the metal cation increases
    • The electron configuration of the metal ion with split d orbitals depends on the strength of the crystal field The 4th and 5th electrons will go into the higher energy dx2-y2 and dz2 if the field is weak and the energy gap is small – leading to unpaired electrons and a paramagnetic complex The 4th thru 6th electrons will pair the electrons in the dxy, dyz and dxz if the field is strong and the energy gap is large – leading to paired electrons and a diamagnetic complex
    • paramagnetic high-spin complex diamagnetic low-spin complex Only electron configurations d4, d5, d6, or d7 can have low or high spin
    • Because the ligand approach interacts more strongly with the planar orbitals in the tetrahedral geometry, their energies are raised Most high-spin complexes
    • d8 metals The most complex splitting pattern Most are low-spin complexes
    • Occurs when polar molecules are attracted to each other. Dipole interaction happens in water positive region of one molecule attracts the negative region of another molecule.
    • Occur when polar molecules are attracted to each other. Slightly stronger than dispersion forces. Opposites attract, but not completely hooked like in ionic solids. H F H F
    • Call us for more Information: www.iTutor.com 1-855-694-8886 Visit