Female Reproductive System


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Female Reproductive System

  1. 1. System Female T- 1-855-694-8886 Email- info@iTutor.com By iTutor.com Reproductive
  2. 2. The Female Reproductive System  Functions  Produces the female egg cells  Transports the eggs to the site of fertilization  The fertilization of an egg by a sperm, occurs in the fallopian tubes  After fertilization, provides a place for a baby to develop  If fertilization does not take place, the system is designed to menstruate  Produces female sex hormones that maintain the reproductive cycle  The female reproductive system consists of:  A pair of ovaries along with  A pair of oviducts,  Uterus,  Cervix,  Vagina  The external genitalia located in pelvic region. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  3. 3. The Female Reproductive System © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved  These parts of the system along with a pair of the mammary glands are integrated structurally and functionally to support the processes of ovulation, fertilization, pregnancy, birth and child care.
  4. 4. Ovaries  Ovaries are the primary female sex organs that produce the female gamete (ovum) and several steroid hormones (ovarian hormones).  Oval-shaped glands that are located on either side of the uterus.  The ovaries are located one on each side of the lower abdomen.  Each ovary is about 2 to 4 cm in length and is connected to the pelvic wall and uterus by ligaments. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved Location of Ovaries
  5. 5.  Each ovary has a hilus – blood vessels and nerves enter  Several layers:  Germinal epithelium – simple squalors cells  Tunica albuginea- white capsule of C. T.  Stroma – connective tissue, can be divided into:  Medulla – loose connective tissue, blood vessels, nerves  Cortex - contains ovarian follicles – consist of oocytes at various stages of development  Single layer – follicular cells  Several layers – granulosa cells © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved  Mature or Graafian follicle is a large, fluid-filled follicle that will rupture and release a secondary oocyte in process called ovulation.  Corpus luteum is the remnant of a ruptured follicle – produces estrogen, progesterone and relaxin until degenerates into the corpus albicans.
  6. 6. Ovary © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  7. 7. Oogenesis  During fetal development, germ cells differentiate into oogonia  millions of germ cells.  Many degenerate, but a few develop into primary oocytes that enter Prophase I of meiosis before birth – stop there.  At birth, about 1 million oogonia and primary oocytes in each ovary.  About 400 mature over a woman’s lifetime.  Primordial follicle – primary oocyte and single layer of follicular cells © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved  Layer of glycoprotein, the zona pellucida, separates oocyte from the granulosa cells.  Ovarian cells outside follicle form two layers:  Inner vascular layer (theca interna) that secretes hormones  Outer fibrous layer (theca externa) – connective tissue.  Granulosa cells begin to secrete fluid, forms a cavity called the antrum. After puberty, each month one secondary follicle resumes meiosis. Meiosis I results in two unequal cells – secondary oocyte and a polar body. Begins to divide again but stops at metaphase II.
  8. 8. Oogenesis z © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  9. 9. Oogenesis  Nuclei of ovum and sperm unite to form a zygote. (2n or diploid).  So, meiosis results in ONE OVUM and three polar bodies (which degenerate). © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved  At ovulation, secondary oocyte and polar body are released.  If not fertilized, degenerates.  If penetrated by sperm, meiosis resumes, forming ovum and another polar body.
  10. 10. Uterine (Fallopian) Tubes  Narrow tubes that are attached to the upper part of the uterus and serve as tunnels for the egg cell to travel from the ovaries to the uterus.  Fertilization of an egg by a sperm, normally occurs in the fallopian tubes.  The fertilized egg then moves to the uterus, where it implants into the lining of the uterine wall .  Fertilization can occur up to about 24 hours after ovulation.  If oocyte is fertilized, it will reach the uterus in about 7 days. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved Uterine Tube & Ciliated cells
  11. 11. The Uterus  An organ about the size and shape of an inverted pear.  Functions in menstruation, implantation of zygote, development of the fetus, and labor.  Also part of the pathway for sperm to reach ovum.  Uterus can be divided into:  Fundus – domed upper portion  Body – main portion  Cervix – narrow, lower section extending into vagina (cervical orifice) © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  12. 12. The Uterus © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved  Layers of uterus:  Perimetrium  a part of visceral peritoneum  Myometrium  Bulk of uterus  Three layers of muscle that contract under influence of oxytocin during labor.  Endometrium – Highly vascular mucosa  Stratum functionalis – Shed during menstruation  Stratum basalis – Deeper, permanent layer, gives rise to new stratum functionalis after each cycle.
  13. 13. Vagina  Canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of uterus) to the outside of the body  Also is known as the birth canal  Passageway for sperm and menstrual flow  Capable of considerable distention (stretching)  Contains large stores of glycogen which decomposes to organic acids – lower pH = less susceptible to infection & less hospitable to sperm. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved External Genitalia  Collectively known as the vulva  Labia majora  Rounded folds of adipose tissue and skin  Protect other external reproductive organs
  14. 14. External Genitalia  Labia minora  Fold of skin between labia majora  Very vascular  Merge to form hood over clitoris  Vestibule – space enclosed by labia minora  Bartholin’s glands secrete mucus during sexual arousal  Clitoris  Anterior to urethral meatus  Contains female erectile tissue  Rich in sensory nerves  Perineum  Between vagina and anus  Area for episiotomy, if needed, during birth process © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  15. 15. Reproductive Cycle  Menstrual cycle  Regular changes in uterine lining, resulting in monthly bleeding  Menarche  First menstrual period  Menopause  Termination of cycle due to normal aging of ovaries © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved Phases of the Female Reproductive Cycle  Type cycle runs 24 -35 days, 28 days ave.  Three phases:  Menstrual phase  Preovulatory phase  Postovulatory phase
  16. 16. Menstrual phase  Days 1 – 5  FSH release stimulates the maturation of follicles. 20 or so follicles, some in each ovary begin to enlarge.  In the uterus, the stratum functionalis is shed, discharging 50 -150 ml of blood, tissue fluid, mucus and epithelial cells. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved  Declines of estrogen and progesterone cause the spiral arteries to constrict, cells become ischemic and die, and are sloughed off.
  17. 17. Preovulatory phase  Most variable in length, us. Day 6 – 13  Follicles continue to grow, granulosa cells produce increasing amounts of estrogen and some progesterone. This causes LH to be secreted, but stored in the pituitary.  Dominant follicle secretes inhibin, inhibiting growth of other follicles, and continues to develop into a mature follicle.  Called follicular phase in ovary.  In the uterus, the estrogens produced by the developing follicles cause the cells of the stratum basalis to produce a new stratum functionalis, and thickness of endometrial doubles.  Proliferative phase in uterus. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  18. 18. Postovulatory phase  Postovulatory phase most constant in duration at 14 days, days 15 – 28.  In ovaries called the luteal phase.  If fertilization does not occur, at end of two weeks the secretions of corpus luteum decline, and it degenerates into corpus albicans (white body)  In the uterus, progesterone promotes :  growth of endometrial glands which secrete glycogen  Vacularization of stratum functionalis  Increase in amount of tissue fluid  These changes reach a peak about one week after ovulation, about the time the fertilized ovum would arrive.  Called secretory phase in uterus © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
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  20. 20. Mammary glands  Accessory organs of the female reproductive system  Modified sweat glands  Function is to synthesize, secrete and eject milk (lactation)  Lie over the pectoralis major muscles  Are attached to fascia by the suspensory ligaments (of Cooper)  Breast size is determined more by fat than by glandular tissue.  Each breast has 15 – 20 lobes made up of several lobules.  Lobules are made of milk-secreting cells arranged in alveoli.  Alveoli are surrounded by myoepithelial cells which contract to move milk out of alveoli.  Milk passes from alveoli to secondary tubules into mammary ducts. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  21. 21. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  22. 22. Call us for more Information: www.iTutor.com Visit 1-855-694-8886