Earth’s  atmosphere
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Earth’s atmosphere Presentation Transcript

  • 1. By iTutor.comT- 1-855-694-8886Email- info@iTutor.com
  • 2. Earth’s atmosphere Earth’s atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding theplanet. The Earth is surrounded by a blanketof air, which we call the atmosphere.It reaches over 560 kilometers fromthe surface of the Earth.Atmosphere: Absorbs the energy from the Sun, Recycles water and other chemicals, protects us from high-energy radiation and the frigidvacuum of space. The atmosphere protects and supports life.
  • 3. Earth’s atmosphere Earth’s atmosphere is made of a mixture of gasescalled air. Nitrogen gas makes up about 78% ofEarth’s atmosphere. The second most abundant gas isoxygen, which makes up 21% ofEarth’s atmosphere. The third Argon (Ar, 0.9%). Carbon Dioxide (CO2, 0.03%).
  • 4. Composition of the AtmosphereThe atmosphere is comprised of a variety of gases: Major Constituents (99%): Nitrogen (N): 78% Oxygen (O2): 21% Trace Constituents: Argon (Ar), about 0.9% Water vapor (H2O), up to 10000 ppmv Carbon dioxide (CO2), 350 ppmv Ozone (O3), near zero at the surface, up to 10 ppmv in thestratosphere Methane (CH4), 1.7 ppmv and others…..ppmv = “parts per million by volume”
  • 5.  Nitrogen is important toprotein which is found inthe body tissues of allliving things. Nitrogen is cycledthrough the soil and intoplants and finally whenliving things die anddecay.Nitrogen Cycle
  • 6. Pressure in the atmosphere Atmospheric pressure isthe force per unit areaexerted into a surface by theweight of air above thatsurface in the atmosphereof Earth. The gas molecules closest toEarth’s surface are packedtogether very closely. This means pressure islower the higher up you gointo the atmosphere.
  • 7. Pressure in the atmosphere At sea level, the weight of thecolumn of air above a person isabout 9,800 Newtons (2,200pounds)! This is equal to the weight of asmall car.
  • 8. Pressure changes with altitudePressure varies smoothlyfrom the Earths surface to thetop of the mesosphere.
  • 9. Measuring Pressure A barometer is an instrumentthat measures atmosphericpressure. Long ago, mercury barometerswere used Since mercury is a poisonousliquid, aneroid barometers areused today.
  • 10. Layers ofAtmosphere
  • 11. Layers of AtmosphereThe atmosphere has four layersThermosphereMesosphereStratosphereTroposphere
  • 12. Layers of AtmosphereTroposphere Lowest and thinnest layer 16 km at equator, 8 km at poles 90% of the atmosphere’s mass Temperature decreases with altitude 6°C per kilometer Top of troposphere averages –50°C Where weather occurs Boundary between the troposphere, and the stratosphere iscalled the tropopauseView of troposphere layer from anairplanes window.
  • 13. Layers of AtmosphereStratosphere Extends from 10 km to 50 km above the ground Less dense (less water vapor) Temperature increases with altitude Almost no weather occurrence Contains high level of ozone Ozone layer Upper boundary is calledstratopause.
  • 14. Layers of AtmosphereMesosphere Extends to almost 80 km high Gases are less dense. Temperature decreases as altitude increases. Gases in this layer absorb very little UV radiation.
  • 15. Layers of AtmosphereThermosphere Above the mesosphere and extendsto almost 600 km high Temperature increases withaltitude Readily absorbs solar radiation Temperature can go as high as 1,500°C Reflects radio waves
  • 16. Layers ofAtmosphere
  • 17. Layers of theAtmosphereThe four layers of theatmosphere include:1. the troposphere, wherewe live;2. the stratosphere, whichcontains the ozone layer;3. the mesosphere, wheremeteors burn; and4. the thermosphere, wheresatellites orbit Earth.
  • 18. Layers of the Atmosphere The exosphere begins atabout 500 kilometers aboveEarth and does not have aspecific outer limit. Satellites orbit Earth in theexosphere.
  • 19. The exosphere and ionosphere Communication on Earthdepends on satellites. Satellites transmitinformation used fortelevision shows, radiobroadcasts, data andphotos used in weatherreports, and long distancetelephone calls.
  • 20. The ozone layer In the 1970s, scientistsnoticed that the ozonelayer in the stratosphereabove Antarctica wasthinning.
  • 21. Chlorofluorocarbons & the ozone layer A group of chemicals calledchlorofluorocarbons (or CFCs)were once commonly used inair conditioners, in aerosolspray cans, and for cleaningmachine parts. In the London Agreement of1991, more than 90 countriesbanned the production anduse of CFCs except for limitedmedical uses.
  • 22.  The ozone layer absorbs the Sun’s high-energy ultraviolet(UV) radiation and protects the Earth. In the stratosphere, the CFCs break down and releasechlorine. The chlorine reacts with ozone molecules, which normallyblock incoming ultraviolet radiation.Chlorofluorocarbons & the ozone layer
  • 23. Acid rain occurs when oxidesof sulfur and oxides of nitrogenare emitted into theatmosphere, undergo chemicaltransformations and are absorbedby water droplets in clouds.
  • 24. Effects of Acid RainAcidification of bodies of waterDamage of vegetationDamage to building materials, statues, etc.
  • 25. GREENHOUSE EFFECTThe trapping of heat by gases in the atmosphere. Naturally occurring greenhouse gases: Water vapor Carbon dioxide Methane Nitrous oxide Ozone Greenhouse gases that are not naturally occurring Hydro fluorocarbons (HFCs) Per fluorocarbons (PFCs) Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)Generated in a variety ofindustrial processes.
  • 26. The Greenhouse Effect on Earth The ground is heated by visibleand (some) infrared light fromthe Sun. The heated surface emitsinfrared light. The majority of Earth’satmosphere (N2 and O2) are notgood greenhouse gas. The small amount ofgreenhouse gases (H2O, CO2)traps (absorb and re-emit) theinfrared radiation, increasingthe temperature of theatmosphere…Earth’s atmosphere is slightly warmer than what it should bedue to direct solar heating because of a mild case ofgreenhouse effect…
  • 27. SUNEARTHThe majority of theradiation is absorbedby the Earth’sSurface with itwarmsSolar radiationPasses throughthe Earth’satmosphereSome Solarradiationredirected byboth the Earth& atmosphereSome of the infraredradiation passesthrough theatmosphere. some isobserved and re-emitted in all directionsby greenhouse gasmolecules. This causesthe earth surface andlower atmosphere towarmInfrared radiation isrealized from theEarth Surface
  • 28. GreenhouseGases
  • 29. The Earths AtmosphereOzone
  • 30.  FACT: 15% increase in [CO2] in last 100 years Cause:Change from agricultural to industrial lifestyleBurning of fossil fuels (petroleum, coal)Increase CO2 emissions (cars, factories etc…)Deforestation Effects:Global warmingMelt polar ice caps  flooding at sea levelWarming oceans  more powerful stormsGreenhouse Effect3503002501000 1500 2000YearAtmosphericCO2(ppm)
  • 31. The EndCall us for moreinformation:1-855-694-8886www.iTutor.com