Chemical Bonding


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Chemical Bonding

  1. 1. ChemicalBondingT- 1-855-694-8886Email- info@iTutor.comBy
  2. 2. IntroductionChemical bonding provides the energynecessary to hold two different atomstogether as part of a chemical compound.Strength of the bond depends on themolecules or atoms involved in the processof bond formation.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  3. 3. Types of Chemical BondingIonic BondsCovalent BondsHydrogen BondsMetallic Bonds© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  4. 4. Ionic BondsAn Ionic bond is when an electron leavesone atom and exothermically enters intoorbit around another. These to oppositelycharged ions now attract each other.Ionic bonds are generally formed betweenmetals and nonmetals© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  5. 5. Example of Ionic BondA classic example of ionic bonding is between Na and Cl. Na is asilvery metal. It has 1 valence electron. Cl is a yellow-green gas, andit needs 1 electron to fill its valence shell. If you put the gas andthe metal together, then they will burn as electrons are exchanged.The metal dissolves and the gas disappears. The ions now haveopposite charges and are attracted to each other by electrostaticforces. They form a crystal with the rock salt structure.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  6. 6. Covalent BondsA type of chemical bond in which there ismutual sharing of electrons between twoatoms is called covalent bond. It isfurther classified into single, double, andtriple covalent bond with respect tomutual sharing of one, two, and threebonds respectively.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  7. 7. Example of Covalent Bondwhen two hydrogen atoms get close enough together, the attractionis balanced in both directions and they share the electronsbetween them. A covalent bond is made and hydrogen gas (H2) isformed.In the hydrogen molecule (H2) the darker area between the twonuclei shows where the two electrons, which are now shared, aremost likely to be.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  8. 8. Hydrogen BondsA hydrogen bond is the attractive forcebetween the hydrogen attached to anelectronegative atom of one molecule andan electronegative atom of a differentmolecule.Usually the electronegative atom isoxygen, nitrogen, or fluorine, which has apartial negative charge.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  9. 9. Example of Hydrogen BondEach hydrogen atom is covalently bonded to the oxygen via ashared pair of electrons. Oxygen also has two unshared pairs ofelectrons. Thus there are 4 pairs of electrons surrounding theoxygen atom, two pairs involved in covalent bonds with hydrogen,and two unshared pairs on the opposite side of the oxygen atom.Oxygen is an "electronegative“ atom compared with hydrogen.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  10. 10. Metallic BondsMetallic bonding is the type of bondingfound in metallic elements. This is theelectrostatic force of attraction betweenpositively charged ions and delocalizedouter electrons.Metallic bonding refers to the interactionbetween the delocalized electrons and themetal nuclei.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  11. 11. Example of Metallic BondAs the metal cations and the electrons are oppositely charged,they will be attracted to each other, and also to other metalcations. These electrostatic forces are called metallic bonds, andthese are what hold the particles together in metals.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  12. 12. The EndCall us for moreInformation:www.iTutor.com1-855-694-8886Visit