Acid and Base

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Acid and Base

  1. 1. Acids andAcids and BasesBases T- 1-855-694-8886 Email- info@iTutor.com By iTutor.com
  2. 2. Acids – produce H+ Bases - produce OH- Acids – donate H+ Bases – accept H+ Acids – accept e- pair Bases – donate e- pair Arrhenius Bronsted-Lowry Lewis only in water any solvent used in organic chemistry, wider range of substances
  3. 3. ExamplesExamples Arrhenius Bronsted-Lowry Lewis HCl NaOH HCl NH3 :NH3BF3 HCN The hydrogen ion in aqueous solution H+ + H2O  H3O+ (hydronium ion)
  4. 4. Conjugate pairs HCl Cl- CH3COOH CH3COO- NH4 + NH3 HNO3 NO3- How does a conjugate pair differ? H+ transfer
  5. 5. H2O  H+ + OH- Does pure water conduct electrical current? (H+ )(OH- ) = 10-14 For pure water: (H+ ) = (OH- ) = 10-7 M This is neutrality and at 25o C is a pH = 7. Water is a very, very, very weak electrolyte. How are (H+ ) and (OH- ) related?
  6. 6. Strong acids/bases – 100% dissociation into ions HCl NaOH HNO3 KOH H2SO4 Weak acids/bases – partial dissociation, both ions and molecules CH3COOH NH3
  7. 7. CO2 (g) + H2O  H2CO3  H+ + HCO3 - Dissolved carbon dioxide lowers the pH Atmospheric pollutants from combustion NO, NO2 + H2O …  HNO3 SO2, SO3 + H2O …  H2SO4 both strong acids pH < 5.3
  8. 8. ACIDS Taste sour Turn litmus React with active metals – Fe, Zn React with bases BASES Taste bitter Turn litmus Feel soapy or slippery (react with fats to make soap) React with acids
  9. 9. Precipitation reactions involve the formation of an insoluble compound, a precipitate, from the mixing of two soluble compounds. Precipitation reactions normally occur in aqueous solution. The independent behavior of each type of ion in solution was illustrated in Chemical Bonding by means of precipitation reactions. In a precipitation reaction, one of the products is only slightly soluble or insoluble. This product is formed as a solid known as a precipitate.
  10. 10. A typical precipitation reaction occurs when an aqueous solution of barium chloride is mixed with one containing sodium sulfate. 2NaCl(aq)(s)BaSO(aq)SONa(aq)BaCl 4422 +→+ For more information call usFor more information call us 1-855-694-88861-855-694-8886 Visit www.iTutor.com

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