Acids andAcids and
Acids – produce H+
Bases - produce OH-
Acids – donate H+
Bases – accept H+
Acids – accept e-
Bases – donate e-
only in water
used in organic chemistry, wider
range of substances
The hydrogen ion in aqueous solution
+ H2O H3O+
NH3 HNO3 NO3-
How does a conjugate pair differ?
Does pure water conduct electrical current?
) = 10-14
For pure water: (H+
) = (OH-
) = 10-7
This is neutrality and at 25o
C is a pH = 7.
Water is a very, very, very weak electrolyte.
How are (H+
) and (OH-
Strong acids/bases – 100% dissociation into ions
Weak acids/bases – partial dissociation,
both ions and molecules
CO2 (g) + H2O H2CO3 H+
Dissolved carbon dioxide lowers the pH
Atmospheric pollutants from combustion
NO, NO2 + H2O … HNO3
SO2, SO3 + H2O … H2SO4
pH < 5.3
React with active metals –
React with bases
Feel soapy or slippery
(react with fats to make
React with acids
Precipitation reactions involve the formation of an insoluble
compound, a precipitate, from the mixing of two soluble
Precipitation reactions normally occur in aqueous solution.
The independent behavior of each type of ion in solution was
illustrated in Chemical Bonding by means of precipitation
In a precipitation reaction, one of the products is only slightly
soluble or insoluble. This product is formed as a solid known as a
A typical precipitation reaction occurs when an aqueous solution of
barium chloride is mixed with one containing sodium sulfate.
2NaCl(aq)(s)BaSO(aq)SONa(aq)BaCl 4422 +→+
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