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  • 1. The Physics of Homeopathy OverviewOverview Alexander Tournier PhD Kuala Lumpur 2011
  • 2. Homeopathy: A controversial subject 1 Principle of similars – ‘Like cures like’ – Vaccines , anti-allergy treatments 2 Principle of dilutions – Potentisation – Ultra-high dilutions!
  • 3. The need for Physics in Homeopathy Homeopathy NOT Scientific ? ? Physics point of view
  • 4. A Clash With Conventional Science Dilutions Weakening effect Potentisation Bio-active Memory
  • 5. Requirements For Homeopathy Serial dilutions Memory Biologically active ? WATER
  • 6. Water is simple? • Density anomalies: ice lighter than water • Unusual thermodynamical properties • 15 known phases of water! • One of the best known solvents Water remains an intense area of research
  • 7. Scientific process of discovery Experiments Basic Properties Theories
  • 8. Animals Plants Cells Animals Biological molecules Physical properties
  • 9. Effect of Thyroxine 30x on frog metamorphosis • Tadpoles were treated with Thyroxine 30x • The number of animals having• The number of animals having entered 4-legged stage was counted • Experiments were blinded Gerhard Lingg and P. C. Endler Int J High Dilution Research 2011 10(37)
  • 10. Effect of Thyroxine 30x on frog metamorphosis 70% measuring point Frequencyof4leggedtadpoles Results reproduced by 5 researchers in 20 sub-experiments From C Endler, private communication Time (Days) N = 1650/group p < 0.01* Frequencyof4leggedtadpoles
  • 11. Effect of Thyroxine 30x on frog metamorphosis Sealed Vials Endler etal Veterinary and Human Toxicology. Vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 259-260. 1995
  • 12. CD Digitized signals Sensitivity to EM signals (micro-wave and mobile) Thyroxine
  • 13. Effect of potentized gibberellic acid 30x on wheat seedlings • Stalk length after 1 wk • 3 experimental groups: – Water – Succussed water 30x – Gibberellic acid 30x • Number of shoots > 2000
  • 14. Effect of potentized gibberellic acid 30x on wheat seedlings Recent results from Endler’s lab • Germination rate showed no difference • Verum stalk length was 8.35% smaller than control (W 30x) • Statistically highly significant p < 0.001 • Reproduced 4 times Pfleger et al Complementary Therapies in Medicine (2011) 19, 164—169
  • 15. Basophil degranulation experiments • Release of cell contents • Induced by anti-IgE • Inhibited by histamine• Inhibited by histamine • Investigate effect of high- dilution of histamine • Measured by flow cytometryHuman basophil stained by Alcian blue Sainte-Laudy and Belon Homeopathy (2009) 98, 186–197
  • 16. Basophil degranulation experiments 6C 15C 30C Effect of histamine dilutions from 10-10 to 10-120 M Sainte-Laudy and Belon Homeopathy (2009) 98, 186–197 Reproduced 8 times
  • 17. Digital homeopathy Recording CDReplay Replay
  • 18. Benveniste Digibio : Digital Biology • Coagulation rates are reduced by presence of thrombin inhibitor Movie • Use digitized thrombin inhibitor • Measured by optical density Prof J Benveniste
  • 19. Benveniste Digibio : Digital Biology p < 0.0001 , water , water exposed to water signal , water exposed to digitized signal Experiments performed by Jamal Aissa (experimenter in Benveniste’s lab) Jonas, etal (2006). "Can specific biological signals be digitized?". FASEB Journal 20 (1): 23–28.
  • 20. Results from Montagnier • Properties of high-dilutions – Not affected by chemical solvents – Not affected by digestive enzymes – Sensitive to freezing– Sensitive to freezing – Heat – Have characteristic EM signal • ‘Cross-talk’ – A blank water sample can ‘pick-up’ signal from active homeopathic sample Prof L Montagnier
  • 21. Effect on Enzymatic Reactions Starch Maltose α-amylase Starch Maltose Merc Cor 30C 1.6 x faster P < 0.01 Sukul Homeopathy (2002) 91, 217–220
  • 22. UV Spectroscopy Group of Roy report differences UV spectra Nux Vom vs Nat Mur Rao etal Homeopathy (2007) 96, 175–182 Group of Roy report differences between UV spectra of different remedies
  • 23. UV Spectroscopy Copper Sulfate UV Spectra p < 0.001 Wolf, Wolf, Heusser, Thurneysen , Baumgartner eCAM 2009 May 27
  • 24. Thermoluminescence Rey, Homeopathy (2007) 96, 170–174
  • 25. Summary from experiments What do we know of ultra-high dilutions so far? • Not just water! • Work through glass • Information can be recorded and replayed • Work on cells and enzymes Theory: possible explanation • Stable water structures carrying information • Electromagnetic effects involved • Bioactive – therapeutic effect
  • 26. Water structures - Memory - Potentisation - Bioactive ? THEORY #1: Quantum Coherence THEORY #2: Dipole Theory
  • 27. Quantum Coherence Domains Giuliano Preparata (1942-2000) Emilio Del Guidice QCDQCD 25nm 25nm
  • 28. High-dilutions Experiments Averagedomainsize • Recent experiments show that dilutions do not follow standard theories • Explained by QCDs Yinnon Yinnon Mod Phys Lett B (2009) 23(16) 1959-1973 Averagedomainsize
  • 29. THEORY #2 Water Dipole Theory + Dr Lo - +
  • 30. Atomic Force Microscopy
  • 31. ‘Seeing’ water clusters AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) Lo et al. Physics Letters A 373 (2009) 3872–3876 High density Low density
  • 32. Water Clusters EM (Electron Microscopy) Gann & Lo Double Helix Water
  • 33. Conclusions • There are a few well established experiments which show consistent reproducibility • There is evidence for the presence of novel water structureswater structures • These water structures could have all the required properties to explain homeopathy • Area is still in its infancy and needs a lot more work
  • 34. Summary from experiments What do we know of ultra-high dilutions so far? • Not just water! • Work through glass • Information can be recorded and replayed • Work on cells and enzymes Theory: possible explanation • Stable water structures carrying information • Electromagnetic effects involved • Bioactive – therapeutic effect
  • 35. Effect of potentized gibberellic acid 17x on dwarf peas • shoot length stimulation of +11.2% • p value highly significant p = 0.007 Baumgartner etal Complementary Therapies in Medicine (2008) 16, 183—191 Reproduced 3 times
  • 36. Predictions from Dr Lo • Formation of stable water structures • Due to the presence of charged particles in the water • 10 Å in diameter or more• 10 Å in diameter or more • Clusters of such structures could be 100 to 1000 nm in diameter
  • 37. Plant ‘cross-talk’ experiments Stephan Baumgartner Plastic pocket
  • 38. THEORY #1 Quantum Coherence Domains Richard Feynman (1918 – 88) Giuliano Preparata (1942-2000) Emilio Del Guidice Quantum Electrodynamics Magnetic Field Coherence domains
  • 39. EM Properties of Coherence Domains • Able to store EM information • Require an external magnetic field for stability • Biologically relevant size • Tend to aggregate • 25 % volume of water