The Physics of Homeopathy
OverviewOverview
Alexander Tournier PhD
Kuala Lumpur 2011
Homeopathy: A controversial subject
1 Principle of similars – ‘Like cures like’
– Vaccines , anti-allergy treatments
2 Pri...
The need for Physics in Homeopathy
Homeopathy NOT Scientific ? ?
Physics point of view
A Clash With Conventional Science
Dilutions Weakening effect
Potentisation
Bio-active Memory
Requirements For Homeopathy
Serial dilutions
Memory Biologically active
?
WATER
Water is simple?
• Density anomalies: ice lighter than water
• Unusual thermodynamical properties
• 15 known phases of wat...
Scientific process of discovery
Experiments
Basic Properties
Theories
Animals
Plants
Cells
Animals
Biological molecules
Physical properties
Effect of Thyroxine 30x on
frog metamorphosis
• Tadpoles were treated with
Thyroxine 30x
• The number of animals having• T...
Effect of Thyroxine 30x on
frog metamorphosis
70% measuring point
Frequencyof4leggedtadpoles
Results reproduced by 5 resea...
Effect of Thyroxine 30x on
frog metamorphosis
Sealed Vials
Endler etal Veterinary and Human Toxicology. Vol. 37, no. 3, pp...
CD
Digitized signals
Sensitivity to EM signals
(micro-wave and mobile)
Thyroxine
Effect of potentized gibberellic acid
30x on wheat seedlings
• Stalk length after 1 wk
• 3 experimental groups:
– Water
– ...
Effect of potentized gibberellic acid
30x on wheat seedlings
Recent results from Endler’s lab
• Germination rate showed no...
Basophil degranulation experiments
• Release of cell contents
• Induced by anti-IgE
• Inhibited by histamine• Inhibited by...
Basophil degranulation experiments
6C 15C 30C
Effect of histamine dilutions from 10-10 to 10-120 M
Sainte-Laudy and Belon ...
Digital homeopathy
Recording
CDReplay
Replay
Benveniste
Digibio : Digital Biology
• Coagulation rates are reduced by
presence of thrombin inhibitor
Movie
• Use digitiz...
Benveniste
Digibio : Digital Biology
p < 0.0001
, water
, water exposed to water signal
, water exposed to digitized sign...
Results from Montagnier
• Properties of high-dilutions
– Not affected by chemical solvents
– Not affected by digestive enz...
Effect on Enzymatic Reactions
Starch Maltose
α-amylase
Starch Maltose
Merc Cor
30C
1.6 x faster
P < 0.01
Sukul Homeopathy ...
UV Spectroscopy
Group of Roy report differences
UV spectra Nux Vom vs Nat Mur
Rao etal Homeopathy (2007) 96, 175–182
Group...
UV Spectroscopy
Copper Sulfate UV Spectra p < 0.001
Wolf, Wolf, Heusser, Thurneysen , Baumgartner eCAM 2009 May 27
Thermoluminescence
Rey, Homeopathy (2007) 96, 170–174
Summary from experiments
What do we know of ultra-high dilutions so far?
• Not just water!
• Work through glass
• Informat...
Water structures
- Memory
- Potentisation
- Bioactive
?
THEORY #1: Quantum Coherence
THEORY #2: Dipole Theory
Quantum Coherence Domains
Giuliano Preparata (1942-2000)
Emilio Del Guidice
QCDQCD
25nm 25nm
High-dilutions Experiments
Averagedomainsize
• Recent experiments show that dilutions do
not follow standard theories
• Ex...
THEORY #2
Water Dipole Theory
+
Dr Lo
-
+
Atomic Force Microscopy
‘Seeing’ water clusters
AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy)
Lo et al. Physics Letters A 373 (2009) 3872–3876
High density Low de...
Water Clusters
EM (Electron Microscopy)
Gann & Lo Double Helix Water
Conclusions
• There are a few well established experiments
which show consistent reproducibility
• There is evidence for t...
Summary from experiments
What do we know of ultra-high dilutions so far?
• Not just water!
• Work through glass
• Informat...
Effect of potentized gibberellic acid
17x on dwarf peas
• shoot length stimulation of +11.2%
• p value highly significant ...
Predictions from Dr Lo
• Formation of stable water structures
• Due to the presence of charged particles in
the water
• 10...
Plant ‘cross-talk’ experiments
Stephan Baumgartner
Plastic pocket
THEORY #1
Quantum Coherence Domains
Richard Feynman (1918 – 88) Giuliano Preparata (1942-2000)
Emilio Del Guidice
Quantum ...
EM Properties of
Coherence Domains
• Able to store EM information
• Require an external magnetic field for stability
• Bio...
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  1. 1. The Physics of Homeopathy OverviewOverview Alexander Tournier PhD Kuala Lumpur 2011
  2. 2. Homeopathy: A controversial subject 1 Principle of similars – ‘Like cures like’ – Vaccines , anti-allergy treatments 2 Principle of dilutions – Potentisation – Ultra-high dilutions!
  3. 3. The need for Physics in Homeopathy Homeopathy NOT Scientific ? ? Physics point of view
  4. 4. A Clash With Conventional Science Dilutions Weakening effect Potentisation Bio-active Memory
  5. 5. Requirements For Homeopathy Serial dilutions Memory Biologically active ? WATER
  6. 6. Water is simple? • Density anomalies: ice lighter than water • Unusual thermodynamical properties • 15 known phases of water! • One of the best known solvents Water remains an intense area of research
  7. 7. Scientific process of discovery Experiments Basic Properties Theories
  8. 8. Animals Plants Cells Animals Biological molecules Physical properties
  9. 9. Effect of Thyroxine 30x on frog metamorphosis • Tadpoles were treated with Thyroxine 30x • The number of animals having• The number of animals having entered 4-legged stage was counted • Experiments were blinded Gerhard Lingg and P. C. Endler Int J High Dilution Research 2011 10(37)
  10. 10. Effect of Thyroxine 30x on frog metamorphosis 70% measuring point Frequencyof4leggedtadpoles Results reproduced by 5 researchers in 20 sub-experiments From C Endler, private communication Time (Days) N = 1650/group p < 0.01* Frequencyof4leggedtadpoles
  11. 11. Effect of Thyroxine 30x on frog metamorphosis Sealed Vials Endler etal Veterinary and Human Toxicology. Vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 259-260. 1995
  12. 12. CD Digitized signals Sensitivity to EM signals (micro-wave and mobile) Thyroxine
  13. 13. Effect of potentized gibberellic acid 30x on wheat seedlings • Stalk length after 1 wk • 3 experimental groups: – Water – Succussed water 30x – Gibberellic acid 30x • Number of shoots > 2000
  14. 14. Effect of potentized gibberellic acid 30x on wheat seedlings Recent results from Endler’s lab • Germination rate showed no difference • Verum stalk length was 8.35% smaller than control (W 30x) • Statistically highly significant p < 0.001 • Reproduced 4 times Pfleger et al Complementary Therapies in Medicine (2011) 19, 164—169
  15. 15. Basophil degranulation experiments • Release of cell contents • Induced by anti-IgE • Inhibited by histamine• Inhibited by histamine • Investigate effect of high- dilution of histamine • Measured by flow cytometryHuman basophil stained by Alcian blue Sainte-Laudy and Belon Homeopathy (2009) 98, 186–197
  16. 16. Basophil degranulation experiments 6C 15C 30C Effect of histamine dilutions from 10-10 to 10-120 M Sainte-Laudy and Belon Homeopathy (2009) 98, 186–197 Reproduced 8 times
  17. 17. Digital homeopathy Recording CDReplay Replay
  18. 18. Benveniste Digibio : Digital Biology • Coagulation rates are reduced by presence of thrombin inhibitor Movie • Use digitized thrombin inhibitor • Measured by optical density Prof J Benveniste
  19. 19. Benveniste Digibio : Digital Biology p < 0.0001 , water , water exposed to water signal , water exposed to digitized signal Experiments performed by Jamal Aissa (experimenter in Benveniste’s lab) Jonas, etal (2006). "Can specific biological signals be digitized?". FASEB Journal 20 (1): 23–28.
  20. 20. Results from Montagnier • Properties of high-dilutions – Not affected by chemical solvents – Not affected by digestive enzymes – Sensitive to freezing– Sensitive to freezing – Heat – Have characteristic EM signal • ‘Cross-talk’ – A blank water sample can ‘pick-up’ signal from active homeopathic sample Prof L Montagnier
  21. 21. Effect on Enzymatic Reactions Starch Maltose α-amylase Starch Maltose Merc Cor 30C 1.6 x faster P < 0.01 Sukul Homeopathy (2002) 91, 217–220
  22. 22. UV Spectroscopy Group of Roy report differences UV spectra Nux Vom vs Nat Mur Rao etal Homeopathy (2007) 96, 175–182 Group of Roy report differences between UV spectra of different remedies
  23. 23. UV Spectroscopy Copper Sulfate UV Spectra p < 0.001 Wolf, Wolf, Heusser, Thurneysen , Baumgartner eCAM 2009 May 27
  24. 24. Thermoluminescence Rey, Homeopathy (2007) 96, 170–174
  25. 25. Summary from experiments What do we know of ultra-high dilutions so far? • Not just water! • Work through glass • Information can be recorded and replayed • Work on cells and enzymes Theory: possible explanation • Stable water structures carrying information • Electromagnetic effects involved • Bioactive – therapeutic effect
  26. 26. Water structures - Memory - Potentisation - Bioactive ? THEORY #1: Quantum Coherence THEORY #2: Dipole Theory
  27. 27. Quantum Coherence Domains Giuliano Preparata (1942-2000) Emilio Del Guidice QCDQCD 25nm 25nm
  28. 28. High-dilutions Experiments Averagedomainsize • Recent experiments show that dilutions do not follow standard theories • Explained by QCDs Yinnon Yinnon Mod Phys Lett B (2009) 23(16) 1959-1973 Averagedomainsize
  29. 29. THEORY #2 Water Dipole Theory + Dr Lo - +
  30. 30. Atomic Force Microscopy
  31. 31. ‘Seeing’ water clusters AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) Lo et al. Physics Letters A 373 (2009) 3872–3876 High density Low density
  32. 32. Water Clusters EM (Electron Microscopy) Gann & Lo Double Helix Water
  33. 33. Conclusions • There are a few well established experiments which show consistent reproducibility • There is evidence for the presence of novel water structureswater structures • These water structures could have all the required properties to explain homeopathy • Area is still in its infancy and needs a lot more work
  34. 34. Summary from experiments What do we know of ultra-high dilutions so far? • Not just water! • Work through glass • Information can be recorded and replayed • Work on cells and enzymes Theory: possible explanation • Stable water structures carrying information • Electromagnetic effects involved • Bioactive – therapeutic effect
  35. 35. Effect of potentized gibberellic acid 17x on dwarf peas • shoot length stimulation of +11.2% • p value highly significant p = 0.007 Baumgartner etal Complementary Therapies in Medicine (2008) 16, 183—191 Reproduced 3 times
  36. 36. Predictions from Dr Lo • Formation of stable water structures • Due to the presence of charged particles in the water • 10 Å in diameter or more• 10 Å in diameter or more • Clusters of such structures could be 100 to 1000 nm in diameter
  37. 37. Plant ‘cross-talk’ experiments Stephan Baumgartner Plastic pocket
  38. 38. THEORY #1 Quantum Coherence Domains Richard Feynman (1918 – 88) Giuliano Preparata (1942-2000) Emilio Del Guidice Quantum Electrodynamics Magnetic Field Coherence domains
  39. 39. EM Properties of Coherence Domains • Able to store EM information • Require an external magnetic field for stability • Biologically relevant size • Tend to aggregate • 25 % volume of water
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