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Rm 4 Research Design

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  • 1. Research Design
    • A major issue in research is the preparation of the research design of the research project
    • Decisions regarding what, where, when, how much, by what means, concerning an enquiry or a research study constitute a research design
  • 2. Research Design - Definition
    • “ A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure”
    • Is the conceptual structure within which research is conducted; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement and analysis of data
  • 3. Research Design – A Definition…
    • More explicitly:
    • What is the study about?
    • Why is the study being conducted?
    • Where will the study be carried out?
    • What type of data is required?
    • Where can the required data be found?
    • What period of time will the study include?
    • What will be the sample design?
    • What techniques of data collection will used?
    • How will the data be analyzed?
    • In what style will the report be prepared?
  • 4. Research Design
    • Research Design has the following parts:
    • The Sampling Design – which deals with the method of selecting items to be observed for the given study
    • The Observational Design – which relates to the conditions under which the observations are to be made
    • The Statistical Design – which concerns with the question of how many items are to be observed and how the information and data gathered are to be analyzed
    • The Operational Design – which deals with the techniques by which the procedures specified in the sampling, statistical and observational designs can be carried out
  • 5. Research Design…
    • In brief, a research design must contain:
    • A clear statement of the research problem
    • Procedures and techniques to be used for gathering information
    • The population to be studied
    • Methods to be used in processing and analyzing data
  • 6. Research Design – Important Concepts
    • Dependent and Independent Variables
    • Extraneous Variable
    • Control
    • Confounded Relationship
    • Research Hypothesis
    • Experimental and Non-experimental Hypothesis-testing
  • 7. Dependent & Independent Variables
    • A concept which can take on different quantitative values is called a variable . Ex: weight, height, income etc., are examples of a variable
    • Qualitative phenomena (the attribute) are also quantified on the basis of the presence or absence of the concerning attribute
    • Dependent variable (DV) – if one variable depends upon or is a consequence of the other variable, it is termed as a DV
    • And the variable that is antecedent to the DV is termed as the Independent variable IV
  • 8. 1.Dependent & Independent Variables
    • Ex: if we say that height depends upon age, then height is the DV and age is the IV. Further, if height also depends upon the individual’s sex – then, height is the DV and age and sex are the IVs
  • 9. 2. Extraneous Variable
    • IVs that are not related to the purpose of the study, but may affect the DV are termed as Extraneous Variable (EV)
    • Ex: suppose the researcher wants to test the hypothesis that there is a relationship between children’s gains in social studies achievement and their self-concept. Here, self-concept is an IV and social studies achievement is a DV. Intelligence may as well affect the social studies achievement, but since it is not related to the purpose of the study, it will be termed as an EV
  • 10. Extraneous Variable…
    • Therefore, a study must be always so designed that the effect upon the DV is attributed entirely to the IVs and not to some EV.
  • 11. 3. Control
    • One important characteristic of a good research design is to minimize the influence or effect of the EV. The term “Control” is used when we design the study minimizing the effects of extraneous variables
  • 12. 4. Confounded Relationship
    • When the DV is not free from the influence of the EVs, the relationship between DV and IV is said to be confounded by the EV
  • 13. 5. Research Hypothesis
    • When a prediction or a hypothesized relationship is to be tested by scientific methods, it is termed as a Research-Hypothesis
    • The Research-Hypothesis is a predictive statement that relates an IV to a DV
  • 14. 6. Experimental and Non-Experimental Hypothesis testing research
    • When the IV is manipulated it is an experimental design
    • Research in which the IV is not manipulated is called Non-experimental hypothesis-testing research
  • 15. Experimental and Non-Experimental Hypothesis testing research…
    • Ex: a researcher wants to study whether intelligence affects reading ability for a group of students and for this purpose he randomly selects 50 students and tests their intelligence and reading ability by calculating the co-efficient of correlation between the two sets of scores – this is an example of non-experimental hypothesis testing, because the IV, intelligence is not manipulated
  • 16. Experimental and Non-Experimental Hypothesis testing research…
    • But now ,suppose that the researcher randomly selects 50 students from a group of students who are to take a course in statistics and then divides them into two groups by randomly assigning 25 to Group A, the common program, and 25 to Group B, the special program. At the end of the course, he administers a test to each group in order to judge the effectiveness of the training program on the students’ performance. This is an example of experimental hypothesis testing because the IV (the type of training program) is manipulated.
  • 17. Types of Research Designs
    • Exploratory
    • Descriptive & Diagnostic
    • Experimental
  • 18. I. Exploratory Research Design
    • Also known as Formulative Research Design
    • Main purpose – is that of formulating a problem for precise investigation or developing hypotheses from an operational point of view
    • Major Focus – discovery of new ideas and insights
    • Exploratory studies must have flexibility in design to provide opportunity for considering different aspects of a problem under study
  • 19. 1. The Literature Survey
    • The most simple and useful method of formulating the research problem or developing a hypothesis
    • Hypotheses stated by earlier workers may be reviewed and their usefulness evaluated as a basis for further research
    • Use the bibliographical survey of studies already done in one’s area of interest for formulating the problem
    • An attempt must be made to apply concepts and theories
  • 20. 2. Experience Survey
    • Is the survey of people who have had practical experience with the problem
    • The object is to obtain insight into relationships between variables and new ideas relating to the research problem
  • 21. 3. Analysis of ‘insight-stimulating’ examples
    • The method consists of the intensive study of selected instances of the phenomenon in which one is interested
    • For this purpose, existing records may be examined; unstructured interviews with experts may be conducted; etc.
  • 22. Exploratory Research Design…
    • The following 3 methods are used:
    • The survey concerning literature
    • The experience survey
    • The analysis of “insight-stimulating” examples
  • 23. II. Descriptive & Diagnostic Research Design
    • Descriptive Studies are those which are concerned with describing the characteristics of a particular individual or of a group.
    • Studies concerned with specific predictions, with narration of facts and characteristics concerning individual, group or situation are ex.'s of descriptive research studies
  • 24. Descriptive & Diagnostic Research Design…
    • Diagnostic Studies determine the frequency with which something occurs or its association with something else
    • Studies about whether certain variables are associated, are ex.’s of diagnostic studies
  • 25. Descriptive & Diagnostic Research Design…
    • The research design here must focus on the following:
    • Formulating the objective of the study
    • Designing the methods of data collection
    • Selecting the sample
    • Collecting the data
    • Processing and analyzing the data
    • Reporting the findings
  • 26. III. Hypothesis-Testing research design
    • Generally known as Experimental Studies – where the researcher tests the hypothesis of causal relationships between variables
    • Such studies require procedures that not only reduce bias and increase reliability but will permit drawing of inferences about causality
  • 27. Hypothesis-Testing research design
    • Prof. R A Fisher’s name is associated with experimental designs.
    • He developed certain experimental designs for testing hypothesis
  • 28. Principles of experimental designs
    • The three important principles are:
    • Principle of Replication
    • Principle of Randomization
    • Principle of Local control
  • 29. Principle of Replication
    • The experiment should be repeated more than once to ensure that each treatment is applied in many experimental units instead of one.
    • By doing so the statistical accuracy is increased
  • 30. Principle of Randomization
    • Provides protection against the effect of extraneous factors in an experiment.
    • That is, we design the experiment in such a way that the variations caused by extraneous factors can all be combined under the general heading of “chance”
  • 31. Principle of Local Control
    • Here the extraneous factor, the known source of variability, is made to vary deliberately over as wide a range as necessary and this needs to be done in such a way that the variability it causes can be measured and hence eliminated from the experimental error
  • 32. Important Experimental Designs
    • There are several designs:
    • Informal Experimental Designs
    • Formal Experimental Designs
  • 33. Informal Experimental Designs
    • Before-and-after without control design
    • After-only with control design
    • Before-and-after with control design
  • 34. Formal Experimental Designs
    • Completely Randomized design
    • Randomized block design
    • Latin Square design
    • Factorial design