Rm   2   Problem Identification
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Transcript

  • 1. Problem Identification
    • Defining the Research Problem:
    • The first step in research is selecting and properly defining a research problem
    • “ A research problem refers to some difficulty which a researcher experiences in the context of either a theoretical or conceptual situation and wants a solution for it”
  • 2. Problem Identification
    • “ A research problem exists when the individual or the group, having one or more desired outcomes, are confronted with two or more courses of action that have some but not equal efficiency for the desired objective(s) and are in doubt about which course of action is best”
  • 3. Components of Research Problem
    • There must be an individual or a group which has some difficulty or the problem
    • There must be some objectives
    • There must be alternative means (courses of action) for obtaining the objectives
    • There must remain some doubt in the mind of the researcher regarding the selection of the alternatives
    • There must be some environment to which the difficulty pertains
  • 4. Selecting the Problem
    • The process of selecting the problem is the most difficult and crucial step in the entire research process. The following steps are suggested:
    • Subject, which is overdone should not be normally chosen for it will be difficult to throw any light on it.
    • Controversial subject should not become the choice of the average researcher
    • Too narrow or vague problems should be avoided
    • The subject should be familiar and feasible so that related research material or sources are within reach
    • The selection of a problem must be preceded by a preliminary study
  • 5. Formulation of the Problem
    • “A problem clearly stated is a problem half solved”
    • A problem must be precisely DEFINED
    • Formulation of a problem is often more essential than its solution
    • It facilitates the working out of the research design and all the sequential steps involved in research
  • 6. Formulation of the Problem…
    • Defining a problem involves the task of laying down the boundaries within which a researcher shall study the problem, with a predetermined objective in view.
    • The following steps are helpful:
    • Statement of the Problem in a general way
    • Understanding the nature of the problem
    • Surveying the available literature
    • Developing ideas thru discussions
    • Developing the research problem
  • 7. An Illustration…
    • Statement 1: “Why is the productivity in Japan so much higher than in India?
    • Statement 2: “What factors are responsible for the higher labor productivity of Japan’s manufacturing industries, during the decade 1971 to 1980, relative to India’s manufacturing industries?”
    • Statement 3: “To what extent did labor productivity in 1971 to 1980 in Japan exceed that of India in respect of 15 selected manufacturing industries?”
  • 8. Conclusion
    • The task of defining a research problem follows a sequential pattern – the problem is stated in a general way, the ambiguities are resolved, thinking and rethinking results in a more specific formulation of the problem so that it may be a realistic one.