Rm   1   Intro Types   Research Process
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Rm   1   Intro Types   Research Process Rm 1 Intro Types Research Process Presentation Transcript

  • Research Methodology
    • An Introduction
    • Ashok Karri
  • Research Methodology
    • A search for knowledge
    • A scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic
    • A systematized effort to gain new knowledge
    • Research as an academic activity comprises – defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis; collecting organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions.
  • Definition
    • Research is the systematic process of collecting and analyzing information (data) in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon about which we are concerned or interested.
  • Research Methodology
    • The search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to a problem is research.
  • Objectives of research
    • The purpose of research is to discover answers to questions through the application of scientific procedures
  • Objectives of research
    • To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it (studies with this objective are known as explorative or formulative studies)
  • Objectives of research
    • To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group (studies with this object in view are known as descriptive studies)
  • Objectives of research
    • To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else
    • (known as diagnostic studies )
  • Objectives of research
    • To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables (known as hypothesis testing)
  • Types of Research
    • Descriptive vs. Analytical
    • Applied vs. Fundamental
    • Quantitative vs. Qualitative
    • Conceptual vs. Empirical
  • 1.Descriptive vs. Analytical
    • The major purpose of the descriptive research is description of the state of affairs as it exists; usually includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries. The main characteristic here is that the researcher has no control over the variables – he can only report what has happened or what is happening. Ex: survey methods to identify people’s preferences. In analytical research, the researcher has to use facts or information already available and analyze these for critical evaluation.
  • 2. Conceptual vs. Empirical
    • Conceptual research is related to some abstract idea or theory. Used by philosophers and thinkers.
    • Empirical research relies on experience or observation alone; it is data based research;
  • 3. Quantitative vs. Qualitative
    • Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity – it is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity.
    • Qualitative research is concerned with qualitative phenomena – relating to or involving quality or kind. Ex.-motivation research.
  • 4. Applied vs. Fundamental
    • Research can either be applied (action) research or fundamental (basic or pure). Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing society or an organization, whereas, fundamental research is mainly concerned with generalizations and with formulation of a theory.
  • Research Process
    • Research Process consists of series of actions or steps necessary to effectively carry out research.
    • The process consists of closely related activities; such activities overlap continuously rather than following a strictly prescribed sequence.
    • The steps are as follows:
  • Research Process
    • Formulating the research problem
    • Extensive literature survey
    • Development of working hypothesis
    • Preparing the research design
    • Determining sample design
    • Collecting the data
    • Execution of the project
    • Analysis of data
    • Hypothesis-testing
    • Generalization and Interpretation
    • Preparation of the Report
  • 1. Formulating the Research Problem
    • Two types of problems:
    • Problems which related to state of nature
    • Problems which relate to relationships between variables
    • The formulation of a general topic into a specific research problem is the first step in scientific enquiry
  • Formulating the Research Problem…
    • Two steps in formulating the research problem:
    • Understanding the problem thoroughly
    • Rephrasing the same into meaningful terms from an analytical point of view
  • Formulating the Research Problem…
    • Must review two types of literature:
    • The Conceptual literature concerning concepts and theories
    • The Empirical literature consisting of earlier studies, which are similar to the one proposed
  • Formulating the Research Problem…
    • Formulating/defining a research problem is of great importance and significance in the entire research process
    • The problem must be defined unambiguously
    • Must verify the objectivity and validity of background facts concerning the problem
  • 2. Extensive Literature Review
    • Abstracting/Indexing journals
    • Published/Unpublished bibliographies
    • Academic journals
    • Conference proceedings
    • Govt. Reports
    • Books
  • 3. Development of Working Hypothesis
    • The researcher should state, in clear terms the working hypothesis
    • Working Hypothesis is a tentative assumption made in order to draw out and test its logical or empirical assumptions
    • Hypothesis is the focal point of the research, for ex: “students who receive counseling will show a greater increase in creativity than students not receiving counseling” or “car A is performing as well as car B”
  • Functions of a Hypothesis
    • It guides the direction of the study.
    • It identifies facts that are relevant and those that are not.
    • It suggests which form of research design is likely to be most appropriate.
    • It provides a framework for organizing the conclusions that result
  • 4. Preparing the Research Design
    • Need to prepare a research design – a conceptual structure within which the research would be conducted
    • The primary objective of the research design is to collect the relevant data
    • Research Purposes may be grouped into
    • Exploration
    • Description
    • Diagnosis
    • Experimentation
    • Many research designs exist.
  • 5. Determining the Sample Design
    • All the items under consideration in any field constitute a “Universe” or “Population”
    • A complete enumeration of all the items in the “population” is known as a “census enquiry”
    • Since a complete census enquiry is not possible generally, we select a ‘sample’ – a few items from the “universe” for our study
    • Researcher selects the sample by using ‘sampling design’ – a definite plan determined before any data is actually collected
  • Types of Sampling
    • Deliberate Sampling
    • Simple Random Sampling
    • Systematic Sampling
    • Quota Sampling
    • Stratified Sampling
    • Cluster/area Sampling
    • Multi-stage Sampling
    • Sequential Sampling
  • 6. Collecting the Data
    • Need to collect appropriate data
    • Primary data can be collected thru experiment or survey
    • In experiment, he observes some quantitative measurements (data), with which the hypothesis is tested
    • In Survey, data can be collected by the following methods:
    • Observation
    • Personal Interview
    • Telephone Interview
    • Mailing Questionnaires
    • Through Schedules
  • 7. Execution of the Project
    • The research study must be executed in a systematic manner to ensure that adequate and dependable data are collected.
    • Should be rigorously methodological
  • 8. Analysis of Data
    • Requires that the data be necessarily condensed into manageable groups and tables for further analyses
    • Should classify the new data into some purposeful and usable categories
    • Coding is done at this stage
    • Tabulation – classified data are put into tables
    • Analysis, after tabulation is based on the computation of various percentages, coefficients, etc. by applying statistics
    • Tests of significance would be applied wherever relevant
  • 9. Hypothesis Testing
    • Do the data support the hypothesis or they contrary?
    • Chi Square test, t-test, f-test are normally used
    • Hypothesis testing will result in either accepting the hypothesis or in rejecting it
  • 10. Generalization & Interpretation
    • To arrive at a generalization, that is, to build a theory
    • Or to interpret the data in terms of existing state of knowledge (theories)
  • 11. Preparation of Report/Thesis
    • Has to prepare the report
    • The layout of the report is as follows:
    • The prefatory part
    • The Main Body/Text
    • The Supplemental Part
  • The Prefatory Part
    • Title page
    • Certification
    • Acknowledgments
    • Preface
    • Contents page
  • The Main Body
    • Introduction
    • Summary of Findings
    • Main Report
    • conclusion
  • The Supplemental Part
    • References, or
    • Bibliography
    • Appendices
    • Index
  • Good Research Requires
      • The scope and limitations of the work to be clearly defined.
      • The process to be clearly explained so that it can be reproduced and verified by other researchers.
      • A thoroughly planned design that is as objective as possible.
      • Highly ethical standards are applied.
      • All limitations are documented.
      • Data be adequately analyzed and explained.
      • All findings are presented unambiguously and all conclusions be justified by sufficient evidence.