The promotion of environmentally safe or beneficial products, green marketing began in Europe in the early 1980s when specific products were identified as being harmful to the earth’s atmosphere.
As a result, new “green” products were introduced that were less damaging to the environment. The concept caught on in the United States and has been gaining steadily ever since.
As today’s consumers become more conscious of the natural environment, businesses are beginning to modify their own thoughts and behavior in an attempt to address the concerns of consumers.
Evolution of Green marketing According to Peattie (2001), the evolution of green marketing has three phases. First phase was termed as "Ecological" green marketing, and during this period all marketing activities were concerned to help environment problems and provide remedies for environmental problems. Second phase was "Environmental" green marketing and the focus shifted on clean technology that involved designing of innovative new products, which take care of pollution and waste issues. Third phase was "Sustainable" green marketing. It came into prominence in the late 1990s and early 2000.
Pride and Ferrell (1993) Green marketing, also alternatively known as environmental marketing and sustainable marketing, refers to an organizations efforts at designing, promoting, pricing and distributing products that will not harm the environment
Benefits A sign of a good green marketing program is one that has strong links to localenvironmental groups and that achieves broad support among regional and national groups with an interest in promoting renewable power. Companies that develop new and improved products and services with environment inputs in mind give themselves access
to new markets
increase their profit sustainability and
enjoy a competitive advantage over the companies
which are not concerned for the environment.
Benefits First and foremost, a good green marketing program is one that either: Adds renewable that would not already be added or supports renewable projects thatmight not otherwise continue to operate. If these things are already happening and being paid for by all, then the program doesn't meet the bottom-line test: green marketing programs must make a difference. A sign of a good green marketing program is one that has strong links to localenvironmental groups and that achieves broad support among regional and national groups with an interest in promoting renewable power. Companies that develop new and improved products and services with environment inputs in mind give themselves access
to new markets
increase their profit sustainability and
enjoy a competitive advantage over the companies
which are not concerned for the environment.
Adaption of Green Marketing There are basically five reasons for which a marketer should go for the adoption of green marketing. They are –
Opportunities or competitive advantage
Corporate social responsibilities (CSR)
Cost or profit issues
Adaption of Green Marketing OPPORTUNITIES As demands change, many firms see these changes as an opportunity to be exploited and have a competitive advantage over firms marketing non-environmentally responsible alternatives. Some example of firms who have strived to become more environmentally responsible, in an attempt to better satisfy their consumer needs are: McDonald's replaced its clam shell packaging with waxed paper because of increased consumer concern relating to polystyrene production and Ozone depletion. Tuna manufacturers modified their fishing techniques because of the increased concern over driftnet fishing, and the resulting death of dolphins. Xerox introduced a "high quality" recycled photocopier paper in an attempt to satisfy the demands of firms for less environmentally harmful products.
Adaption of Green Marketing SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY Many firms are beginning to realize that they are members of the wider community and therefore must behave in an environmentally responsible fashion thus resulting in environmental issues being integrated into the firm's corporate culture. An example of a firm that does not promote its environmental initiatives is Coca-Cola which invested large sums of money in various recycling activities, as well as having modified their packaging to minimize its environmental impact. Another firm who is very environmentally responsible but does not promote this fact, at least outside the organization, is Walt Disney World (WDW) with an extensive waste management program and infrastructure.
Adaption of Green Marketing GOVERNMENTAL PRESSURE Governmental regulations relating to environmental marketing are designed to protect consumers through regulations designed to control the amount of hazardous wastes produced by firms by issuing of various environmental licenses, thus modifying organizational behavior. In some cases governments try to "induce" final consumers to become more responsible by taxing individuals who act in an irresponsible fashion. For example in Australia there is a higher gas tax associated with leaded petrol.
Adaption of Green Marketing COMPETITIVE PRESSURE Another major force in the environmental marketing area has been firms' desire to maintain their competitive position. In many cases firms observe competitors promoting their environmental behaviors and attempt to emulate this behavior. In some instances this competitive pressure has caused an entire industry to modify and thus reduce its detrimental environmental behavior. For example, it could be argued that Xerox's "Revive 100% Recycled paper" was introduced a few years ago in an attempt to address the introduction of recycled photocopier paper by other manufacturers. In another example when one tuna manufacture stopped using driftnets the others followed suit.
Adaption of Green Marketing COST OR PROFIT ISSUES Disposing of environmentally harmful by-products, such as polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated oil are becoming increasingly costly and in some cases difficult. In minimizing wastes firms often develop more effective production processes that reduces the need for some raw materials thus serving as a double cost savings. In other cases firms attempt to find end-of-pipe solutions, instead of minimizing waste by trying to find markets or uses for their waste materials, where one firm's waste becomes another firm's input of production.
Green Marketing Mix The 4 P's of green marketing are that of a conventional marketing but the challenge before marketers is to use 4 P's in an innovative manner. Product
The ecological objectives in planning products are to reduce resource consumption and pollution and to increase conservation of scarce resources (Keller man, 1978).
Price is a critical and important factor of green marketing mix. Most consumers will only be prepared to pay additional value if there is a perception of extra product value. This value may be improved performance, function, design, visual appeal, or taste. Green marketing should take all these facts into consideration while charging a premium price.
Green Marketing Mix The 4 P's of green marketing are that of a conventional marketing but the challenge before marketers is to use 4 P's in an innovative manner. Promotion
There are three types of green advertising: -
* Ads that address a relationship between a product/service and the biophysical environment * Those that promote a green lifestyle by highlighting a product or service * Ads that present a corporate image of environmental responsibility
The choice of where and when to make a product available will have significant impact on the customers. Very few customers will go out of their way to buy green products.
People +Profit +Planet = P3 Strategies We Transition organizations from single a bottom line to a triple bottom line of success for people, profit, and the planet (P3).
Green Code G eneralise with care. R emember E xplore E nsure N eutrality is important.
Green Code G eneralise with care. Consumer behaviour will not necessarily be consistent across different product types, and particular market segments may respond to certain issues on the green agenda but not others. R emember, the validity of a piece of market research is not related to the degree to which it supports your preferred option. E xplore the context from which market research data comes. Be clear on the nature of the sample used, the questions asked, the way in which responses were recorded and the time and place from which the responses come. E nsure that where market research is crossing international borderlines, that the terminology and interpretation remains consistent. Terms like ‘environment’, ‘green’ and ‘conservation’ do not always translate precisely between languages. N eutrality is important. Ensure that when you pose questions to consumers, that they can make any response without being made to feel guilty or uncomfortable, and ensure that your own preconceptions about the green agenda (such as an assumption that green products will cost extra) are not encoded within the questions.
Challenges Ahead Green products require renewable and recyclable material, which is costly Requires a technology, which requires huge investment in R & D Water treatment technology, which is too costly Majority of the people are not aware of green products and their uses Majority of the consumers are not willing to pay a premium for green products
Beryl Notebook an “ultra green” notebook
Beryl or EcoBook Or / / / / / Manufacturing your future. And ours/ an “ultra green” laptop Select any of the above or else find any good tagline as well as product name.
Beryl – name meaning – origin It is of Greek origin, and its meaning is "lightgreensemipreciousgemstone". The word is of Indian origin, from the Sanskrit term "veruliya". The beryl was considered a token of goodluck.
Beryl - name meaning, origin The girl's name Beryl(e)- ryl, ber- yl is pronounced BEHR-el. It is of Greek origin, and its meaning is "lightgreensemipreciousgemstone". The word is of Indian origin, from the Sanskrit term "veruliya". The beryl was considered a token of goodluck. Biblical: the eighthfoundationstone of the wall of New Jerusalem was made of beryl. The name came into fashion at the end of the 19thcentury. AuthorBeryl Markham. Beryl has 7 variant forms: Beril, Berri, Berrie, Berry, Beryle, Berylla and Beryn. For more information, see also related names Cheryl and Jewel. Baby names that sound like Beryl are Perl, Pearl, Perle and Perla. Beryl is a very common first name for women (#948 out of 4276) but an uncommon last name for both men and women. (1990 U.S. Census) Displayed below is the baby name popularity trend for the girl name Beryl. Compare Beryl with its variant forms and related girl names.
Beryl - name meaning, origin The girl's name Esmeraldae-smeral- da, es-mera- lda is pronounced ez-mer-AHL-dah. It is of Spanish origin, and its meaning is "emerald". Variant of Emerald, the prizedgreengemstone. This jewel name was first used in the 1880s. Name of a character in the Disneycartoonfilm "The Hunchback of Notre Dame", which was based on Victor Hugo's novel. Esmeralda has 14 variant forms: Em, Emmie, Emerald, Emerant, Emeraude, Esma, Esmaralda, Esmarelda, Esmaria, Esmie, Esmiralda, Esmiralde, Esmirelda and Ezmeralda. For more information, see also the related name Meralda. Esmeralda is a very common first name for women (#779 out of 4276) but an uncommon last name for both men and women. (1990 U.S. Census) Displayed below is the baby name popularity trend for the girl name Esmeralda. Compare Esmeralda with its variant forms and related girl names.
Features protected by a durable magnesium alloy frame. This protects your hard drive from shock. energy-saving laptop design that facilitates better air flow under the laptop, therefore reducing energy used by a cooling fan. The Modulus uses snap fittings rather than screws, which makes it easy to maintain and recycle when the laptop reaches the end of it’s life. 1. Problem: Petroleum-filled plastic. Solution: Create with laptops bio-plastics made from corn polymers. The main problem at the point is to create a heat-resistant polymer that can withstand the heat from a laptop. 2. Problem: Power Supply. Solution: Use the power of the sunTo charge the laptop. Solar chargers are in the works. 3. Problem of lead products in the garbage. Solution: As mentioned above, the European Union has adopted leading legal restrictions. President Bush has followed with standards for U.S. use the American model. 4. Spinning Disk problem. Solution: Future laptops could reduce their energy consumption up to 10 percent by replacing hard drives with flash memory that does not watt-hungry moving parts. Dell debuted a laptopwith a 32-gigabyte solid-state drive later this year.
Green Marketing Strategies We are been greener at all stages: Manufacturing Transportation Product Use Recycling Facilities
Green Marketing Strategies Manufacturing Material use: Beryl designs smaller, thinner, lighter products, we do more with less material. Beryl features a revolutionary unibody design, which replaces dozens of individual parts with a single piece of recyclable aluminum. Manufacturing
Green Marketing Strategies `Toxic substance removal. Beryl designs smaller, thinner, lighter products, we do more with less material. Beryl features a revolutionary unibody design, which replaces dozens of individual parts with a single piece of recyclable aluminum. Manufacturing
Green Marketing Strategies Smaller packaging. Efficient packaging design helps reduce the emissions produced during transportation. Transportation
Green Marketing Strategies Energy use Beryl designs products to be energy efficient. In fact, every Berylmeets the strict low-power requirements of the ENERGY STAR specification. Lower power consumption reduces energy bills and lessens the environmental impact of greenhouse gas emissions from power plants. Energy Efficiency
Green Marketing Strategies Power Management There are three ways to reduce a product’s energy consumption: Use more efficient power supplies, use components that require less power, and use power management software. . Energy Efficiency
Green Marketing Strategies Product recyclability. Beryl approach to recycling begins in the design stage, where we create compact, efficient products that require less material to produce. Longer-lasting products The built-in battery in Beryl is a perfect example. Other notebook batteries can be charged only 200 to 300 times. The Beryl battery can be charged up to 1000 times. And because this battery lasts up to five years, Beryl uses just one battery in about the same time a typical notebook uses three. That saves you money, produces less waste, and increases the lifespan of your Beryl. Recyclability
Green Marketing Strategies Highly recyclable products Beryl products are made of high-quality materials such as aluminum, polycarbonate, and glass, making them extremely valuable to recyclers. Beryl recycling programs Beryl offers a free recycling program for old computers and displays with the purchase of any new Beryl. A free Beryl recycling program conducted through Beryl Retail Stores offers environmentally friendly disposal and 10 percent off the purchase of a new Beryl. And a free online recycling program takes back all Beryl models— regardless of manufacturer. Recyclability
Green Marketing Strategies Get free recycling with every new Beryl. Recycle even if you’re not buying a new Beryl. Recycle Beryl batteries free. Bring your old Beryl batteries to an Beryl Retail Store near you and we’ll recycle them free. Recyclability
Green Marketing Strategies Energy use Beryl reduces energy use in our facilities in a number of ways. We have installed energy-efficient lighting and added motion sensors for automatic shutoff, saving electricity. Our units operate entirely on renewable energy. And, of course, we use energy-efficient Beryl computers in all our facilities. Facilities
Green Marketing Strategies Employee Commuter Programs Beryl provides its employees with alternatives to driving their own vehicles to work. Many employees take advantage of our public transportation incentives. And each day, Beryl employees ride our free biodiesel commuter coaches. Facilities
Bag Features: The Generator Laptop Bag From Voltaic Systems Eco Factor: Solar Panels to power your laptop for extended periods of time (and just about any handheld electronic for that matter), but it's made from recycled PET bottles to boot. Recycled Polyester Its innovative energy storage system—storing up to 15 watts when fully charged
The Generator Laptop Bag From Voltaic Systems Why We Like It: Unlike some other solar paneled bags, Voltaic's Generator actually looks stylish—in other words, you'll be able to tote your laptop around without looking like an extra from BattlestarGalactica. It's modern, designed well, and reasonably subtle. Eco Factor: This one's off the charts: It's the king of green laptop cases. The greenest of the green, some might say. Okay, you get the point—here's why: Not only does this bad boy boast enough solar panels to power your laptop for extended periods of time (and just about any handheld electronic for that matter), but it's made from recycled PET bottles to boot. Its innovative energy storage system—storing up to 15 watts when fully charged—lets you snag power from a cigarette lighter portal or a USB port of a plugged-in computer (if it happens to be gloomy out). Carrying Capacity: It will hold up to a 17 inch-laptop, nice and snug thanks to the adjustable padded laptop sleeve. How Much: And finally some bad news: the $500 price tag. Hey, being revolutionary doesn't come cheap.
Why We Like It:GreenSmart's Bottles 2 Bags laptop jacket is simple, inexpensive, and green. The bag's look is stark and minimal—but it will certainly get the job done. Functional perks include a zipper system that allows you to keep the laptop in the bag, with easy access to power cords in the back.
Eco Factor:Bottles 2 Bags is made out of polyester from 100 percent recycled PET bottles, which makes it way better than a bag made out of virgin polyester. But we should keep in mind that materials made out of recycled PET bottles aren't an end-all answer: Much oil is still used during the recycling process, rendering the benefit of such products a little less remarkable. Carrying Capacity: Seven different sizes to choose from means it will fit just about any laptop. How Much: $45-$55, depending on size.
The Fusion Messenger Bag From Eclipse Solar Gear Why We Like It: Far less expensive than its solar powering counterpart, Eclipse Solar Gear's Fusion is a good way to get some photovoltaic bang for your buck. It kinda looks like it was designed to appear on Star Trek (it's all those compartments and that super-shininess, we think). But, with a little finesse, you can turn the sci-fi motif into an ironic, kitchy aesthetic—and just enjoy wearing a bag that obviously has no qualms about showing off its futuristic solar power capacity.
Eco Factor: The bag's solar cells will store up to 2.5 watts of power, which isn't really adequate to power a laptop. However, it's perfect for fueling your iPod or cell phone—just make sure to get a standard 12-volt plug (the kind that fits into a car's cigarette lighter) for your electronic. You'll never have to worry about running out of juice on your cell again. Unfortunately, the bag itself, made of nylon, isn't inherently green.
Carrying Capacity: Its measurements are 18 inches by 13 inches by 5 inches and it weighs 3 pounds—big enough to fit even a mammoth notebook. How Much: $160
The Tree Messenger Bag From Flat Bags Why We Like It: Not strictly a laptop case, there's nonetheless ample room to carry your unit in the innovative and distinctively cool-looking Tree Messenger Bag from Flat Bags. It's offered over at Canada's Eco-Handbags, a cool site altogether that features green bags from a slew of different designers. For laptop-toting bikers, this bag is ideal—it boasts a special strap that fastens around your waist while you ride.
Eco Factor: This bag is handmade from recycled bicycle tubes (is that considered cannibalism by bike messengers?) and discovered fabrics. Which means this is the only vinyl vinyl, or PVC, is seriously un-green you should be slinging over your shoulder. Plus, Flat Bags is a consistently eco-conscious company.
Carrying Capacity: The Tree is not as big as some of the other bags, and comes with no special slot for your laptop, but the two inside pockets should more than do the trick. How Much: $139CAD or about $114USD
Tartan Fabric Laptop Messenger From Timbuk2 Why We Like It: The Tartan Fabric Laptop Messenger from Timbuk2 is the only laptop bag on the block made from recycled plaid—paying homage to 70s style or perhaps 90s grunge while you gallivant around town with your notebook. Why must you be gallivanting around, you ask? Because you're swinging this slick, water-proof, easily adjustable, beautifully stitched messenger bag, of course.
Eco Factor: Two Words: Recycled polyester. These laptop bags are evidently made from old leisure suits. Which we find fantastic. What's more, Timbuk2 has a solid reputation for making durable goods—and this bag is no exception. They're made in San Francisco, so if you're a West Coaster, the bags won't have to sail across the country to reach your doorstep.
Carrying Capacity: The small fits a 13-inch laptop, and the medium (which is $20 more) adds an extra inch. How Much: $135 or $155
TV and Print Media
Social Networking – twitter, facebook
Blogs & Word Press
Podcast/ Video casts – Digital media file sent over internet played in media player & PC’s. Ex. Ads on You tube or online videos
Sales promotion – contests(it requires skill) & Sweeptakes (involves only a pure chance of drawing for the winners), discount offers, exchange offers
Website – low cost alternative to paper brouchures or press releases sent in overnight mail; product information often updated in company databases; It can reach new prospects who are searching for particular product.
Online Events – sponsoring for online event like Greenathon by NDTV, Green Christmas Appeal on websites like www.bemoreeco.com