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Ch18 Organizational Culture
Ch18 Organizational Culture
Ch18 Organizational Culture
Ch18 Organizational Culture
Ch18 Organizational Culture
Ch18 Organizational Culture
Ch18 Organizational Culture
Ch18 Organizational Culture
Ch18 Organizational Culture
Ch18 Organizational Culture
Ch18 Organizational Culture
Ch18 Organizational Culture
Ch18 Organizational Culture
Ch18 Organizational Culture
Ch18 Organizational Culture
Ch18 Organizational Culture
Ch18 Organizational Culture
Ch18 Organizational Culture
Ch18 Organizational Culture
Ch18 Organizational Culture
Ch18 Organizational Culture
Ch18 Organizational Culture
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Ch18 Organizational Culture

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  • 1. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S W W W . P R E N H A L L . C O M / R O B B I N S T E N T H E D I T I O N © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook
  • 2. AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: <ul><li>Describe institutionalization and its relationship to organizational culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Define the common characteristics making up organizational culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast strong and weak cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the functional and dysfunctional effects of organizational culture on people and the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the factors determining an organization’s culture. </li></ul>L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S
  • 3. AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: <ul><li>List the factors that maintain an organization’s culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify how culture is transmitted to employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Outline the various socialization alternatives available to management. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe a customer-responsive culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify characteristics of a spiritual culture. </li></ul>L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S (cont’d)
  • 4. Institutionalization: A Forerunner of Culture
  • 5. What Is Organizational Culture? <ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation and risk taking </li></ul><ul><li>Attention to detail </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome orientation </li></ul><ul><li>People orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Team orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Stability </li></ul>
  • 6. What Is Organizational Culture? (cont’d)
  • 7. What Is Organizational Culture? (cont’d)
  • 8. What Is Organizational Culture? (cont’d) <ul><li>Culture Versus Formalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A strong culture increases behavioral consistency and can act as a substitute for formalization. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational Culture Versus National Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National culture has a greater impact on employees than does their organization’s culture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationals selected to work for foreign companies may be atypical of the local/native population. </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. What Do Cultures Do? <ul><li>Culture’s Functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Defines the boundary between one organization and others. </li></ul><ul><li>Conveys a sense of identity for its members. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates the generation of commitment to something larger than self-interest. </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances the stability of the social system. </li></ul>
  • 10. What Do Cultures Do? <ul><li>Culture as a Liability: </li></ul><ul><li>Barrier to change </li></ul><ul><li>Barrier to diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Barrier to acquisitions and mergers </li></ul>
  • 11. Keeping Culture Alive <ul><li>Selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concerned with how well the candidates will fit into the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides information to candidates about the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Top Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Senior executives help establish behavioral norms that are adopted by the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process that helps new employees adapt to the organization’s culture. </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. Stages in the Socialization Process
  • 13. A Socialization Model E X H I B I T 18-2
  • 14. Entry Socialization Options <ul><li>Formal versus Informal </li></ul><ul><li>Individual versus Collective </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed versus Variable </li></ul><ul><li>Serial versus Random </li></ul><ul><li>Investiture versus Divestiture </li></ul>E X H I B I T 18-3
  • 15. How Organization Cultures Form E X H I B I T 18-4
  • 16. How Employees Learn Culture <ul><li>Stories </li></ul><ul><li>Rituals </li></ul><ul><li>Material Symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul>
  • 17. Creating An Ethical Organizational Culture <ul><li>Characteristics of Organizations that Develop High Ethical Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High tolerance for risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low to moderate in aggressiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on means as well as outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Managerial Practices Promoting an Ethical Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Being a visible role model. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicating ethical expectations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing ethical training. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visibly rewarding ethical acts and punishing unethical ones. </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. Creating a Customer-Responsive Culture <ul><li>Key Variables Shaping Customer-Responsive Cultures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The types of employees hired by the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low formalization: the freedom to meet customer service requirements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empowering employees with decision-making discretion to please the customer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good listening skills to understand customer messages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role clarity that allows service employees to act as “boundary spanners.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees who engage in organizational citizenship behaviors. </li></ul></ul>
  • 19. Creating a Customer-Responsive Culture <ul><li>Managerial Actions: </li></ul><ul><li>Select new employees with personality and attitudes consistent with high service orientation. </li></ul><ul><li>Train and socialize current employees to be more customer focused. </li></ul><ul><li>Change organizational structure to give employees more control. </li></ul><ul><li>Empower employees to make decision about their jobs. </li></ul>
  • 20. Creating a Customer-Responsive Culture <ul><li>Managerial Actions (cont’d) : </li></ul><ul><li>Lead by conveying a customer-focused vision and demonstrating commitment to customers. </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct performance appraisals based on customer-focused employee behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide ongoing recognition for employees who make special efforts to please customers. </li></ul>
  • 21. Spirituality and Organizational Culture <ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>Strong sense of purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on individual development </li></ul><ul><li>Trust and openness </li></ul><ul><li>Employee empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Toleration of employee expression </li></ul>
  • 22. How Organizational Cultures Have an Impact on Performance and Satisfaction E X H I B I T 18-7

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