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Computing History Part2

Computing History Part2






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    Computing History Part2 Computing History Part2 Presentation Transcript

      • “ The semiconductor density is the driving force, and as you reach new densities, new machines pop out.” Gordon Bell.
      • Advances in chip density made an impact on calculators.
      • Notable are HP-65, programmable calculators, introduced as a personal computer.
      • Created a market with long production runs, thereby getting economies of
      • scale and low price.
      • First consumer market for logic chips.
      • Unleasher creative force among users.
      • Led to the rise of “hacker culture” of MIT.
      • Led to the rise of user groups, support magazines etc, indicating that computing
      • was a mass phenomenon, as HP could not afford a trained sales force which could
      • train customers to get the best out of the product.
      • This kind of supporting infrastructure would later become critical to the industry,
      • and become an industry on its own.
    • The Microprocessor
      • Gordon Moore, founder of Intel, noted that the number of transistors that one
      • could place on a single chip, doubled every year.
      • If enough transistors were placed on a single chip, it would make a general
      • computer
      • 1971, the first microprocessor was developed at Intel.
      • A general purpose chip with a few instructions, and most other operations
      • realised by a combination of these instructions.
    • The role of hobbyists
      • Hobbyists played a key role in the development of the computing industry.
      • They made the microprocessor based systems practical.
      • A magazine announced a $400 kit, which one could assemble into a computer.
      • Once again this inspired extensive user support, and the lack of certain
      • capabilities inspired certain innovations, like the floppy disks.
      • BASIC was deverloped to fit into little memory, and yet gave impressive
      • performance
      • Augmenting Human Intellect
      • DEC bet the company on the VAX, with a virtual memory, and MIPS, which became a benchmark
      • POTS to OLTP -> a use of terminals for online access appeared, tailored for specific applications. Like the SABRE.
      • Wang Labs, paved the way for office automation, by developing word processing softwares.
      • Xerox PARC. Research done at the labs, defined interactive computing as we know it today. The Mouse, WIMP.
      • The move of research from universities to PARC, forced cost and marketing onto the products.
      • Steve Jobs and Wozniak developed the Apple II, which was one of the first instances where aesthetic considerations influenced design.
      • IBM PC influenced MS-DOS
      • The Clones.
      • Compaq, developed an IBM Compatible portable computer
      • Phoenix made an IBM Compatibe bios chip.
      • Soon, Dell and compaq would make more money selling IBM Compatible
      • machines than IBM would
      • The winner was MS, selling software to all.
      • This era brought S/w to the fore. H/w no longer became the driving force
      • Of computing.
      • UNIX and the NET
      • UNIX, developed at AT & T Bell labs, became the main reason for the
      • eclipsing of mainframes and minicomputers.
      • Provided an alternative to those ancient elephants. Small computers, networked
      • Together, would provide an alternative to those machines.
      • The network was the Ethernet, developed at PARC.
      • DEC, once again bet the company on VAX. Provided the VAX with small
      • computers networked together.
      • DEC phased out the PDP-10.
      • RISC Architectures.
      • Henessey and Patterson, developed the architecture.
      • Small number of instructions offered a way of improving processor speed.
      • SUN SPARC overcame any skepticism of the RISC.
      • With this, SUN took the advantage open systems, general purpose machines,
      • Offering good performance at low prices.
      • Ethernet.
      • Enabled the introduction of LAN’s, which paved the way for the PC to completely
      • Invade the corporate offices.
      • The internet. Descended from ARPAnet. Funding was from the ARPA and NSF.
      • GOPHER -> first routing protocol.
      • Mosaic -> Browser.
    • Further developments. HTML, HTTP, www, hypertext. The internet is often described as the culmination of all developments in computing.