Romans 6:3 Do you not know that all of us who have been baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? 6:4 We were buried therefore with him by baptism into death, so that as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, we too might walk in newness of life. 6:5 For if we have been united with him in a death like his, we shall certainly be united with him in a resurrection like his. 6:6 We know that our old self was crucified with him so that the sinful body might be destroyed, and we might no longer be enslaved to sin. 6:7 For he who has died is freed from sin. 6:8 But if we have died with Christ, we believe that we shall also live with him. 6:9 For we know that Christ being raised from the dead will never die again; death no longer has dominion over him. 6:10 The death he died he died to sin, once for all, but the life he lives he lives to God. 6:11 So you also must consider yourselves dead to sin and alive to God in Christ Jesus. John 3:1 Now there was a man of the Pharisees, named Nicode'mus, a ruler of the Jews. 3:2 This man came to Jesus by night and said to him, &quot;Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher come from God; for no one can do these signs that you do, unless God is with him.&quot; 3:3 Jesus answered him, &quot;Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born anew, he cannot see the kingdom of God.&quot; 3:4 Nicode'mus said to him, &quot;How can a man be born when he is old? Can he enter a second time into his mother's womb and be born?&quot; 3:5 Jesus answered, &quot;Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God. 3:6 That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.
“ this sacrament the Holy Ghost is given for strength in the spiritual combat.” St. Thomas Aquinas, ST III, 72, 4 “ in Confirmation he receives power to do those things which pertain to the spiritual combat with the enemies of the Faith. This is evident from the example of the apostles, who, before they received the fulness of the Holy Ghost, were in the &quot;upper room . . . persevering . . . in prayer&quot; (Acts 1:13-14); whereas afterwards they went out and feared not to confess their faith in public, even in the face of the enemies of the Christian Faith.” St. Thomas Aquinas, ST III, 72, 5 “ All have to wage the spiritual combat with our invisible enemies. But to fight against visible foes, viz. against the persecutors of the Faith, by confessing Christ's name, belongs to the confirmed, who have already come spiritually to the age of virility, according to 1 John 2:14: &quot;I write unto you, young men, because you are strong, and the word of God abideth in you, and you have overcome the wicked one.&quot; And therefore the character of Confirmation is a distinctive sign, not between unbelievers and believers, but between those who are grown up spiritually and those of whom it is written: &quot;As new-born babes&quot; (1 Peter 2:2).” (ibid.) “ the age of the body does not affect the soul. Consequently even in childhood man can attain to the perfection of spiritual age, of which it is written (Wisdom 4:8): &quot;Venerable old age is not that of long time, nor counted by the number of years.&quot; And hence it is that many children, by reason of the strength of the Holy Ghost which they had received, fought bravely for Christ even to the shedding of their blood.” (ibid.)
Joel 2:28 – “… And it shall come to pass afterward, that I will pour out my spirit on all flesh…” Is 44:3-5 – “For I will pour water on the thirsty land, and streams on the dry ground; I will pour my Spirit upon your descendants, and my blessing on your offspring. They shall spring up like grass amid waters, like willows by flowing streams. This one will say, 'I am the LORD's,' another will call himself by the name of Jacob, and another will write on his hand, 'The LORD's,' and surname himself by the name of Israel.&quot; Ezek 39:29 – “and I will not hide my face any more from them, when I pour out my Spirit upon the house of Israel, says the Lord GOD.“” Lk 4:16-22 – “And he came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up; and he went to the synagogue, as his custom was, on the sabbath day. And he stood up to read; and there was given to him the book of the prophet Isaiah. He opened the book and found the place where it was written, &quot;The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim release to the captives and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty those who are oppressed, to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord. &quot;And he closed the book, and gave it back to the attendant, and sat down; and the eyes of all in the synagogue were fixed on him. And he began to say to them, &quot;Today this scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing.&quot;And all spoke well of him, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth; and they said, &quot;Is not this Joseph's son?“” Jn 14:16-17 – “And I will pray the Father, and he will give you another Counselor, to be with you for ever, even the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it neither sees him nor knows him; you know him, for he dwells with you, and will be in you. Jn 14:26 - But the Counselor, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things, and bring to your remembrance all that I have said to you. Jn 16:7 - Nevertheless I tell you the truth: it is to your advantage that I go away, for if I do not go away, the Counselor will not come to you; but if I go, I will send him to you. Lk 24:49 - And behold, I send the promise of my Father upon you; but stay in the city, until you are clothed with power from on high. Acts 1:5 - for John baptized with water, but before many days you shall be baptized with the Holy Spirit.&quot; Jn 7:38-39 - He who believes in me, as the scripture has said, 'Out of his heart shall flow rivers of living water.’ Now this he said about the Spirit, which those who believed in him were to receive; for as yet the Spirit had not been given, because Jesus was not yet glorified. Acts 2:4 - And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance. Acts 8:14-18 – “Now when the apostles at Jerusalem heard that Sama'ria had received the word of God, they sent to them Peter and John, who came down and prayed for them that they might receive the Holy Spirit; for it had not yet fallen on any of them, but they had only been baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus. Then they laid their hands on them and they received the Holy Spirit. Now when Simon saw that the Spirit was given through the laying on of the apostles' hands, he offered them money…” Acts 19:5-6 - On hearing this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus. And when Paul had laid his hands upon them, the Holy Spirit came on them; and they spoke with tongues and prophesied. 2 Cor 1:21-22 - But it is God who establishes us with you in Christ, and has commissioned us; he has put his seal upon us and given us his Spirit in our hearts as a guarantee. Eph 1:13-14 - In him you also, who have heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation, and have believed in him, were sealed with the promised Holy Spirit, which is the guarantee of our inheritance until we acquire possession of it, to the praise of his glory. Heb 6:1-2 - Therefore let us leave the elementary doctrine of Christ and go on to maturity, not laying again a foundation of repentance from dead works and of faith toward God, with instruction about ablutions, the laying on of hands, the resurrection of the dead, and eternal judgment.
St. Theophilus of Antioch (AD 181): “ Are you unwilling to be anointed with the oil of God? It is on this account that we are called Christians: because we are anointed with the oil of God.” (To Autolycus 1, 12; cf. Jurgens 174) Tertullian (AD 200/206): “ After coming from the place of washing we are thoroughly anointed with a blessed unction, from the ancient discipline by which in the priesthood they were accustomed to be anointed with a horn of oil, ever since Aaron was anointed by Moses…. So also with us, the unction runs on the body but profits us spiritually, in the same way that Baptism is itself a corporeal act by which we are plunged in water, while its effect is spiritual, in that we are freed from sins. After this the hand is imposed for a blessing, invoking and inviting the Holy Spirit.” (Baptism, 7, 1; cf. Jurgens 304) “ No soul whatever is able to obtain salvation, unless it has believed while it was in the flesh. Indeed, the flesh is the hinge of salvation. In that regard, when the soul is deputed to something by God, it is the flesh which makes it able to carry out the commission which God has given it. The flesh, then, is washed, so that the soul may be made clean. The flesh is anointed, so that the soul may be dedicated to holiness. The flesh is signed, so that the soul too may be fortified. The flesh is shaded by the imposition of hands, so that the soul too may be illuminated by the Spirit.” (The Resurrection of the Dead 8, 2;cf. Jurgen 362) St. Hippolytus of Rome, AD 204: ““ And she said to her maids, ‘Bring me oil.’” Indeed, faith and love prepare oil and cleansing unguents for those who are washed. But what were these unguents if not the commands of the Holy Word? And what the oil, if not the power of the Holy Spirit? It is with these, after the washing, that believers are anointed as with a sweet-smelling oil. All these things were prefigured through the blessed Susanna for our sakes, so that we of the present time who believe in God, might not regard as strange the things which now are done in the Church, and that we might believe that all of them have been set forth in figures by the patriarchs.” (Commentary on Daniel, 1, 16; cf. Jurgens 390) St. Cornelius I of Rome, AD 251: “ As [Novatian, head of a rigorist faction] seemed about to die, he received Baptism in the bed where he lay, by pouring—if, indeed, such a man can be said to have received it at all. And when he recovered from his illness he did not receive the other things which, in accord with the law of the Church, it is necessary to have; nor was he sealed by the bishop. And since this was not done, how could he have the Holy Spirit?” (Letter to Fabius of Antioch, 6, 43, 14; cf. Jurgens 547) St. Cyprian of Carthage, AD 254/255: “ It is necessary for him that has been baptized also to be anointed, so that by his having received chrism, that is, the anointing, he can be the anointed of God and have in himself the grace of Christ. But in turn, it is by the Eucharist that the oil with which the baptized are anointed is sanctified on the altar. He that has neither altar nor church, however, is not able to sanctify that creature, oil. Thus there can be no spiritual anointing among the heretics, since it is evident that oil cannot be sanctified nor can the Eucharist be celebrated among them at all.” (Letter of Cyprian in Council with Thirty Other Bishops of Proconsular Africa to Januarius and Seventeen Other Bishops of Numidia 70, 2; cf. Jurgens 592) “ For this reason, then, that they [those baptized in Samaria] had already received legitimate and ecclesiastical Baptism, it was not necessary to baptize them again. Rather, that only which was lacking was done by Peter and John; and thus, prayer having been made over them, and hands having been imposed upon them, the Holy Spirit was invoked and was poured out upon them. This is even now the practice among us, so that those who are baptized in the Church are then brought to the prelates of the Church; and through our prayer and the imposition of hands, they received the Holy Spirit and are perfected with the seal of the Lord.” (Letter of Cyprian to Jubaianus, a Bishop in Mauretania 73, 9; cf. Jurgens 595) St. Ephraim of Syria (AD 306-373): ““ And your floors shall be filled with wheat, and the presses shall overflow equally with wine and oil.” … This has been fulfilled mystically by Christ, who gave to the people whom He had redeemed, that is, to His Church, wheat and wine and oil in a mystic manner. For the wheat is the mystery of His sacred Body; and the win His saving Blood; and again, the oil is the sweet unguent with which those who are baptized are signed, being clothed in the armaments of the Holy Spirit.” (On Joel 2:24, cf. Jurgens 725) St. Cyril of Jerusalem, AD 350: “ But beware of supposing that this is ordinary ointment. For just as the Bread of the Eucharist after the invocation of the Holy Spirit is simple bread no longer, but the Body of Christ, so also this holy ointment is no longer plain ointment, nor, so to speak, common, after the invocation. Rather, it is the gracious gift of Christ; and it is made fit for the imparting of His Godhead by the coming of the Holy Spirit. This ointment is symbolically applied to your forehead and to your other senses; and while your body is anointed with the visible ointment, your soul is sanctified by the Holy and Lifecreating Spirit.” (Catechetical Lectures, 21 (Mystagogic 3), 3; cf. Jurgens 842)
CCC 1255 For the grace of Baptism to unfold, the parents' help is important. So too is the role of the godfather and godmother , who must be firm believers, able and ready to help the newly baptized - child or adult on the road of Christian life. Their task is a truly ecclesial function ( officium ). The whole ecclesial community bears some responsibility for the development and safeguarding of the grace given at Baptism. RCIA Whether he who is confirmed needs one to stand for him? [According to the] words of Pope Innocent, which are to be found in the Decretals (XXX, 4): &quot;If anyone raise the children of another's marriage from the sacred font, or stand for them in Confirmation,&quot; etc. Therefore, just as someone is required as sponsor of one who is baptized, so is someone required to stand for him who is to be confirmed. I answer that, As stated above (1-4-9), this sacrament is given to man for strength in the spiritual combat. Now, just as one newly born requires someone to teach him things pertaining to ordinary conduct, according to Hebrews 12:9: &quot;We have had fathers of our flesh, for instructors, and we obeyed [Vulgate: 'reverenced']&quot; them; so they who are chosen for the fight need instructors by whom they are informed of things concerning the conduct of the battle, and hence in earthly wars, generals and captains are appointed to the command of the others. For this reason he also who receives this sacrament, has someone to stand for him, who, as it were, has to instruct him concerning the fight. Likewise, since this sacrament bestows on man the perfection of spiritual age, as stated above (2 and 5), therefore he who approaches this sacrament is upheld by another, as being spiritually a weakling and a child. Reply to Objection 1. Although he who is confirmed, be adult in body, nevertheless he is not yet spiritually adult. Reply to Objection 2. Though he who is baptized is made a member of the Church, nevertheless he is not yet enrolled as a Christian soldier. And therefore he is brought to the bishop, as to the commander of the army, by one who is already enrolled as a Christian soldier. For one who is not yet confirmed should not stand for another in Confirmation. Reply to Objection 3. According to Colossians 3 (Galatians 3:28), &quot;in Christ Jesus there is neither male nor female.&quot; Consequently it matters not whether a man or a woman stand for one who is to be confirmed.
Can. 872 Insofar as possible, a person to be baptized is to be given a sponsor who assists an adult in Christian initiation … A sponsor also helps the baptized person to lead a Christian life in keeping with baptism and to fulfill faithfully the obligations inherent in it. Can. 873 There is to be only one male sponsor or one female sponsor or one of each. Can. 874 §1. To be permitted to take on the function of sponsor a person must: 1º be designated by the one to be baptized, by the parents or the person who takes their place, or in their absence by the pastor or minister and have the aptitude and intention of fulfilling this function; 2º have completed the sixteenth year of age, unless the diocesan bishop has established another age, or the pastor or minister has granted an exception for a just cause; 3º be a Catholic who has been confirmed and has already received the most holy sacrament of the Eucharist and who leads a life of faith in keeping with the function to be taken on; 4º not be bound by any canonical penalty legitimately imposed or declared; 5º not be the father or mother of the one to be baptized. §2. A baptized person who belongs to a non-Catholic ecclesial community is not to participate except together with a Catholic sponsor and then only as a witness of the baptism. Can. 892 Insofar as possible, there is to be a sponsor for the person to be confirmed; the sponsor is to take care that the confirmed person behaves as a true witness of Christ and faithfully fulfills the obligations inherent in this sacrament. Can. 893 §1. To perform the function of sponsor, a person must fulfill the conditions mentioned in can. 874. §2. It is desirable to choose as sponsor the one who undertook the same function in baptism.
Ex 34:22 - And you shall observe the feast of weeks, the first fruits of wheat harvest, and the feast of ingathering at the year's end. Deut 16:10 - Then you shall keep the feast of weeks to the LORD your God with the tribute of a freewill offering from your hand, which you shall give as the LORD your God blesses you; Jewish Encyclopedia – “ Name given by the Greek-speaking Jews to the festival which occurred fifty days (ἡ πεντηκόστη, sc. ἡΜέρα = &quot;Ḥag Ḥamishshim Yom&quot;; comp. Lev. xxiii. 16) after the offering of the barley sheaf during the Passover feast (Tobit ii. 1; II Macc. xii. 32; Josephus, &quot;Ant.&quot; iii. 10, § 6; I Cor. xvi. 8; Philo, &quot;De Septenario,&quot; §21). The Feast of the Fiftieth Day has been a many-sided one (comp. Book of Jubilees, vi. 21: &quot;This feast is twofold and of a double nature&quot;), and as a consequence has been called by many names. In the Old Testament it is called the &quot; Feast of Harvest &quot; (&quot;Ḥag ha-Ḳaẓir&quot;; Ex. xxiii. 16) and the &quot; Feast of Weeks &quot; (&quot;Ḥag Shabu'ot&quot;; ib. xxxiv. 22; Deut. xvi. 10; II Chron. viii. 13; Aramaic, &quot;Ḥagga di-Shebu'aya,&quot; Men. 65a; Greek, έορτὴ έΒδοΜάδων), also the &quot; Day of the First-Fruits &quot; (&quot;Yom ha-Bikkurim&quot;; Num. xxviii. 26; ήΜέρα τῶν νεῶν, LXX.). In the later literature it was called also the &quot; closing festival &quot; (&quot;'aẓeret&quot;; Ḥag. ii. 4; Aramaic, &quot;'aẓarta&quot;; Pes. 42b; Greek, ἄσαρθα Josephus, l.c. ). It is called, too, the &quot; closing season of the Passover &quot; (&quot;'aẓeret shel Pesaḥ&quot;; Pesiḳ. xxx. 193) to distinguish it from the seventh day of Passover and from the closing day of the Feast of Tabernacles, i.e. , the end of the fruit harvest (Lev. xxiii. 36; Num. xxix. 35; Deut. xvi. 8).”
Sophomore Theology Sophomore Theology 5 – Confirmation “ What was visible in our Savior has passed over into his mysteries ” -- St. Leo the Great
Opening Prayer <ul><li>Veni, Sancte Spiritus </li></ul><ul><li>Come, Holy Spirit, fill the hearts of your faithful. </li></ul><ul><li>And kindle in them the fire of your love. </li></ul><ul><li>Send forth your Spirit and they shall be created </li></ul><ul><li>And you will renew the face of the earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Lord, by the light of the Holy Spirit, </li></ul><ul><li>You have taught the hearts of your faithful. </li></ul><ul><li>In the same Spirit help us to relish what is right </li></ul><ul><li>And always rejoice in your consolation. </li></ul><ul><li>We ask this through Christ our Lord. Amen. </li></ul><ul><li>-- Handbook on Indulgences and Grants (1991) </li></ul>
Review <ul><li>Paschal Mystery </li></ul><ul><li>Economy of Salvation </li></ul><ul><li>Sacraments and Sacramentals </li></ul><ul><li>Ex Opere Operato </li></ul><ul><li>What makes a sacrament valid? </li></ul><ul><li>Sacramental “seal” or “indelible mark” </li></ul><ul><li>Sacrament of Baptism </li></ul><ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><li>How is it celebrated? </li></ul><ul><li>Who can receive it? </li></ul><ul><li>Who can baptize? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it necessary? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the effects of baptism? </li></ul>
Pope quiz… <ul><li>Q: Baptism in beer…is it valid? </li></ul><ul><li>A: “Since as we have learned from your report, it sometimes happens because of the scarcity of water, that infants of your lands are baptized in beer, we reply to you in the tenor of those present that, since according to evangelical doctrine it is necessary “to be reborn from water and the Holy Spirit” [Jn 3:5] they are not to be considered rightly baptized who are baptized in beer.” </li></ul><ul><li>Pope Gregory IX, Letter to an </li></ul><ul><li>Archbishop in Norway, July 8, 1241, </li></ul><ul><li>Denzinger 447 </li></ul>
Overview <ul><li>Sacrament of Confirmation </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmation in Sacred Tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Faith of the Early Fathers </li></ul><ul><li>Place of Confirmation in God’s Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it called Confirmation? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the essential rite? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the effects? </li></ul><ul><li>Who can receive this sacrament? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is the minister? </li></ul><ul><li>Catechism, Vatican II, and tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Necessity of Confirmation </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsor or Godparents </li></ul>
Sacrament of Confirmation <ul><li>Sacrament in which, by the imposition of hands, anointing with oil and prayer, a baptized person is filled with the Holy Spirit… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For the STRENGTH to live a supernatural life in Christ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For the COURAGE to outwardly confess the faith </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remember… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sacrament of “ Champions ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Champions have strength and courage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To go and champion the faith to others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ He who is baptized is made a member of the Church, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nevertheless he is not yet enrolled as a Christian soldier” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-- St. Thomas Aquinas </li></ul></ul>
Champions of Christ <ul><li>According to St. Thomas Aquinas… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirmation gives the power and right to perform actions which are necessary in the spiritual battle against the enemies of the faith </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>St. Thomas distinguishes between the fighters of Christ (the confirmed) from the simple members of the Empire of Christ (baptized) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirmation imposes an obligation to undertake the lay apostolate and it confers a capacity to carry out this obligation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cf. Summa Theologica , III, 72, 5 </li></ul>
Confirmation in Sacred Scripture <ul><li>Indirectly taught or implicit in Sacred Scripture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joel 2:28; Is 11:2; 44:3-5; 61:1; Ez 39:29 ; cf. Lk 4:16-22 - the prophets of the OT foretold the outpouring of the Holy Spirit over the whole of humanity as a characteristic of the Messianic era </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jesus promised his apostles ( Jn 14:16, 26; 16:7; Lk 24:49; Acts 1:5 ) and all the future faithful ( Jn 7:38-39 ) the mission of the Holy Spirit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On the feast of Pentecost Jesus fulfilled his word to the early Christian Church ( Acts 2:4 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequently, the apostles communicated the Holy Spirit by the outward rite of the imposition of hands on the baptized ( Acts 8:14-18; 19:5-6; cf. 2 Cor 1:21-22; Eph 1:13-14; Heb 6:2 ) </li></ul></ul>
Faith of the Early Fathers <ul><li>St. Theophilus of Antioch AD 185/191; Tertullian AD 200/206; St. Hippolytus of Rome, AD 204; St. Cornelius I of Rome, AD 251; St. Cyprian of Carthage, AD 254/255; St. Ephraim of Syria, AD 306-373; St. Cyril of Jerusalem, AD 350; etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirmation is a true sacrament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The remote matter of Confirmation is blessed oil (chrism or myron) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The proximate matter of Confirmation is the anointing made with chrism on the forehead, in the form of a cross </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The bishop is the ordinary minister of Confirmation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The priest is the extraordinary minister of Confirmation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is an obligation, however less strict, of receiving Confirmation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The effect of Confirmation is the more abundant pouring out of the graces and gifts of the Holy Spirit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>William A. Jurgens, Faith of the Early Fathers, Vol. 3, </li></ul><ul><li>Doctrinal Index, p. 380 </li></ul>
Place of Confirmation in God’s Plan <ul><li>In the Old Testament the prophets announced that the Spirit of the Lord would rest on the awaited Messiah and on the entire messianic people. The whole life and mission of Jesus were carried out in total communion with the Holy Spirit. The apostles received the Holy Spirit at Pentecost and proclaimed “the great works of God” ( Acts 2:11). They gave the gift of the same Spirit to the newly baptized by the laying on of hands. Down through the centuries, the Church has continued to live by the Spirit and to impart him to her children. </li></ul><ul><li>[CCCC 265] </li></ul>
Why is it called “Confirmation?” <ul><li>It is called Chrismation (in the Eastern Churches: Anointing with holy myron or chrism) because the essential rite of the sacrament is anointing with chrism. It is called Confirmation because it confirms and strengthens baptismal grace. </li></ul><ul><li>[CCCC 266] </li></ul>
What is the essential rite? <ul><li>The essential rite of Confirmation is the anointing with Sacred Chrism (oil mixed with balsam and consecrated by the bishop), which is done by the laying on of the hand of the minister who pronounces the sacramental words proper to the rite. In the West this anointing is done on the forehead of the baptized with the words, “Be sealed with the gift of the Holy Spirit”. In the Eastern Churches of the Byzantine rite this anointing is also done on other parts of the body with the words, “The seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit” </li></ul><ul><li>[CCCC 267]. </li></ul>
What are the effects? <ul><li>The effect of Confirmation is a special outpouring of the Holy Spirit like that of Pentecost. This outpouring impresses on the soul an indelible character and produces a growth in the grace of Baptism. It roots the recipient more deeply in divine sonship, binds him more firmly to Christ and to the Church and reinvigorates the gifts of the Holy Spirit in his soul. It gives a special strength to witness to the Christian faith. </li></ul><ul><li>[CCCC 268] </li></ul>
Who can receive this sacrament? <ul><li>Only those already baptized can and should receive this sacrament which can be received only once. To receive Confirmation efficaciously the candidate must be in the state of grace. </li></ul><ul><li>[CCCC 269] </li></ul>
Who is the minister of Confirmation? <ul><li>The original minister of Confirmation is the bishop. In this way the link between the confirmed and the Church in her apostolic dimension is made manifest. When a priest confers this sacrament, as ordinarily happens in the East and in special cases in the West, the link with the bishop and with the Church is expressed by the priest who is the collaborator of the bishop and by the Sacred Chrism, consecrated by the bishop himself. </li></ul><ul><li>[CCCC 270] </li></ul>
Catechism of the Catholic Church (CCC) <ul><li>Confirmation is necessary “for the completion of baptismal grace” </li></ul><ul><li>[CCC 1285; cf. Roman Ritual , </li></ul><ul><li>Rite of Confirmation ( OC ), Introduction 1] </li></ul><ul><li>"by the sacrament of Confirmation, [the baptized] are more perfectly bound to the Church and are enriched with a special strength of the Holy Spirit. Hence they are, as true witnesses of Christ, more strictly obliged to spread and defend the faith by word and deed." 90 ” </li></ul><ul><li>[CCC 1285, cf. Lumen Gentium, 11; </li></ul><ul><li>cf. OC, Introduction 2] </li></ul>
Vatican II, Lumen Gentium <ul><li>“ They are more perfectly bound to the Church by the sacrament of Confirmation, and the Holy Spirit endows them with special strength so that they are more strictly obliged to spread and defend the faith, both by word and by deed, as true witnesses of Christ (5*).” </li></ul><ul><li>[Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, </li></ul><ul><li>Lumen Gentium , no. 11] </li></ul>
Two traditions: East and West <ul><li>In the first centuries Confirmation generally comprised one single celebration with Baptism, forming with it a "double sacrament," according to the expression of St. Cyprian. </li></ul><ul><li>Various reasons such as the increase in infant baptisms all through the year, the increase of rural parishes, and the growth of dioceses often prevented the bishop (the ordinary minister) from being present at all baptismal celebrations </li></ul><ul><li>In the West the desire to reserve the completion of Baptism (Confirmation) to the bishop caused the temporal separation of the two sacraments. </li></ul>
Two traditions: East and West <ul><li>The East has kept them united, so that Confirmation is conferred by the priest who baptizes. But he can do so only with the "myron" consecrated by a bishop. </li></ul><ul><li>The practice of the Eastern Churches gives greater emphasis to the unity of Christian initiation. That of the Latin Church more clearly expresses the communion of the new Christian with the bishop as guarantor and servant of the unity, catholicity and apostolicity of his Church, and hence the connection with the apostolic origins of Christ's Church </li></ul>
Necessity of Confirmation <ul><li>If follows from its institution by Christ that Confirmation is necessary to the Church in her totality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conveys grace which strengthen and gives courage to the faithful; indispensible in time of trial </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A baptized person, however, can achieve eternal salvation even without Confirmation (cf. Council of Trent, Denzinger 792) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlike baptism, Confirmation is not necessary as a “means,” but is necessary insofar as it benefits the perfection of salvation (cf. Summa Theologica III, 72, 1; 72, 8, 4) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The neglect of the sacrament from contempt, however, is a grievous sin (Ott 368, Denzinger 669) </li></ul></ul>
Sponsor or Godparents <ul><li>St. Thomas Aquinas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“… just as one newly born requires someone to teach him things pertaining to ordinary conduct, according to Hebrews 12:9: "We have had fathers of our flesh, for instructors, and we obeyed [Vulgate: 'reverenced']" them; so they who are chosen for the fight need instructors by whom they are informed of things concerning the conduct of the battle, and hence in earthly wars, generals and captains are appointed to the command of the others. For this reason he also who receives this sacrament, has someone to stand for him, who, as it were, has to instruct him concerning the fight.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summa Theologica , III, 72, 10 </li></ul></ul>
Sponsor or Godparents <ul><li>Insofar as possible, there is to be a sponsor for the person to be confirmed; the sponsor is to take care that the confirmed person behaves as a true witness of Christ and faithfully fulfills the obligations inherent in this sacrament. </li></ul><ul><li>A sponsor must: be designated by the one to be baptized…or in their absence by the pastor or minister and have the aptitude and intention of fulfilling this function </li></ul><ul><li>have completed the sixteenth year of age </li></ul><ul><li>Be a Confirmed Catholic who has received Eucharist and lead a life of faith in keeping with the function to be taken on </li></ul><ul><li>Not be bound by canonical penalty </li></ul><ul><li>Not be the father or mother of the one being confirmed </li></ul><ul><li>It is desirable to choose as sponsor the one who undertook the same function in baptism. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
Gifts and Fruits of the Holy Spirit <ul><li>What are the “seven gifts of the Holy Spirit”? </li></ul><ul><li>The seven gifts of the Holy Spirit are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wisdom, understanding, counsel, fortitude, knowledge, piety, and fear of the Lord. (CCC 1831) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are the twelve “fruits of the Holy Spirit”? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The fruits of the Spirit are perfections that the Holy Spirit forms in us as the first fruits of eternal glory. The tradition of the Church lists twelve of them: "charity, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, generosity, gentleness, faithfulness, modesty, self-control, chastity.” (CCC 1832) </li></ul></ul>
Pentecost <ul><li>A feast of the universal Church which commemorates the Descent of the Holy Ghost upon the Apostles, fifty days after the Resurrection of Christ , on the ancient Jewish festival called the "feast of weeks" or Pentecost (Exodus 34:22; Deuteronomy 16:10). </li></ul><ul><li>Jewish feast occurred “fifty days” after the offering of the barley sheaf during Passover </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called “ Feast of Harvest ,” “ Day of the First Fruits, ” “ closing festival ” or “ closing season of the Passover ” </li></ul></ul>