UNIX is an operating system that originated at Bell Labs (NJ) in 1969.
UNIX is actually a trademark, but often used as a generic term to describe “UNIX-like” operating systems.
There are numerous different flavors of UNIX – all of which utilize similar UNIX operating system concepts, but may have different features or run on different hardware.
The UNIX Umbrella RedHat, Mandrake † , SuSe, Debian, Caldera, Yellowdog † FreeBSD, BSDI*, NetBSD OpenBSD Sun Solaris, HP HP-UX*, Compaq True 64 UNIX*, IBM AIX*, IRIX*, MAC OSX* SCO UNIX (now Caldera/Tarantula) Hardware Vendors BSD Flavors Linux Distributions Other * = Commercial distribution (i.e you must pay for it) † = Derivative of RedHat
Popularity vs. Maturity Popular Mature Sun Solaris HP-UX Compaq True 64 UNIX RedHat Linux / Linux Mandrake Debian Linux SuSe Caldera Linux FreeBSD / NetBSD / OpenBSD, etc. SCO UNIX RedHat Linux AIX Irix Darwin (Mac OSX)
In UNIX, a physical disk partition is associated with a directory path, sometimes referred to as a mount point .
All files that are in directories associated with a mount point are stored on the mount point’s physical partition.
If a directory path is not explicitly associated with a physical disk partition, its files are stored under the root ( “/” ) partition.
UNIX Partition Example /usr 2GB / (root) 1.5GB /home 4GB swap Example Partitioning Scheme: Total Hard Drive Space: 8GB Contains all files under the /usr directory (I.e. /usr/local/bin/pico, /usr/bin/vi, etc.) Contains all files under the /home directors (I.e. /home/chrisjur, /home/iti1234) Contains all other files and directors, such as /var, /opt, /sbin, etc. [HARD DRIVE]