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Unix Administration 1

Unix Administration 1







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    Unix Administration 1 Unix Administration 1 Presentation Transcript

    • ITI-481: Unix Administration Rutgers University Internet Institute Instructor: Chris Uriarte <chrisjur@cju.com>
    • Meeting Times and Locations
      • Per Syllabus
    • Prerequisites
      • Either ITI-480 Unix Fundamentals or equivalent user-level knowledge of Unix.
      • You MUST know how to use a UNIX text editor (i.e. pico, vi, emacs)
    • Course Overview and Goals
      • The purpose of this course is to teach you how to install a UNIX operating system and perform system administration activities in a hands-on environment.
      • The course objective will be achieved through a combination of lecture, demonstrations, and hands-on exercises.
    • Major Topics
      • Installing UNIX and Linux
      • X-Window Configuration
      • Installing Software
      • Account Management
      • Booting and Shutting Down
      • Network Configuration
      • Core System Services
      • System Monitoring and Logging
      • File System Administration
      • Configuring Specific Services: NIS, SSH, Sendmail,Telnet, FTP, Printing
      • Securing your Server
    • Course Resources
      • Textbook: To be announced
      • Instructor Website at http://www.cju.com/classes/ (see link to ITI 481 at bottom of page)
      • Workstation where each of you will install a copy of Linux.
      • User account on Linux server iti.rutgers.edu.
    • Today’s Agenda
      • Introduction to UNIX, UNIX distributions and some background concepts.
      • Installing Linux on your own workstation.
    • What is UNIX
      • UNIX is an operating system that originated at Bell Labs (NJ) in 1969.
      • UNIX is actually a trademark, but often used as a generic term to describe “UNIX-like” operating systems.
      • There are numerous different flavors of UNIX – all of which utilize similar UNIX operating system concepts, but may have different features or run on different hardware.
    • The UNIX Umbrella RedHat, Mandrake † , SuSe, Debian, Caldera, Yellowdog † FreeBSD, BSDI*, NetBSD OpenBSD Sun Solaris, HP HP-UX*, Compaq True 64 UNIX*, IBM AIX*, IRIX*, MAC OSX* SCO UNIX (now Caldera/Tarantula) Hardware Vendors BSD Flavors Linux Distributions Other * = Commercial distribution (i.e you must pay for it) † = Derivative of RedHat
    • Popularity vs. Maturity Popular Mature Sun Solaris HP-UX Compaq True 64 UNIX RedHat Linux / Linux Mandrake Debian Linux SuSe Caldera Linux FreeBSD / NetBSD / OpenBSD, etc. SCO UNIX RedHat Linux AIX Irix Darwin (Mac OSX)
    • What makes UNIX Unique?
      • UNIX is a multi-user, time-sharing operating system: every user gets a piece of the CPU.
      • UNIX flavors generally adhere to some types of standards (I.e. POSIX)
      • UNIX standards allow for portability of software across multiple UNIX distributions.
    • What is Linux?
      • A Unix-like operating system initially developed in the early 1990s by Linus Torvold.
      • Initially developed to run on PC hardware but has been ported to other architectures as well.
      • Distributed under a GNU General Public License – “free” software.
      • Kernel is its distinguishing feature.
      • Generally packaged in various distributions.
    • Linux Distributions
      • Vary according to included software packages, package management systems, installation process, and Window Managers.
      • Distributions
        • Red Hat Linux
        • Caldera OpenLInux
        • Linux Mandrake
        • Corel Linux
        • SuSE Linux
        • TurboLinux
        • Debian GNU/Linux
        • Slackware
    • Why Linux?
      • Linux has matured greatly over the past 5 years and has positioned itself as the most flexible UNIX distribution today.
      • It can be run on very low-end, generally available hardware.
      • Lots of software available.
      • Flexible – the same Linux distribution used by a hobbyist on low end hardware can be used by an enterprise on high-end hardware.
      • It’s the first UNIX flavor to hit retail store shelves and is easily obtainable across the world.
      • Administration skill sets transfer easily to and from other UNIX flavors.
      • It’s free!
    • Planning for Your Linux System
      • Is your hardware supported?
      • Will it be a workstation or a server?
      • Are there special services that you want to run (web server, email server, DNS server, etc.)
      • Will you need to store user and/or application data?
    • Checking Hardware Compatibility
      • It’s very important that you make sure you hardware is fully supported by your UNIX distribution.
      • Hardware Compatibility Lists (HCLs) contain the hardware supported by your OS vendor. They can be obtained at the vendor’s website.
      • Therefore, it’s good to know some specifics about the hardware you’re using: amount of system RAM, brand of video card, brand of NIC brand of sound card, etc.
    • Hardware Compatibility, con’t.
      • Some particularly good things to know about your hardware:
        • Video card: brand and chipset
        • Hard drive: total amount of hard drive space
        • Sound card: brand and model of sound card
        • Network Card: brand and model of NIC
      • Some vendors have searchable hardware compatibility database
        • RedHat: http://www. redhat .com/support/hardware/
    • Disk Partitioning
      • Disk Partitioning is the concept of dividing your hard disk into logical partiations, making one hard drive appear as if it’s actually multiple drives.
      • There’s several reasons why we partition disks:
        • Performance
        • Ease of storage management
        • Security
    • UNIX Disk Partitioning
      • In UNIX, a physical disk partition is associated with a directory path, sometimes referred to as a mount point .
      • All files that are in directories associated with a mount point are stored on the mount point’s physical partition.
      • If a directory path is not explicitly associated with a physical disk partition, its files are stored under the root ( “/” ) partition.
    • UNIX Partition Example /usr 2GB / (root) 1.5GB /home 4GB swap Example Partitioning Scheme: Total Hard Drive Space: 8GB Contains all files under the /usr directory (I.e. /usr/local/bin/pico, /usr/bin/vi, etc.) Contains all files under the /home directors (I.e. /home/chrisjur, /home/iti1234) Contains all other files and directors, such as /var, /opt, /sbin, etc. [HARD DRIVE]
    • Partition Naming
      • In UNIX, the system gives each partition a special device name.
      • In Linux, standard IDE hard drives are named /dev/hd x , where x is a unique letter given to identify the hard drive, starting with the letter a (e.g. /dev/hda)
        • For example, the first hard drive on the system is called /dev/hda .
      • Partitions are given a name with the format /dev/hd x# , where /dev/hd x is the hard drive the partition is on, and # is a uniquely assigned partition number, starting with 1 (e.g. /dev/hda1).
        • For example, the first partition on the first hard drive on the system is called /dev/hda1 .
    • Figuring out Your Partitions
      • You will have to partition your disk during a typical UNIX installation.
      • Common partitions include:
      • / (called ‘root’), /usr, /home, /var
      • Typical uses for specific UNIX partitions:
        • /usr – software packages
        • /home – user home directories
        • /var – log files and configuration files
        • /opt – software package and application installed (esp. on Solaris)
    • What do you need to Install UNIX?
      • At minimum, you need a CD media containing the UNIX distribution.
      • You may be able to set your computer to boot directly from the CD-ROM, which will start the install program.
      • If your computer cannot boot directly from the CD-ROM, you must create a boot floppy disk, which will boot the computer and load the installation program from CD-ROM.
    • Exercise: Installing Linux On Your Workstations
      • Refer to the distributed instructions.
    • Note: Linux and Other Operating Systems on a Single PC
      • Yes, Linux can run on a PC that is running one or more other operating systems. However, there are a number of caveats:
        • Linux needs to be installed after Microsoft operating systems.
        • You need to have unused partitions on your existing PC hard drive to install Linux.
        • Linux needs to be installed on one or more of its own partitions. The kernel needs to be on a primary partition.
        • Multi-booting is not recommended for servers.
      • Recommendation: If you really want to dual-boot Linux with another operating system, use a commercial software package like PartitionMagic and BootMagic (by PowerQuest)
    • Homework
      • Homework this week:
        • As noted in class
      • Next week:
        • Introduction to the X-Windows system
        • Software installation
        • Booting and Shutdown
        • Emergency boot procedures