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Clustering and High Availability

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  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
  • 05/13/10 21:37 © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.
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  • Transcript

    • 1.  
    • 2. What Every MCT Needs to Know about Clustering and High Availability Rodney R. Fournier Microsoft MVP - Windows Server - Clustering Net Working America, Inc.
    • 3. Agenda
      • Terms you need to know
      • Four Types of Clustering
      • What is Clustering?
      • Overview of Exchange Clustering
      • Overview of SQL Server Failover Clustering
      • MSDTC
      • Resources
    • 4. Agenda
      • Terms you need to know
      • Four Types of Clustering
      • What is Clustering?
      • Overview of Exchange Clustering
      • Overview of SQL Server Failover Clustering
      • MSDTC
      • Resources
    • 5. Terms you need to know
        • Active/Passive vs. Active/Active vs. Instance
        • Failover & Failback
        • Heartbeat
        • Quorum vs. Majority Node Set
        • Shared Storage
        • Resources vs. Resource Groups
        • High-availability vs. Fault Tolerance
        • Scalability vs. Availability
        • Mean Time To Failure
        • Mean Time To Recover
        • Node, Virtual Server, IP, Name, etc.
        • Cluster aware
    • 6. Agenda
      • Terms you need to know
      • Four Types of Clustering
      • What is Clustering?
      • Overview of Exchange Clustering
      • Overview of SQL Server Failover Clustering
      • MSDTC
      • Resources
    • 7. Four Types of Clustering
      • High Performance Computing
      • Component Load Balancing
      • Network Load Balancing
      • Server Clustering
    • 8. High Performance Computing (HPC)
      • Super Computing
      • Also called HPC Clusters or Supercluster
      • As many as 256 nodes
      • Strong competition for UNIX/Linux
      • http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2003/hpc/default.mspx
      • Special applications
    • 9. Component Load Balancing (CLB)
      • Component Object Model (COM+) components load balancing
      • Calls to activate COM+ components are load balanced to different servers within the COM+ cluster
      • http://www.microsoft.com/applicationcenter/techinfo/deployment/2000/AppCenterCLBTechOver.doc
      • Application Center 2000
    • 10. Network Load Balancing (NLB)
      • Up to 32 nodes
      • Layers 2 and 3 of the OSI model
      • Can provide Scalability
      • Provides Availability
      • Supported on version of Windows Server 2003
      • http://www.microsoft.com/technet/prodtechnol/windowsserver2003/technologies/clustering/nlbbp.mspx
      • IIS, SharePoint Portal Server, VPN Remote Access, ISA, Terminal Server
    • 11. Server Clustering
      • WINS
      • DHCP
      • Exchange Server
      • SQL Server
      • File Shares
      • Printers
      • Message Queuing
      • Distributed Transaction Coordinator
      • Generic Service or Script
      • Volume Shadow Copy Service Task
      • Microsoft Search Service
    • 12. Agenda
      • Terms you need to know
      • Types of Clustering
      • What is Clustering?
      • Overview of Exchange Clustering
      • Overview of SQL Server Failover Clustering
      • MSDTC
      • Resources
    • 13. Shared Nothing Model Network Heartbeat External Storage Array Node A Node B Public Public
      • “ Shared Nothing”
          • For more information, see 293289
    • 14. Basics
      • Quorum = Clustering
        • Stores most current configuration data in quorum recovery logs and registry checkpoints
        • Maintains resource checkpoints
        • Provides persistent physical storage
      • Recovery Logs used to
        • Enable any node to form a cluster
        • Enable nodes to maintain a cluster
        • Guarantee that a single cluster is formed
      • Cluster.Log file
        • Logs cluster activity; great for troubleshooting
    • 15. Server Cluster Components (Windows-based)
      • Virtual server
        • From client/application perspective, the server names or IP addresses used for access
      • Hardware components of server clusters:
        • Cluster nodes
        • Internal heartbeat
        • External networking
        • Shared cluster disk array:
          • Quorum disk
          • Data disks
      Server Cluster Public Network Shared Disk Array Node A Node B Heartbeat
    • 16. Hardware Considerations
      • Buy systems from the Windows Server Catalog: Cluster Solution – Hardware Compatibility List (HCL)
        • http://www.microsoft.com/windows/catalog/server/default.aspx?xslt=categoryproduct&subid=22&pgn=8b712458-b91c-4a7d-8695-23e9cd3ae95b
        • Entire systems, not individual components
      • Ask your preferred vendor for help
        • Get guarantees!
        • Buy a support agreement that matches your level of availability
        • Remember a PSS contract, too!
      • Availability requirements, budget, 8 th & 9 th layer
    • 17. Shared Disk Configuration
      • Instance-to-disk ratio: Two resources cannot share a physical disk
      • Basic disks only; mount points and dynamic disks are not supported
      • File compression and encryption are not supported
      • Use Fibre Channel if you can; use SCSI if cost is a factor or iSCSI
      • Use hardware-based RAID only; Software-based RAID is not supported
      • Each RAID controller is different
        • Turn writeback caching off if controller in server nodes
      • … continued
    • 18. Shared Disk Configuration
      • Be sure all disks are dependencies of the SQL Server/Exchange resource
      • Disk is single point of failure. Store spare drives and have a secondary form of high availability
      • Data
        • Recommended: RAID 10 array of mirrored sets that are then striped
        • RAID 5 okay
      • Logs
        • RAID 1 or possibly mirrored sets that are then striped; not RAID 5
    • 19.
      • Network-attached storage (NAS)
        • Not supported for clusters
      • Storage area networks (SANs)
        • Only those on the HCL Cluster list or the Cluster/Multi-Cluster Device list can be used
        • Get verification that it is set up properly Setup is usually done by the vendor
        • Do not accept the default configuration—it will probably be for a file system
      • iSCSI is now supported with 2003 SP1
      Shared Disk Configuration
    • 20. Software Considerations
      • Exchange/SQL Server 2000 Enterprise Edition
      • Operating systems:
        • Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition
        • Windows Server 2003 Datacenter Edition
    • 21. Network Configurations
      • Cluster nodes with Windows domains, DNS, and WINS
        • You may still need WINS for NetBIOS resolution
      • Nodes and virtual server must be able to access the domain
        • All nodes have to be in the same domain
      • Network Card Settings
        • Do not set NICs to Autodetect
        • You need at least 4 static IP addresses: 1 for each node, 1 for the server cluster, 1 for Clustered Service/Application
        • Recommend 6 (additional dedicated heartbeat NICs)
      • Multiple IP Addresses
        • Use separate subnets for IP addresses
      • Bandwidth
    • 22. Network Configuration Server Cluster Public Network Shared Disk Array Node A Node B Heartbeat
    • 23. Processor/Memory Configuration
      • Configure each cluster node with processing power sufficient to handle the load for any process that may run on it
      • Set Processor Affinity to N–1 if necessary
      • Test your application before putting it into production
      • Monitor processor usage. Use System Monitor
      • Memory
        • Single-instance: No issues unless other services or applications are running
        • Multiple-instance: Be sure that one instance will not diminish the resources of other processes or instances in the event of a failover
    • 24. Failure External Storage Array Node A Node B X Network Heartbeat
      • “ Shared Nothing”
          • For more information, see 293289
      Public Public
    • 25. So Why Cluster?
        • Provide High-Availability
          • Failover mitigates outage when hardware failure occurs
          • Strengthened by fault tolerant design
          • Measured in 9s
        • Managed maintenance/upgrades
          • Rolling Upgrades
      Term Nines Downtime per Year Nirvana 100.00 0 seconds 5 Nines 99.999 5 minutes 4 Nines 99.99 52 minutes 3 Nines 99.9 8.7 hours 2 Nines or Fired 99 3.7 days
    • 26. What Don’t You Get?
      • Does not protect against:
        • Loss of or damage to shared storage
        • Network failures
        • Application failures or database corruption
        • Disasters
        • Human errors
      • Does not load balance mailboxes
      • Cannot move running applications, and shared state is lost!
    • 27. Agenda
      • Terms you need to know
      • Four Types of Clustering
      • What is Clustering?
      • Overview of Exchange Clustering
      • Overview of SQL Server Failover Clustering
      • MSDTC
      • Resources
    • 28. Overview Of Exchange Clustering
      • Exchange Virtual Server (EVS)
        • Physical Disk resource: SCSI, Fibre Channel (FC), or Internet SCSI (iSCSI)
        • IP Address resource
        • Network Name resource
        • System Attendant resource and resources created by System Attendant
        • Resources created by an administrator (for example, protocol virtual servers)
    • 29. Clustering Exchange Client PCs Node A Node B Disk cabinet A Disk cabinet B Heartbeat EVS Passive Node Failure Occurs! SCSI Reserve Broken EVS fails over and is available to clients EVS New Reservation Established
    • 30. Overview Of Exchange Clustering 7+1 Active/Passive 2+0 Active/Active – Not Recommended 1+1 Active/Passive
    • 31. Requirements For Clustering Exchange 2003
      • Windows Server 2003
        • Enterprise Edition and Datacenter Edition
          • 2-node Active/Active
          • Up to 8-node Active/Passive
    • 32.
      • Exchange Cluster Models
        • Active/Passive is the strongly preferred model
          • Fewer EVS’ than nodes
          • Must use if more than two nodes
        • Active/Active is the strongly discouraged model
          • Maximum of two nodes and maximum of two EVS’
          • Maximum one RSG per cluster ( 824126 )
          • Limits number of concurrent MAPI users per node to 1,900
          • Limits average CPU utilization on each node to 40%
          • Two instances of store running in one Store.exe process; not enough contiguous virtual memory to bring resource online
      • Exchange Virtual Server Limits
        • With two nodes, you can have up to two EVS’
        • With three or more nodes you can have n-1 where n = number of nodes in cluster
      Requirements For Clustering Exchange 2003
    • 33.
      • Active/Active
        • System Attendant
        • Information Store
        • POP3, IMAP4, SMTP, HTTP
        • Microsoft Search (full-text indexing)
        • SMTP and routing group connectors
      • Active/Passive
        • Message Transfer Agent
      Support For Clustering Exchange 2003
    • 34.
      • NOT Supported
        • Active Directory Connector (ADC)
        • Exchange Event Service
        • Foreign Mail System Connectors
        • Network News Transport Protocol (NNTP)
        • Site Replication Service (SRS)
      Requirements For Clustering Exchange 2003
    • 35.
      • Cluster certified hardware only
        • Windows Server Catalog – Cluster or Geographic Cluster
          • http://www.microsoft.com/windows/catalog/server
          • SCSI, FC or iSCSI external storage
          • Identical hardware for all nodes
        • Microsoft support for Exchange failover clusters ( 810987 ) OS – 32-bit only
        • Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition
        • Windows Server 2003 Datacenter Edition
          • Microsoft Distributed Transaction Coordinator (MSDTC) installed.
      • Exchange Server 2003 Enterprise Edition
      Requirements For Clustering Exchange 2003
    • 36.
      • Design storage
        • Four storage group maximum on node
        • Shared disks must be NTFS/BASIC ( 237853 )
        • Use Diskpart to align sectors at storage level
        • Use separate disk resources for logs/databases in EVS
        • Use separate resource group for quorum
        • Volume mount points supported on Windows 2003 ( 318458 )
        • Some iSCSI ( 839686 ) and NAS ( 839687 ) devices are now supported for use with Exchange and Exchange clusters
          • You cannot use NAS for quorum resource ( cluster FAQ )
        • Additional disk resources need to be added as dependency
      Building An Exchange Cluster
    • 37. Building An Exchange Cluster
      • Design network
        • Use multiple networks with dedicated private networks ( 258750 )
        • Do not use teaming or DHCP ( 254101 )
        • Need an IP address and Network Name resource for
          • Each physical node
          • The cluster resource group
          • Each Exchange Virtual Server
        • Use consistent naming standards
    • 38. Building An Exchange Cluster
      • Step 1 - Prepare Hardware
        • Apply latest system BIOS
        • Apply latest device firmware
        • Gather latest software drivers
        • Disable unnecessary hardware
        • Follow your hardware manufacturer recommendations
        • to ensure you are using only drivers or firmware that
        • have been tested for clusters
    • 39. Building An Exchange Cluster
      • Step 2 – Install operating system and other prerequisites
        • Install operating system (Windows Server 2003 preferred)
          • SMTP, W3SVC and NNTP services
        • Add nodes to domain as member servers
          • Domain controllers are not supported for Exchange cluster nodes ( 810986 )
        • Windows Support Tools
        • Windows Update / Security hotfixes
        • If 1 GB or more of memory, tune with /3GB and /USERVA=3030 in Boot.ini
    • 40. Building An Exchange Cluster
      • Step 3 – Prepare Nodes for Cluster Service
        • Disable unnecessary services
        • Configure Networks
          • Rename connections: Private Network and Public Network
          • Disable NetBIOS and DNS on private (heartbeat) interface
          • Disable Media Sense on NICs – Hard-code ( 258750 )
          • Use 10MBs/Half-Duplex if not sure what speed to use
          • Give private network highest binding order
          • Unbind MS Client and File and Print on private network and bind IP and Network Monitor only
        • Create/Select cluster service account
          • Domain account w/local Administrator rights on each node
            • Does NOT need Exchange Full Admin role
        • Create Quorum partition on shared disk
          • 50MB min; 500MB-1GB recommended
        • Create and format additional disks/arrays
    • 41. Building An Exchange Cluster
      • Step 4 – Install Cluster Service on each node.
        • Move TEMP/TMP folder off %Systemroot%
        • Run Cluster Diagnostics and Verification Tool
      • Step 5 – Install Network DTC on each node (MSKB 817064, 301600)
      • Step 6 – Install Exchange 2003
        • Unattended setup not supported
        • Binaries installed locally in same location on each node
        • Install one node at a time and reboot each node when finished
    • 42. Building An Exchange Cluster
      • Step 7 – Install Exchange 2003 Service Packs and Updates
        • Always update one node at a time, then the EVS via Cluster Administrator (for SP1) 867624
      • Step 8 – Create Exchange Virtual Server
        • Create Resource Group
          • Disk Resource
          • IP Address Resource
          • Network Name Resource
          • Exchange System Attendant Resource
    • 43. Building An Exchange Cluster
      • Step 9 – (Optional) Repeat Step 8 if creating additional EVS’
      • Step 10 – Configure EVS resources
        • Increase pending time-out on Active/Active clusters
        • Configure Restart and Affect the Group settings
          • Configure Information Store and System Attendant resources for 1 restart
      • Step 11 – Bring resources online
      • Step 12 – Configure failover and failback ( 197047 )
    • 44. Building An Exchange Cluster
      • Prior to Putting into Production
        • Test failover policies
        • Test hardware (simulate failures)
        • Exchange Server Load Simulator 2003 (LoadSim)
          • Test under heavy network, disk I/O, and services loads
          • Test under large number of simultaneous logon attempts
          • Clean up after LoadSim
            • Manually remove everything or flatten cluster and rebuild
        • Exchange Server 2003 Jetstress 2004 Tool Microsoft Exchange Server Best Practices Analyzer Tool http://www.microsoft.com/exchange/exbpa
    • 45. Building An Exchange Cluster
      • Additional Best Practices
        • Do not install applications into the default Cluster Group
        • Do not delete or rename the default Cluster Group or remove any resources from that resource group
        • Do not use APM/ACPI power-saving features
        • Do not set the Cluster service account to be a member of the domain administrator group
        • Turn off cluster event log replication if auditing is enabled and security logging is heavy, or if you do not want event log entries to be replicated ( 224969 )
    • 46. Agenda
      • Terms you need to know
      • Four Types of Clustering
      • What is Clustering?
      • Overview of Exchange Clustering
      • Overview of SQL Server Failover Clustering
      • MSDTC
      • Resources
    • 47. SQL Server Virtual Servers
      • Virtual servers: Instances of clustered SQL Server servers
        • From client/application perspective, the server names or IP addresses used for access
      • Cluster resources configured during install of a virtual server:
        • SQL Server IP Address
        • SQL Server Network Name
        • SQL Server (clustered instance of the SQL Server 2000 service)
        • SQL Server Agent
        • SQL Server Fulltext
        • SQL Server virtual server administrator account
    • 48. SQL Server Cluster Types
      • Single-Instance Cluster
        • Only one SQL Server virtual server running; Can be a default or named instance
        • Replaces term active/passive
      • Multiple-Instance Cluster
        • Up to 16 SQL Server virtual servers are supported per server cluster:
          • 1 default instance + up to 15 named instances OR
          • Up to 16 named instances only
        • Replaces term active/active
    • 49. The Failover Process
      • Operating-system checks
        • Heartbeat checks availability of nodes and virtual server
      • SQL Server checks
        • LooksAlive check runs every five seconds
        • IsAlive check runs SELECT @@SERVERNAME query
      • Failover to another node
        • Windows Clustering attempts restart on same node or fails over to another node
        • SQL Server service starts
        • Brings master online
        • Database recovery proceeds
        • End users and applications must reconnect
    • 50. Illustration Of Failover Client PCs Node A Node B Shared Disk Array Heartbeat SQL Server SQL Server
    • 51.
      • Application can keep running; It doesn’t have to be aware of a new IP address or server name; Only virtual server fails over
      • Failover is nearly transparent, except…
        • SQL goes through a stop/restart and connections are dropped
        • Completed transactions in log are rolled forward; Incomplete transactions will be rolled back
      • Plan for and manage failover:
        • Handle a failover gracefully in code, or have retry logic
        • Consider using middleware (MTS/MSMQ/BizTalk) for transactions
        • Use the Clustering API to code cluster-aware applications
        • Non-cluster-aware applications/services may have to be Generic Application or Service resources
        • Consider the network timeout value
      Failover From A Client/Application Perspective
    • 52. Enhancements To Failover Clustering In SQL Server
      • SQL Server Setup installs and uninstalls a cluster
        • SQL Server failover clustering is a permanent option; No unclustering is possible; To remove, you must uninstall
      • Service packs are applied directly to virtual servers
      • SQL Server supports multiple instances and multiple network addresses
      • Extensive support for recovering from a failure of a server node in the cluster, including a one-node cluster
      • Number of nodes …continued
    • 53. Enhancements To Failover Clustering (Continued)
      • All nodes have local copies of SQL Server tools and executables
      • SQL Server failover clustering supports Microsoft Search service
      • Rerunning the Setup program updates failover clustering configurations
      • SQL Server Service Manager or SQL Server Enterprise Manager now start and stop SQL Server services
        • No longer have to use Cluster Administrator to perform this task
    • 54. Building A SQL 2000 Cluster
      • Step 1 - Prepare Hardware
        • Apply latest system BIOS
        • Apply latest device firmware
        • Gather latest software drivers
        • Disable unnecessary hardware
    • 55. Building A SQL 2000 Cluster
      • Step 2 – Install OS and Pre-Reqs
        • Install Windows Server 2003
        • Add Nodes to Domain as member servers
          • DCs are not recommended on clustered nodes
        • Windows Update / Security Hotfixes
        • Administration Tools – ADMINPAK.MSI
        • Windows Support Tools
        • Resource Kit Tools
    • 56. Building A SQL 2000 Cluster
      • Step 3 – Prepare Nodes for Cluster Service
        • Disable unnecessary services
        • Configure Networks
          • Rename connections: Private Network and Public Network
          • Disable NetBIOS and DNS on private (heartbeat) interface
          • Disable Media Sense on NICs – Hard-code (MSKB 258750)
          • Use 10MBs/Half-Duplex if not sure what speed to use
          • Give private network highest binding order
        • Create/Select cluster service account
          • Domain account w/local Administrator rights on each node
        • Create Quorum partition on shared disk
          • 50MB min; 500MB-1GB recommended
        • Create and format additional disks/arrays
    • 57. Building A SQL 2000 Cluster
      • Step 4 – Install Cluster Service on each node.
      • Step 5 – Install Network DTC on each node (MSKB 817064, 301600)
      • Step 6 – Install SQL 2000 Virtual Instance
        • Binaries installed locally in same location on each node
        • Installs all nodes at the same time!
    • 58. Building A SQL 2000 Cluster
      • Step 7 – Install SQL 2000 Service Pack 4 and Updates
        • Always update all nodes
      • Step 8 – (Optional) Repeat Step 6 if using Multiple Instance model
      • Step 9 – Bring Resources Online
    • 59. Building A SQL 2000 Cluster
      • Best Practices
        • Do not install applications into the default Cluster Group
        • Do not delete or rename the default Cluster Group or remove any resources from that resource group
        • Do not use APM/ACPI power-saving features
        • Give the Cluster service account full rights to administer computer objects if Kerberos authentication is enabled for virtual servers
        • Do not set the Cluster service account to be a member of the domain administrator group
    • 60. Failover Clustering SQL Server 2005
      • Further refined in SQL Server 2005
      • More nodes
        • Match operating system limits
      • Unattended setup
      • Support for mounted volumes (Mount Points)
      • All SQL Server services participate
        • Database Engine, SQL Server Agent, Analysis Services, Full-Text Search, etc.
      Failover Cluster
    • 61. Database Mirroring New for SQL Server 2005
      • Instant Standby
      • Conceptually a fault-tolerant server
        • Building block for complex topologies
      • Database Failover
        • Very Fast … less than three seconds
        • Zero data loss
      • Automatic or manual failover
        • Automatic re-sync after failover
      • Automatic, transparent client redirect
      Database Mirroring
    • 62. SQL 2005 Failover Solutions At A Glance
      • Both Provide
        • Automatic detection and failover
        • Manual failover
        • Transparent client connect
        • Zero work loss
        • Database Views mitigate DBA or application error
      • Database Mirroring
        • Database scope
        • Standard servers
        • Fastest failover
        • Limited reporting on standby
        • Duplicate copy of database
      • Failover Clustering
        • System scope
        • Certified hardware
        • Fast failover
        • No reporting on standby
        • Single copy of database
    • 63. Agenda
      • Terms you need to know
      • Four Types of Clustering
      • What is Clustering?
      • Overview of Exchange Clustering
      • Overview of SQL Server Failover Clustering
      • MSDTC
      • Resources
    • 64. MSDTC Best Practices
      • Install Network DTC with Windows http://support.microsoft.com/kb/817064
      • Install Clustering
      • Create MSDTC Resource within the cluster http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;301600
      • Exchange – requires MSDTC for installation and service packs – put into Cluster Group
      • SQL – only required if an application uses it – Dedicated IP, Network Name, Group
    • 65. Agenda
      • Terms you need to know
      • Four Types of Clustering
      • What is Clustering?
      • Overview of Exchange Clustering
      • Overview of SQL Server Failover Clustering
      • MSDTC
      • Resources
    • 66. Microsoft Windows Server -Clustering MVP
      • www.nw-america.com – Clustering
      • msmvps.com/clustering - Blog
      • https://mvp.support.microsoft.com/profile=EDD23402-0C81-4968-916C-09D62BBD77F5 – MVP Profile
    • 67. Resources
      • Clustering newsgroup support – msnews.microsoft.com
        • Microsoft.public.exchange.clustering
        • Microsoft.public.sqlserver.clustering
        • Microsoft.public.windows.server.clustering
      • Welcome to the Clustering Technologies Community http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2003/community/centers/clustering/default.mspx
      • Server Clusters: Network Configuration Best Practices for Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 http://www.microsoft.com/technet/prodtechnol/windowsserver2003/technologies/clustering/clstntbp.mspx
    • 68. Resources
      • SQL Server High Availability resources http://www.microsoft.com/sql/techinfo/administration/2000/availability.asp
      • Visit the SQL Server Web site: www.microsoft.com/sql
      • SQL Server 2000 Failover Clustering http://www.microsoft.com/technet/prodtechnol/sql/2000/maintain/failclus.mspx
    • 69. Resources
      • Exchange Server 2003 planning guide: http://www.microsoft.com/technet/prodtechnol/exchange/Exchange2003/proddocs/library/MessSyst.asp
      • Exchange Server 2003 Deployment Guide: http://www.microsoft.com/technet/prodtechnol/exchange/Exchange2003/proddocs/library/DepGuide.asp
      • Exchange Server 2003 Technical Documentation Library: http://www.microsoft.com/exchange/library/
    • 70. Resources
      • Learn more about Clustering at TechEd
        • Hands On Labs
          • MGT12  Microsoft System Center Data Protection Manager
          • SVR15  Clustering with Virtual Server 2005
        • Cabana Talks
        • Find me and buy me a drink 
    • 71. Community Resources
      • Attend a free chat or web cast
      • http://www.microsoft.com/communities/chats/default.mspx
      • http://www.microsoft.com/usa/webcasts/default.asp
      • List of newsgroups
      • http://communities2.microsoft.com/
      • communities/newsgroups/en-us/default.aspx
      • MS Community Sites
      • http://www.microsoft.com/communities/default.mspx
      • Locate Local User Groups
      • http://www.microsoft.com/communities/usergroups/default.mspx
      • Community sites
      • http://www.microsoft.com/communities/related/default.mspx
    • 72. Where To Learn More
      • Other Tech Ed Sessions:
        • BAP200  Microsoft Business Solutions-Great Plains: Maximizing Your Hardware and Network Infrastructure
        • CSI448  Optimizing Scalability, Performance and Availability with Systems Built on the .NET Framework
        • DBA308  Ensuring Business Continuance with SQL Server 2005 Data Availability Solutions
        • MGT315  Update Management and Desktop Deployment at Microsoft
        • MSG300  Exchange 2003 Architecture Best Practices
    • 73. Where To Learn More
      • Other Tech Ed Sessions:
        • MSG360  Microsoft IT: Exchange Best Practices from Microsoft IT
        • MSG383  Exchange Server 2003 Cluster Best Practices
        • PRT375  SharePoint Products and Technologies: Performance and Capacity Planning Best Practices and Lessons Learned
        • SVR308  Introducing Windows Server 2003, Compute Cluster Edition
    • 74. Your Feedback is Important! Please Fill Out a Survey for This Session on CommNet
    • 75. © 2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. This presentation is for informational purposes only. Microsoft makes no warranties, express or implied, in this summary.