Lady Gaga is one of the most inspirational artists in terms of pop culture and post modernism, as her music videos are typically narrative based and feature huge amounts of intertextuality from incredibly famous and iconic scenes in films and music videos. Both Paparazzi and Telephone weredirected by Jonas Akerlund, he is an auteur and has developed his own distinctive visual style which can be clearly seen in both videos.
PAPARAZZIThe video uses genericconventions of Hollywood Films, apastiche or homage to the iconicfilm period, with the use ofclassical titles, which isnt typicallyused in the music industry andwithin music videos. (A similarmethod of adding titles is used inTelephone, starting to recogniseAkerlunds style?)
There are also intertextual references to Sunset Boulevard, both in narrativeand in style, a fading star desperate to be back in the limelight and aftermurdering her "lover" is thrown back in to the newspapers.
But the overall narrative is also veryChicago, stylistic choices reference thescene in which Roxie Hart is taken toprison after murdering her lover andwhich causes her fame to escalate. This isshown through lens shots, notice how theartists and Roxie Hart both stand in similarpositions.
The video also makes homage to Hitchcock andhis film "Vertigo", there is also the use of the icyblonde female lead who was typically alwaysused within Hitchcocks films, also known as the"Femme Fatale" who buggers up the heroes plan.Lady Gagas video also blurs fiction and realitywith the use of lens shots, as if photos are beingtaken of the two characters.
Telephone imitates the stylisticTELEPHONE features of Quentin Tarantino, and features intertextual references from both Pulp Fiction and Kill Bill. Telephone makes homage to both films. Telephone uses a similar bold popping text to the Tarantino Font used in Pulp Fiction, with popping yellow and red colours, adopting a retro(ish) style.
Telephone also makes intertextualreferences to the characters in both films,Lady Gaga refers to Beyoncé as "HoneyBee" similar to the character in PulpFiction "Honey Bunny", although thismay seem coincidental, a scene in a cafeshows Beyoncé sitting opposite anothermale character, the framing and scene isvery similar to the opening scene in PulpFiction where "Honey Bunny" and"Pumpkin" discuss robbing the cafe.There are also intertextual references tothe character of Ele Driver in Kill Bill, asLady Gaga takes on her role, in the scenewhere Ele Driver dresses in a Nurseoutfit in order to kill the Bride. LadyGaga wears a similar outfit, however atthe height of postmodernism uses atelephone as an eye patch, she also takeson a similar persona, by poisoning thecafe customers.....very Ele Driver.
There is also an intertextual reference to the "Pussy Wagon" used in Kill Bill,this is also a reference to the sexuality in the music video but also a reference tothe truck driven by the Bride in Tarantinos Kill Bill film.
Telephone also makes intertextual references to Lady Gagas own musicvideos, audiences have speculated that Telephone is a continuation ofPaparazzi, as we see the album cover image for Paparazzi used as LadyGagas "Wanted" picture on the TV screen. There were also pop culturereferences to Disneys Mickey Mouse when Lady Gaga wears a pair ofglasses, these same glasses are seen worn by Beyonce in Telephone. LadyGaga has successfully branded herself so that intertextual references fromher own works can be seen within others.