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Lady Gaga is one of the most inspirational artists in terms of pop culture and post modernism, as her music videos are typically narrative based and feature huge amounts ofintertextuality from incredibly famous and iconic scenes in films and music videos. Both Paparazzi and Telephone were directed by Jonas Akerlund, he is an auteur and has developed his own distinctive visual style which can be clearly seen in both videos.
PAPARAZZIThe video uses genericconventions of HollywoodFilms, a pastiche or homageto the iconic film period, withthe use of classical titles,which isnt typically used inthe music industry and withinmusic videos. (A similarmethod of adding titles is usedin Telephone, starting torecognise Akerlunds style?)
There are also intertextual references to Sunset Boulevard, both innarrative and in style, a fading star desperate to be back in thelimelight and after murdering her "lover" is thrown back in tothe newspapers.
But the overall narrative is also veryChicago, stylistic choices referencethe scene in which Roxie Hart istaken to prison after murdering herlover and which causes her fame toescalate. This is shown through lensshots, notice how the artists andRoxie Hart both stand in similarpositions.
The video also makes homage to Hitchcockand his film "Vertigo", there is also the useof the icy blonde female lead who wastypically always used within Hitchcocksfilms, also known as the "Femme Fatale"who buggers up the heroes plan. LadyGagas video also blurs fiction and realitywith the use of lens shots, as if photos arebeing taken of the two characters.
TELEPHONE Telephone imitates the stylistic features of Quentin Tarantino, and features intertextual references from both Pulp Fiction and Kill Bill. Telephone makes homage to both films. Telephone uses a similar bold popping text to the Tarantino Font used in Pulp Fiction, with popping yellow and red colours, adopting a retro(ish) style.
Telephone also makes intertextual references to thecharacters in both films, Lady Gaga refers toBeyoncé as "Honey Bee" similar to the character inPulp Fiction "Honey Bunny", although this mayseem coincidental, a scene in a cafe shows Beyoncésitting opposite another male character, theframing and scene is very similar to the openingscene in Pulp Fiction where "Honey Bunny" and"Pumpkin" discuss robbing the cafe. There are alsointertextual references to the character of Ele Driverin Kill Bill, as Lady Gaga takes on her role, in thescene where Ele Driver dresses in a Nurse outfit inorder to kill the Bride. Lady Gaga wears asimilar outfit, however at the height ofpostmodernism uses a telephone as an eye patch,she also takes on a similar persona, by poisoningthe cafe customers.....very Ele Driver.
There is also an intertextual reference to the "Pussy Wagon"used in Kill Bill, this is also a reference to the sexuality in themusic video but also a reference to the truck driven by theBride in Tarantinos Kill Bill film.
Telephone also makes intertextual references to Lady Gagas own music videos, audiences havespeculated that Telephone is a continuation of Paparazzi, as we see the album cover image forPaparazzi used as Lady Gagas "Wanted" picture on the TV screen. There were also popculture references to Disneys Mickey Mouse when Lady Gaga wears a pair of glasses, thesesame glasses are seen worn by Beyonce in Telephone. Lady Gaga has successfully brandedherself so that intertextual references from her own works can be seen within others.