Lady Gaga is one of the most inspirational artists in terms of pop culture and post modernism, as her music videos are typically narrative based and feature huge amounts ofintertextuality from incredibly famous and iconic scenes in films and music videos. Both Paparazzi and Telephone were directed by Jonas Akerlund, he is an auteur and has developed his owndistinctive visual style which can be clearly seen in both videos.
PAPARAZZIThe video uses genericconventions of HollywoodFilms, a pastiche or homage tothe iconic film period, with theuse of classical titles, which isnttypically used in the musicindustry and within musicvideos. (A similar method ofadding titles is used inTelephone, starting to recogniseAkerlunds style?)
There are also intertextual references to Sunset Boulevard, both in narrativeand in style, a fading star desperate to be back in the limelight and aftermurdering her "lover" is thrown back in to the newspapers.
But the overall narrative is also veryChicago, stylistic choices reference thescene in which Roxie Hart is taken toprison after murdering her lover andwhich causes her fame to escalate.This is shown through lens shots, noticehow the artists and Roxie Hart bothstand in similar positions.
The video also makes homage toHitchcock and his film "Vertigo", thereis also the use of the icy blondefemale lead who was typically alwaysused within Hitchcocks films, alsoknown as the "Femme Fatale" whobuggers up the heroes plan. LadyGagas video also blurs fiction andreality with the use of lens shots, as ifphotos are being taken of the twocharacters.
TELEPHONE Telephone imitates the stylistic features of Quentin Tarantino, and features intertextual references from both Pulp Fiction and Kill Bill. Telephone makes homage to both films. Telephone uses a similar bold popping text to the Tarantino Font used in Pulp Fiction, with popping yellow and red colours, adopting a retro(ish) style.
Telephone also makes intertextual referencesto the characters in both films, Lady Gagarefers to Beyoncé as "Honey Bee" similar tothe character in Pulp Fiction "Honey Bunny",although this may seem coincidental, a scenein a cafe shows Beyoncé sitting oppositeanother male character, the framing andscene is very similar to the opening scene inPulp Fiction where "Honey Bunny" and"Pumpkin" discuss robbing the cafe. Thereare also intertextual references to the characterof Ele Driver in Kill Bill, as Lady Gaga takeson her role, in the scene where Ele Driverdresses in a Nurse outfit in order to kill theBride. Lady Gaga wears a similar outfit,however at the height of postmodernism uses atelephone as an eye patch, she also takes on asimilar persona, by poisoning the cafecustomers.....very Ele Driver.
There is also an intertextual reference to the "Pussy Wagon" used in KillBill, this is also a reference to the sexuality in the music video but also areference to the truck driven by the Bride in Tarantinos Kill Bill film.
Telephone also makes intertextual references to Lady Gagas own music videos, audiences havespeculated that Telephone is a continuation of Paparazzi, as we see the album cover image forPaparazzi used as Lady Gagas "Wanted" picture on the TV screen. There were also popculture references to Disneys Mickey Mouse when Lady Gaga wears a pair of glasses, thesesame glasses are seen worn by Beyonce in Telephone. Lady Gaga has successfully brandedherself so that intertextual references from her own works can be seen within others.
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