THE PROJECT AND ITS BACKGROUND
Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, activated coal, or carbo activatus,
is a form of carbon processed to be filled with small, low-volume pores that increase
the surface area available for adsorption, purification and filtration of substances. It is
generally used in water filters, medicines that selectively remove toxins, and chemical
purification processes as a cleaning agent. Various manufacturers, businesses,
government agencies, scientists and chemists, and even simple people use this carbon.
Activated carbon is produced by the oxidation of charcoal made from wood,
coconut shell, sawdust, or fruit kernels. For the purpose of this study, the company will
focus on manufacturing activated carbon made from coconut shells which is seen as
dominant in Quezon Province, the company’s prospected plant site.
Coconut shell-based activated carbons are the least dusty. Predominantly
microporous, they are well-suited for organic chemical adsorption thus, it has the highest
hardness compared to other types of activated carbons.
In the early years, the use of Activated Carbon was already dominant. Adsorption
or filtration on porous carbons was described as early as 1550 B.C. in an ancient
Egyptian papyrus and later by Hippocrates and Pliny the Elder, mainly for medicinal
purposes. In the 18th century, carbons made from blood, wood and animals were used for
the purification of liquids but they were only available as powders.
At the beginning of the 19th century the decolourisation power of bone char was
detected and used in the sugar industry in England which allowed the use of percolation
technology, where the liquid to be treated was continuously passed through a column.
Bone char, however was only used for sugar purification.
At the beginning of the 20th century the first processes were developed to produce
activated carbons with defined properties on an industrial scale. However, the steam
activation (V. Ostreijko, 1900 and 1901) and chemical activation (Bayer, 1915) processes
could only produce powder activated carbon. During then, powder activated carbon was
only known for the production of gas masks used in the First World War.
Today, activated carbon is already used in various areas such as in air treatment,
water treatment, manufacture of foods and beverages, pharmaceutics, and many more. By
this change they are following the modern tendency towards recycling and waste
minimisation, thereby reducing the use of the world's resources.
The demand in activated carbon is increasing through time as to more and more
sectors discover the wonders and benefits of active carbon. Recently, a new sector, which
is the cosmetic industry ventured to it by introducing activated carbon on facial wash and
toothbrush products. Hence, as water becomes increasingly needed to satisfy life, the
purification of water rapidly grows as well as the purification of foods. Apparently, the
supplies do not match the demand. More and more businesses be it large or not use it but
there are only few manufacturers of activated carbon.
According to Philippine Activated Carbon Manufacturers Association Inc., the
world demand for activated carbon is expected to increase more than 10 percent per year
through 2016 to 1.9 million metric tons. It is assumed reasonably that this growth rate is
setting as well because of
the increasing number of
industries and increasing
number of companies in
Table 1.1 Demand of Activated Carbon
Source: Philippine Activated Carbon Manufacturers Association Inc.
those industries who will
be using activated carbon. Thus, activated carbon industries will be one of the vastest
expanding industries in the upcoming years making it easier for those prospective AC
manufacturers to expand.
With the large pool of demand for activated carbon, there are however, only few
manufacturers who venture in making carbons. For example, in Quezon province where
there are large number of coconut shells and woods (main raw material in making AC),
no one manufactures activated carbon. As a result, small businesses pay more cost on
shipping and handling for they still have to order in Manila, Cebu, Central Luzon and
even abroad just to have a supply which is a real burden. Apparently, in the whole region,
there exists only one manufacturer of activated carbon to support great demands, and the
supply of this manufacturer alone is not enough to cater all demands in the region leading
to circumstances such that, end user industries have to depend partially on imports and
partially on lowering their consumption.
II. Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to know the feasibility of manufacturing
Activated Carbon in Region 4A-Calabarzon. In line with this, this study aims:
a. To know the profitability and marketability of manufacturing Activated Carbon in
Calabarzon which is composed of five provinces, namely: Cavite, Laguna,
Batangas, Rizal and Quezon.
b. To identify the possible problems and opportunities in venturing in this kind of
c. To determine the competitiveness of the company from its competitors, whether
direct or indirect competitors and;
d. To find out the economic practicability of operating this business in Region 4ACalabarzon.
III. The Company
A. Company Profile active
The company is directed to be established as one of the top activated
carbon manufacturers in the country. The company shall be called “Carbon Plus
Corporation” for practical reasons such that, this corporation intensifies simple
carbon into activated carbon(C+).
Carbon Plus Corporation is a stock corporation and will have its own plant
near Tayabas-Pagbilao Road, Quezon and main office at Brgy. Isabang Lucena
City, Quezon. The plant location will perfectly suit the nature of the corporation,
which is to make coconut shell-based carbons and since Quezon is one of the top
coconut producing region, raw materials are readily available and accessible at the
Carbon Plus Corporation saw the felt need on purification these days as
our world becomes more polluted. Everything must be sanitized first before it gets
to the final users of the product. Before coming up with the final good, other
manufacturers and producers sanitize first their product offerings making
sanitation processes in demand. And Carbon Plus Corporation aims to help these
manufacturers, small or big, meet their product standards at the same time lower
their production cost.
Carbon Plus Corporation also saw the great difference in demand and
supply. There is a very great demand on activated carbon as it caters to almost all
industries, but such low and lacking supply. There are only a number of
manufacturers of activated carbon in the Philippines and some others are just
distributors. Businesses and other industries that need activated carbon in their
operation generally, commit a large transportation cost for they have to order in
far places. The Carbon Plus Corporation found it odd especially for those within
and near Quezon, where there is an abundant amount of charcoal. In making a
plant in Quezon, there is a certainty that we can offer the product in a much lower
Other businesses on the other hand, having no choice as to buying big
bulks of activated carbon, suffer great cost discharges such as storage cost which
is a real burden. If we manage to offer them products in small quantities, they can
effectively control their order cost and can efficiently manage their production
Carbon Plus Corporation aims to help not only big corporations but also
those little entrepreneurs who can only afford to buy in small quantity. The
company aims to grant businesses with much effective and efficient production
generating customer satisfaction.
B. Logo of the company
Fig. 1.1 Company Logo
The color of the words “CARBON PLUS CORPORATION” is inspired
by the color of activated carbon itself, which varies within the shades of black and
gray, while the six circles at the side represent the atomic number of the element
Activated carbon works with the idea “black attracts black”, the circles
started from a dark toned one, which represents a substance with impurities. With
the aid of the insertion of Carbon Plus product, the shade of each circle lightens,
until it reached a clear one, representing the process of adsorption of the residues,
dirt and other impurities of the substance, which specifically, is the main function
of activated carbon.
Carbon Plus Corporation is an integrated manufacturing entity providing
sufficient supply of high quality activated carbon and relevant services to respond
to the growing demands of the public while minimizing the cost of the product to
make it more affordable to the users. Equipped with dedication to be on the top of
the industry to further enhance the quality of purifications of our generation and
generations to come, providing more job opportunities, a better industry and for
the satisfaction of the customers.
D. Mission Statement
Enthusiastically ensure the success of our company by effectively
satisfying the needs of our customer, shareholders and employees.
Consistently manufacture reliable and high- quality products and
Interdependently accelerate competence of our company through
intensive development, quick response to modernization and
cooperation with the society.
Responsibly make a difference through helping build and support
Consciously regard the responsibilities in the environment,
government and overall welfare while maximizing long-term
return to shareowners.
E. Opportunities and Advantages
Being the first manufacturer of Activated carbon here in Quezon, provides
the company the assurance of favourability of consumers as they would prefer
availing products that can minimize their cost of transportation and handling.
Aside from that, Carbon Plus Corporation will be the first corporation to
manufacture powderized AC in CALABARZON which is to be patronized by oil
refineries, one of the most popular businesses in Quezon.
In addition, Quezon is known for abundance in coconut supply which
gives the company a great advantage in supply, as it is sufficient and readily
available in the region. Compared to other raw materials used, Coconut is the
most renewable at the quickest time possible, making it possible to have enough
supply to ensure continuous production. Furthermore, activated carbon from
coconut shells is more reliable compared to other sources. According to
Grimwood, “Shell carbons are generally dense, very hard and highly retentive.
They have a very fine pore structure and their rate of adsorption is generally faster
than that of coal carbons.”
IV. The Product
Carbon is one of the most abundant elements in the world. With this, Carbon Plus
Corporation maximized the potentials of this element by turning it into something very
Activated Carbon (AC) is a crystalline substance which has the ability to adsorb
or purify substances. It undergo through the activation process whether thermal or
chemical. Hydrocarbons are removed from the carbon material thus producing network
of tunnels and pores which gives the ability of adsorption.
The adsorption process of Activated
Carbon goes through three basic steps.
First, the substance is adsorb on the outside
surface of the carbon. Then it goes into the
carbon adsorption pore with the highest
adsorption energy. Lastly, the substance is
then adsorbed into the inner platelets of the
carbon. The two mechanisms wherein the
Fig 1.2 Activated carbon in water filtration
activated carbon are either it hates the
water or it attracts into the activated carbon.
Common Uses of Activated Carbon
Food and Beverage
Table 1.2 Common Uses of Activated Carbon
Other Uses of Activated Carbon
Odor Removal Room Order Removal
Tobacco, CO, Room
filters, Toilet Odor, Pet
Cabin air filters
Anesthetic gas removal
Copiers, Laser Printers
Ships, Underground CO2
Nitrogen Gas Separation
Radio Active Gas
Factory Waste Water
Cleaning Waste Water
VOCs, Lead, Arsenate
Decolorization Industrial Use
Medical and Nursing
Kidney machine, Nursing
Double Layer Capacitors,
Table 1.3 Summarized Uses of Activated Carbon
V. Business Offerings
Carbon Plus Corp. offers the market with Activated Carbon made from coconut
shells. It provides consumers two types of Activated Carbon. Below is the list of
activated carbons offered by the company and its corresponding description and uses.
This type of activated
These are used as water
carbon is usually used for
treatment, decolorization of
liquid phase adsorption.
They are put into liquids to
be purified and then
removed in the process of
recovery and oil
These are irregularly
These are used for
shaped Activated Carbons.
These are preferably used
for absorption of gases and
treatment and separation of
vapors because their rate of
components of flow
diffusion is faster.
Table 1.4 Business Offerings