The Basic Tools of
Finance

Copyright © 2004 South-Western

27
• Finance is the field that studies how people
make decisions regarding the allocation of
resources over time and the hand...
PRESENT VALUE: MEASURING
THE TIME VALUE OF MONEY
• Present value refers to the amount of money
today that would be needed ...
PRESENT VALUE: MEASURING
THE TIME VALUE OF MONEY
• The concept of present value demonstrates the
following:
• Receiving a ...
PRESENT VALUE: MEASURING
THE TIME VALUE OF MONEY
• If r is the interest rate, then an amount X to be
received in N years h...
PRESENT VALUE: MEASURING
THE TIME VALUE OF MONEY
• Future Value
• The amount of money in the future that an amount
of mone...
FYI: Rule of 70
• According to the rule of 70, if some variable
70
grows at a rate of x percent per year, then that
variab...
MANAGING RISK
• A person is said to be risk averse if she exhibits
a dislike of uncertainty.

Copyright © 2004 South-Weste...
MANAGING RISK
• Individuals can reduce risk choosing any of the
following:
• Buy insurance
• Diversify
• Accept a lower re...
Figure 1 Risk Aversion
Utility
Utility gain
from winning
$1,000

Utility loss
from losing
$1,000

0
$1,000
loss

Current
w...
The Markets for Insurance
• One way to deal with risk is to buy insurance.
insurance
• The general feature of insurance co...
Diversification of Idiosyncratic Risk
• Diversification refers to the reduction of risk
achieved by replacing a single ris...
Diversification of Idiosyncratic Risk
• Idiosyncratic risk is the risk that affects only a
single person. The uncertainty ...
Diversification of Idiosyncratic Risk
• Aggregate risk is the risk that affects all
economic actors at once, the uncertain...
Figure 2 Diversification
Risk (standard
deviation of
portfolio return)
(More risk)
49

Idiosyncratic
risk
20
Aggregate
ris...
Diversification of Idiosyncratic Risk
• People can reduce risk by accepting a lower
rate of return.

Copyright © 2004 Sout...
Figure 3 The Tradeoff between Risk and Return
Return
(percent
per year)

8.3

25%
stocks

50%
stocks

75%
stocks

100%
sto...
ASSET VALUATION
• Fundamental analysis is the study of a
company’s accounting statements and future
prospects to determine...
ASSET VALUATION
• People can employ fundamental analysis to try
to determine if a stock is undervalued,
overvalued, or fai...
Efficient Markets Hypothesis
• The efficient markets hypothesis is the theory
that asset prices reflect all publicly avail...
Efficient Markets Hypothesis
• A market is informationally efficient when it
reflects all available information in a ratio...
CASE STUDY: Random Walks and Index
Funds
• Random walk refers to the path of a variable
whose changes are impossible to pr...
Summary
• Because savings can earn interest, a sum of
money today is more valuable than the same
sum of money in the futur...
Summary
• Because of diminishing marginal utility, most
people are risk averse.
• Risk-averse people can reduce risk using...
Summary
• According to the efficient markets hypothesis,
financial markets process available information
rationally, so a ...
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basic tools of finance

  1. 1. The Basic Tools of Finance Copyright © 2004 South-Western 27
  2. 2. • Finance is the field that studies how people make decisions regarding the allocation of resources over time and the handling of risk. Copyright © 2004 South-Western
  3. 3. PRESENT VALUE: MEASURING THE TIME VALUE OF MONEY • Present value refers to the amount of money today that would be needed to produce, using prevailing interest rates, a given future amount of money. Copyright © 2004 South-Western
  4. 4. PRESENT VALUE: MEASURING THE TIME VALUE OF MONEY • The concept of present value demonstrates the following: • Receiving a given sum of money in the present is preferred to receiving the same sum in the future. • In order to compare values at different points in time, compare their present values. • Firms undertake investment projects if the present value of the project exceeds the cost. Copyright © 2004 South-Western
  5. 5. PRESENT VALUE: MEASURING THE TIME VALUE OF MONEY • If r is the interest rate, then an amount X to be received in N years has present value of: X/(1 + r)N Copyright © 2004 South-Western
  6. 6. PRESENT VALUE: MEASURING THE TIME VALUE OF MONEY • Future Value • The amount of money in the future that an amount of money today will yield, given prevailing interest rates, is called the future value. Copyright © 2004 South-Western
  7. 7. FYI: Rule of 70 • According to the rule of 70, if some variable 70 grows at a rate of x percent per year, then that variable doubles in approximately 70/x years. years Copyright © 2004 South-Western
  8. 8. MANAGING RISK • A person is said to be risk averse if she exhibits a dislike of uncertainty. Copyright © 2004 South-Western
  9. 9. MANAGING RISK • Individuals can reduce risk choosing any of the following: • Buy insurance • Diversify • Accept a lower return on their investments Copyright © 2004 South-Western
  10. 10. Figure 1 Risk Aversion Utility Utility gain from winning $1,000 Utility loss from losing $1,000 0 $1,000 loss Current wealth Wealth $1,000 gain Copyright©2004 South-Western
  11. 11. The Markets for Insurance • One way to deal with risk is to buy insurance. insurance • The general feature of insurance contracts is that a person facing a risk pays a fee to an insurance company, which in return agrees to accept all or part of the risk. Copyright © 2004 South-Western
  12. 12. Diversification of Idiosyncratic Risk • Diversification refers to the reduction of risk achieved by replacing a single risk with a large number of smaller unrelated risks. Copyright © 2004 South-Western
  13. 13. Diversification of Idiosyncratic Risk • Idiosyncratic risk is the risk that affects only a single person. The uncertainty associated with specific companies. Copyright © 2004 South-Western
  14. 14. Diversification of Idiosyncratic Risk • Aggregate risk is the risk that affects all economic actors at once, the uncertainty associated with the entire economy. • Diversification cannot remove aggregate risk. Copyright © 2004 South-Western
  15. 15. Figure 2 Diversification Risk (standard deviation of portfolio return) (More risk) 49 Idiosyncratic risk 20 Aggregate risk (Less risk) 0 1 4 6 8 10 20 30 40 Number of Stocks in Portfolio Copyright©2004 South-Western
  16. 16. Diversification of Idiosyncratic Risk • People can reduce risk by accepting a lower rate of return. Copyright © 2004 South-Western
  17. 17. Figure 3 The Tradeoff between Risk and Return Return (percent per year) 8.3 25% stocks 50% stocks 75% stocks 100% stocks No stocks 3.1 0 5 10 15 20 Risk (standard deviation) Copyright©2004 South-Western
  18. 18. ASSET VALUATION • Fundamental analysis is the study of a company’s accounting statements and future prospects to determine its value. Copyright © 2004 South-Western
  19. 19. ASSET VALUATION • People can employ fundamental analysis to try to determine if a stock is undervalued, overvalued, or fairly valued. • The goal is to buy undervalued stock. Copyright © 2004 South-Western
  20. 20. Efficient Markets Hypothesis • The efficient markets hypothesis is the theory that asset prices reflect all publicly available information about the value of an asset. Copyright © 2004 South-Western
  21. 21. Efficient Markets Hypothesis • A market is informationally efficient when it reflects all available information in a rational way. • If markets are efficient, the only thing an investor can do is buy a diversified portfolio Copyright © 2004 South-Western
  22. 22. CASE STUDY: Random Walks and Index Funds • Random walk refers to the path of a variable whose changes are impossible to predict. • If markets are efficient, all stocks are fairly valued and no stock is more likely to appreciate than another. Thus stock prices follow a random walk. Copyright © 2004 South-Western
  23. 23. Summary • Because savings can earn interest, a sum of money today is more valuable than the same sum of money in the future. • A person can compare sums from different times using the concept of present value. • The present value of any future sum is the amount that would be needed today, given prevailing interest rates, to produce the future sum. Copyright © 2004 South-Western
  24. 24. Summary • Because of diminishing marginal utility, most people are risk averse. • Risk-averse people can reduce risk using insurance, through diversification, and by choosing a portfolio with lower risk and lower returns. • The value of an asset, such as a share of stock, equals the present value of the cash flows the owner of the share will receive, including the stream of dividends and the final sale price. Copyright © 2004 South-Western
  25. 25. Summary • According to the efficient markets hypothesis, financial markets process available information rationally, so a stock price always equals the best estimate of the value of the underlying business. • Some economists question the efficient markets hypothesis, however, and believe that irrational psychological factors also influence asset prices. Copyright © 2004 South-Western
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