-Learning style origins traced back for at least four decades-Intensity of the activity varied-number of disciplines ascribing to it varied-Attempts to clarify commons areas of ambiguity and in particular issues surrounding measurement and appropriate instruments. Aims to bring together necessary components of the area in which to facilitate a broader appreciation of learning style and inform regarding possible tools for measurement-multidisciplinary concepts – with its complexities and convolutions difficult to comprehend and assimilate-Educators in most fields are becoming increasingly aware of the critical importance of understanding how individuals learn, and matching that with the appropriate instructional methods.
Leaders in the Use of Technology in Nursing Education to Collaborate with the Global Community ABNF 2010
Leaders in the Use of Technology in Nursing Education to Collaborate with the Global Community<br />The Association of Black Nursing Faculty 23rd Annual Meeting and Scientific Conference<br />Paris, France<br />
A Livestream Video Presentation<br />Sheila P. Davis, PhD, RN, FAAN <br />Professor of Nursing<br />&<br />Jil Wright<br />Instructional Designer<br />June 11, 2010<br />The University of Southern Mississippi <br />Hattiesburg, MS<br />Funded by HRSA Grant D11HP14611<br />
Technology Surge<br /><ul><li>Over 4.6 million students were taking at least one online course during the fall 2008 term
A 17 percent increase over the number reported the previous year.
More than one in four higher education students now take at least one course online
Instructors noted that providing instructional support in the online medium required much more time and effort than in a face-to-face setting.</li></li></ul><li>Learning on Demand: the Sloan Consortium <br />Learning on Demand: Online Education in the United States, 2009 ( Allen & Seaman, 2010)<br /><ul><li>The economic impact has been greatest on demand for online courses, with 66% of institutions reporting increased demand for new courses and programs and 73 % seeing increased demand for existing online courses and programs.</li></li></ul><li>Sloan Consortium Findings<br /><ul><li>Public Institutions ( 74%) are more likely to believe that online is critical for their long-term strategy than either private for-profit (51%) or private nonprofit ( 50%) institutions. </li></li></ul><li>Sloan Consortium Findings<br /><ul><li>The most common training approaches for online faculty are internally run training courses ( 65%) and informal mentoring ( 59%)</li></li></ul><li>Need of Immediacy<br /><ul><li>The best predictor of quality of an online course consists of use of technologies such as email and discussion boards that enhanced teacher immediacy and social presence
Teachers can be at a distance, but students want immediacy and social presence.
Can the two coexist and should they?</li></li></ul><li>Kolb’s Learning Style Model<br />
Dunn and Dunn Model of Learning Style Preferences<br />Dunn, Griggs, Olson, Beasley & Gorman (1995) – Meta – Analytic Validation of the Dunn and Dunn Model of Learning Style Preferences:<br /><ul><li>Findings – matching students’ learning –style preferences with educational interventions compatible with those preferences is beneficial to their academic achievement.
Significantly higher standardized achievement scores resulted among previously failing students when they were taught with strategies that complemented their learning strategies</li></li></ul><li>Learning Styles: An overview of theories, models, and measures (Cassidy 2004)<br />Learning Style Theorists<br />Witkin (1962) Field-dependence/independence<br />Kagan (1965) Impulsivity-reflexivity<br />Holzman and Klein (1954) Leveller-sharpener<br />Pask (1972) Holist-serialist<br />Pavio (1971) Verbaliser-visualiser<br />Gregorc (1982) Style delineator<br />Kauffmann (1979) Assimilator-explorer<br />Kirton (1994) Adaption-innovation<br />Allinson and Hayes (1996) Intuition-analysis<br />Kolb (1984) ELM<br />Honey and Mumford (1992) LSQ<br />Vermunt (1994) LSI<br />Learning Style Theorists<br />Kolb (1984) ELM<br />Honey and Mumford (1992) LSQ<br />Vermunt (1994) LSI<br />Entwistle & Tait (1995) Surface-deep<br />Biggs et al. (2001) SPQ<br />Schmeck et al. (1991) ILP<br />Hunt, Butler, Noy, and Rosser (1978) Conceptual level<br />Dunn, Dunn, and Price (1989) LSI<br />Reichmann and Grasha (1974) Styles of learning interaction model<br />Ramirez and Castenada (1974) Child rating form<br />Reinert (1976) ELSIE<br />Hill (1976) Cognitive Style Interest Inventory<br />Letteri (1980) Learner types<br />
The Sum of Learning Styles<br />Dunn, Jeffery, Beaudry & Klavas (1989)<br /><ul><li>Everyone has a learning style – all have at least some preference- the results of many influences.
No learning style is either better or worse than another. Since each style has similar intelligence ranges, a student cannot be labeled or stigmatized by having any type of style. Most students can master the same content: how they master it is determined by individual styles. </li></li></ul><li>Four Generations Working or Studying on Campuses Today<br /><ul><li> Traditionalists
Cutting age technology – IPods/MP3s, camera phones, PDAs, digital cameras, personal DVD players, and virtual reality </li></li></ul><li>Source: http://joshbersin.com/2007/10/01/a-new-organizational-learning-model-learning-on-demand<br />Learning Styles of the Multi-Generational Workforce<br />
High achievers – had strong preference for teacher motivation
Average achievers – had strong preference for auditory learning
Low achievers – had a strong preference for persistence
Male high achievers preferred less structure than female average and low achievers.
Male low achievers preferred authority figures present while learning than did females. </li></li></ul><li>Ethnic Minority Students <br /><ul><li>Walden University – minority enrollment jumped from 600 in 2001 to 3,500 in 2005.
Greatest jump in graduate programs.</li></ul>“ Everyone, to me at least, is judged on a fair basis…. When you are online, nobody is a minority.” <br />
Learning Styles and Ethnicity Pew Internet and American Life Project<br /><ul><li> AA access the Internet via handheld devices more than whites, for whom an online connection is more likely to come from an ISP-connected computer.
The digital divide between AA and WA diminishes when mobile use is taken into account.</li></li></ul><li>Chris Dede of Harvard Graduate School of Education (2004)<br /><ul><li>Portrayal of generational learning is over simplified
For almost all types of personal attributes, differences among individuals are greater than dissimilarities between groups.
The learning preference ascribed to millennials are increasingly true for many students across a variety of ages – driven by the tools and media used everyday.</li></li></ul><li>Technology in Healthcare<br /><ul><li>As of February 2010, there were nearly 6,000 apps related to health and health care within the Apple App Store.
73% were intended for use by consumer or patient end-users, while 27% were targeted to health care professionals.
Provider apps include alerts, medical reference tools, diagnostic tools, continuing medical education, and patient records programs.
Consumer-oriented apps include those for medication compliance, mobile and home monitoring, home care, managing conditions, and wellness/fitness. </li></li></ul><li>Technology in Healthcare<br />One of the few free iPhone apps, Epocrates Rx includes a drug guide, formulary information and drug interaction checker. <br />This product also includes continual free updates and medical news. Plus, this app resides on your device so you can look for information without wireless connections.<br />
Technology in Healthcare<br />Glucose-Charter is a blood glucose, insulin and medication recording app for iPhone. <br />Patients can self-monitor, nurses can use it to check patients.<br />
Technology in Healthcare<br />Nursing Central is the premier source of disease, drug, and test information for nurses. It also includes a leading dictionary and literature searching. Get quick answers wherever you need them—on your handheld device or via the web.<br />
Technology in Healthcare<br />Information is shifting in a way that provides easy access to references and patient information to healthcare providers and opens doors for innovative ways of engaging patients.<br />
What is an Instructional Designer?<br />In 2003, Williams, defined competencies one must possess to play an effective role as an instructional designer in distance education programs in higher education. <br />These skills were listed as:<br /><ul><li>Knowledge of instructional design for interactive technologies
Knowledge of learning styles & theories</li></li></ul><li>What is an Instructional Designer?<br />I can hammer a nail, but that doesn’t make me a carpenter.<br />It’s not about the tools. It’s about the expertise needed to use the tools in conjunction with each other in an effective, efficient, and professional manner.<br />Image Credit: Cayusa<br />
Essential Qualities of Instructional Designers<br /><ul><li>Passion for teaching & learning
Various types of software</li></li></ul><li>Source: Robinson, K. (2008)<br />Technology in Education<br /><ul><li>Technology Revolution
21st century revolution is comparable to the Industrial Revolution in the 18th and 19th centuries. The distinction of today’s revolution of labor markets is the rate and the scale of change in technological developments.
Preparing learners for a future we may not be able to imagine
Moore’s Law - 2016</li></li></ul><li>Technology in Education<br />Web 2.0 Technologies<br />Tools that allow users to interact with each other as content contributors, in contrast to passive viewing of information that is provided to them.<br /><ul><li>Interactive
Mobile applications</li></li></ul><li>Technology in Education<br /><ul><li>Mobile Learning</li></li></ul><li>Technology in Education<br /><ul><li>Podcasting
Podcasting is a way to share information through MP3 audio files.
Podcasts are shared by their authors, downloaded by users and can be subscribed to using a RSS reader.
They can be played with MP3 players & many other mobile devices.
Podcasts allow learners to listen to lectures, articles or blog posts while sitting in a traffic jam, exercising, or other times that are convenient.</li></li></ul><li>Technology in Education<br /><ul><li>Podcasting
Synchronous Communication</li></li></ul><li>Strategies for Linking Local Classroom with Global Community<br />Twitter<br />Twitter is an online “microblogging” tool that is much like sending texts. <br /><ul><li>Messages can be up to 140 characters and are broadcast through the service.
People can choose to follow your updates (aka "tweets")
you can follow others to see their tweets. </li></ul>Twitter is now attracting 190 million visitors per month and generating 65 million Tweets a day.<br />
Strategies for Linking Local Classroom with Global Community<br />Why Twitter? It sounds like a waste of time!<br />Do not tweet only about what you are doing. Tweet about what is holding your attention.<br /><ul><li>Expand your social network
Learn from experts & share your own expertise
Stay on top of the news & cutting edge trends
See the best information & resources on the web about topics of interest
Mentoring</li></li></ul><li>Strategies for Linking Local Classroom with Global Community<br />To join go to www.twitter.com and sign up for a new account. It’s best to keep your username short.<br /> Make sure to use a valid e-mail address so you can confirm your account.<br />
Strategies for Linking Local Classroom with Global Community<br />Find people you would like to follow. www.mrtweet.com is a good place to find people by the subject matter they tweet about most often.<br />
Strategies for Linking Local Classroom with Global Community<br />Look who the people you follow are following.<br />
Strategies for Linking Local Classroom with Global Community<br />How to Tweet:<br />
Strategies for Linking Local Classroom with Global Community<br />Twitter Lingo:<br /><ul><li>RT – re-tweets (re-sends) something that someone else has tweeted
@username – replys to someone. If you wanted to reply to me, you would type @itjil then your message.
D – direct message to a twitter user that is private</li></li></ul><li>Strategies for Linking Local Classroom with Global Community<br />Use Tweetdeck – it’s free!<br />
Strategies for Linking Local Classroom with Global Community<br />Use Tweetdeck – it’s free!<br />Enter search term<br />Click to search<br />
Strategies for Linking Local Classroom with Global Community<br />Social Networking Sites<br />Facebook (Over 500 Nursing Groups)<br />LinkedIn (130 Nursing Groups)<br />Professional Communities<br />http://www.nurselinkup.com<br />http://nursinglink.monster.com/<br />http://www.medicalmingle.com/<br />http://www.nursescafe.com/<br />http://nursescience.ning.com/<br />http://www.nurseconnect.com/<br />
Strategies for Linking Local Classroom with Global Community<br />Social Networking – Slideshare.net<br />Share presentations with the global community as well as view other people’s work.<br />
Strategies for Linking Local Classroom with Global Community<br /><ul><li>Synchronous Communication</li></ul>Learners and teachers experience synchronous <br />e-learning as more social and avoid frustration by<br /> asking and answering questions in real time.<br /><ul><li>Chat
Don’t try to master all the technology at once</li></li></ul><li>Recommendations<br /><ul><li>Invite students to introduce technology, be real and humble
Don’t close your eyes on the neo-millennial age
Mandate that all students have access to technology
Consider writing a grant for enhanced technology.</li></li></ul><li>Questions/Comments/Sharing<br />Questions the presentation?<br />Comments about the presentation<br />What are you doing with technology and what do you propose to do? Do you have partners? What type of support is there for use of technology at your institution?<br />What technologies have you personally incorporated?<br />
Sheila P. Davis, PhD, RN, FAAN Professor of Nursing<br />Email: Sheila.Davis@usm.edu<br />Twitter: http://twitter.com/spdavis777<br />Slideshare: http://www.slideshare.net/drspdavis<br />Online Journal of Health Ethics: http://www.ojhe.org<br />
Instructional Designers have been referred to as industrial designers or instructional/educational technologists, curriculum developers, as well as learning specialists. In 1997, Ganzel stated that for some people, the title "instructional designer" does not say enough. Many instructional designers are also multimedia producers, webmasters, and developers of online learning and interactions. This means that different computer programming languages may be utilized to create tools for instruction and evaluation of instruction. Depending on the job at hand an instructional designer may wear many hats. <br />Website<br />A website to accompany this presentation may be accessed at:<br />https://sites.google.com/site/usmabnf2010/<br />The site contains more information and tutorials. More information will be added and this presentation will be made available there.<br />
Special Thanks<br />Special Thanks for ABNF founding president – Dr. Sallie Tucker Allen for her visionary leadership and all conference organizers and attendees<br />The University of Southern Mississippi Administrators, Faculty and Staff<br />MY Staff – Sonia Adams, Demetra Bates, Laura Hudson and Jillian Wright<br />My family (Melvin, etc)<br />My Father who is the source of my life!<br />