18968493 motivation-ppt

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  • 2. Definition of motivation:* The driving force within individuals by which theyattempt to achieve some goal in order to fulfill someneeds or expectation.* The degree to which an individual wants to choosein certain behavior.
  • 3. Motivation is… Complex Psychological Physical Unique to each and every person Context sensitive Not fully understood
  • 4. Qualities of Motivation:Energizes behaviorDirects behaviorEnable persistence towards a goalExists in varying details
  • 5. Motivation as a process:ENERGY DIRECTION PERSISTENCEIt is a process by which a person’s efforts areenergized, directed and sustained towards attainingthe goal. *Energy- A measure of intensity or drive. *Direction- Towards organizational goal. *Persistence- Exerting effort to achieve goal
  • 6. Six C’s of Motivation.. Challenges Choices Control collaboration Consequences Constructing meaning
  • 7. Basic model of motivation Needs or Result in Drive force To Achieveexpectations (Behavior or Action) Desired Goals Feedback fulfillments Which Provides
  • 8. Early Theories of Motivation: Content Theories: Emphasis on what motivates individuals.  Maslow’s need Hierarchy  Macgregors Theories X & Y  Herzberg’s two factors theory
  • 9.  Process Theories of Motivation:Emphasis on actual process of motivation. Three needs Theory ( McClelland) Goal-setting Theory Reinforcement Theory Designing Motivating theory Equity Theory Expectancy Theory
  • 10. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs theoryNeeds were categories as five levels of lower-higher-order needs.*Individual must satisfy lower-level needs before they can satisfy higher order needs. *Satisfied needs will no longer motivate. *Motivating a person depends on knowing at what level that a person is on the hierarchy.
  • 11. Hierarchy of Needs*Lover order ( External ) : Physiological and safety needs*Higher order ( Internal ) : Social, Esteem, and Self- actualization Self-Actualization Needs Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological needs
  • 12. McGregor’s Theory X and Y Theory X Assume that workers have little ambition, dislike work, avoid responsibility, and require close supervision. Theory Y Assumes that workers can exercise self-direction, desire, responsibility, and like to work. Assumption Motivation is maximized by participative decision making, interesting jobs, and good group relation.
  • 13. Motivational Theories X & Y SA Theory Y - a set of assumptions of how to Esteem manage individuals motivated by higher Social order needs Theory X - a set of Safety & Security assumptions of how to manage individuals Physiological motivated by lower order needs
  • 14. McClelland’s Need Theory: Need for AchievementNeed forAchievementThe desire to excel andsucceed
  • 15. McClelland’s Need Theory: Need for PowerNeed for Power –The need to influence thebehavior of others.
  • 16. McClelland’s Need Theory: Need for AffiliationNeed for Affiliation –The desire for interpersonalrelationship
  • 17. Herzberg’s Motivation-HygieneTheory Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are created y different factors. Hygiene factors- Extrinsic ( Environmental ) factors that create job dissatisfaction. Motivation Factors- Intrinsic ( Psychological ) factors that create job satisfaction. Attempted to explain why job satisfaction does not result in increased performance The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction but rather no satisfaction.
  • 18. Motivation–Hygiene Theory of Motivation Motivation factors• Company policy & increase job satisfaction administration• Supervision• Interpersonal relations• Working conditions • Achievement• Salary • Achievement recognition• Status • Work itself• Security • Responsibility • Advancement • GrowthHygiene factors avoid job dissatisfaction • Salary?
  • 19. Alderfer’s ERG Theory SA Growth Esteem Love (Social) Relatedness Safety & Security Existence Physiological
  • 20. Motivational Need Theories Maslow Alderfer McClelland Self-actualization Growth Need forHigher Esteem AchievementOrder self Need forNeeds interpersonal Power Belongingness (social & love) Relatedness Need for AffiliationLower Safety & SecurityOrder interpersonal physicalNeeds Existence Physiological
  • 21. Motivating by Structuring Jobs to Make ThemInteresting Job Design - suggests that jobs can be structured to enhance people’s interest in doing them Job enlargement - expansion of the content of a job to include more variety and more tasks at the same level - does not increase responsibility nor skills needed to do job - horizontal job loading - may help to improve job performance, but its effects may not be lasting Job enrichment - gives employees a high degree of control over their work, from planning and organization through implementation and evaluation - employees determine how to do their jobs - vertical job loading - although successful in many organizations, popularity is limited by difficulty in implementation and lack of employee acceptance.