Definition of motivation:* The driving force within individuals by which theyattempt to achieve some goal in order to fulfill someneeds or expectation.* The degree to which an individual wants to choosein certain behavior.
Motivation is… Complex Psychological Physical Unique to each and every person Context sensitive Not fully understood
Qualities of Motivation:Energizes behaviorDirects behaviorEnable persistence towards a goalExists in varying details
Motivation as a process:ENERGY DIRECTION PERSISTENCEIt is a process by which a person’s efforts areenergized, directed and sustained towards attainingthe goal. *Energy- A measure of intensity or drive. *Direction- Towards organizational goal. *Persistence- Exerting effort to achieve goal
Six C’s of Motivation.. Challenges Choices Control collaboration Consequences Constructing meaning
Basic model of motivation Needs or Result in Drive force To Achieveexpectations (Behavior or Action) Desired Goals Feedback fulfillments Which Provides
Early Theories of Motivation: Content Theories: Emphasis on what motivates individuals. Maslow’s need Hierarchy Macgregors Theories X & Y Herzberg’s two factors theory
Process Theories of Motivation:Emphasis on actual process of motivation. Three needs Theory ( McClelland) Goal-setting Theory Reinforcement Theory Designing Motivating theory Equity Theory Expectancy Theory
Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs theoryNeeds were categories as five levels of lower-higher-order needs.*Individual must satisfy lower-level needs before they can satisfy higher order needs. *Satisfied needs will no longer motivate. *Motivating a person depends on knowing at what level that a person is on the hierarchy.
Hierarchy of Needs*Lover order ( External ) : Physiological and safety needs*Higher order ( Internal ) : Social, Esteem, and Self- actualization Self-Actualization Needs Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological needs
McGregor’s Theory X and Y Theory X Assume that workers have little ambition, dislike work, avoid responsibility, and require close supervision. Theory Y Assumes that workers can exercise self-direction, desire, responsibility, and like to work. Assumption Motivation is maximized by participative decision making, interesting jobs, and good group relation.
Motivational Theories X & Y SA Theory Y - a set of assumptions of how to Esteem manage individuals motivated by higher Social order needs Theory X - a set of Safety & Security assumptions of how to manage individuals Physiological motivated by lower order needs
McClelland’s Need Theory: Need for AchievementNeed forAchievementThe desire to excel andsucceed
McClelland’s Need Theory: Need for PowerNeed for Power –The need to influence thebehavior of others.
McClelland’s Need Theory: Need for AffiliationNeed for Affiliation –The desire for interpersonalrelationship
Herzberg’s Motivation-HygieneTheory Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are created y different factors. Hygiene factors- Extrinsic ( Environmental ) factors that create job dissatisfaction. Motivation Factors- Intrinsic ( Psychological ) factors that create job satisfaction. Attempted to explain why job satisfaction does not result in increased performance The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction but rather no satisfaction.
Motivation–Hygiene Theory of Motivation Motivation factors• Company policy & increase job satisfaction administration• Supervision• Interpersonal relations• Working conditions • Achievement• Salary • Achievement recognition• Status • Work itself• Security • Responsibility • Advancement • GrowthHygiene factors avoid job dissatisfaction • Salary?
Alderfer’s ERG Theory SA Growth Esteem Love (Social) Relatedness Safety & Security Existence Physiological
Motivational Need Theories Maslow Alderfer McClelland Self-actualization Growth Need forHigher Esteem AchievementOrder self Need forNeeds interpersonal Power Belongingness (social & love) Relatedness Need for AffiliationLower Safety & SecurityOrder interpersonal physicalNeeds Existence Physiological
Motivating by Structuring Jobs to Make ThemInteresting Job Design - suggests that jobs can be structured to enhance people’s interest in doing them Job enlargement - expansion of the content of a job to include more variety and more tasks at the same level - does not increase responsibility nor skills needed to do job - horizontal job loading - may help to improve job performance, but its effects may not be lasting Job enrichment - gives employees a high degree of control over their work, from planning and organization through implementation and evaluation - employees determine how to do their jobs - vertical job loading - although successful in many organizations, popularity is limited by difficulty in implementation and lack of employee acceptance.