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Research Presentation Utrecht


The extended (a nice way to say too long) ppt I presented at the International Phd School on Economic Geography - Utrecht Uni.

The extended (a nice way to say too long) ppt I presented at the International Phd School on Economic Geography - Utrecht Uni.

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  • 1. The Role of Innovation Intermediaries in Regional Innovation SystemsA Comparative Analysis Between Emilia-Romagna and Baden-WurttembergVer. 4.0
    Andrea Cocchi - Doctoral Researcher
    Newcastle University Business School
    International PhD Course on
    Economic Geography,
    Utrecht, 21-24 Sep. 2010
  • 2. Contents
    Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University
    Issue: Innovation Intermediaries in evolution
    Unit of Analysis
    Unit of Observation
    Research Presentation
    Research Consistency
    Research Questions
    Interpretative Model
    Problems to be addressed
  • 3. Background : The PlaygroundRegional Innovation Systems (RIS):
    Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University
    RIS have been represented and analyzed according to different logics
    Bottom Up vs. Top Down (Howells, 99)
    Governance Models for Technology Transfer (Braczyk et al., 98)
    Taxonomies for Knowledge Base (Asheim et al., 2007)
    Main Territorial Problems (i.e. distressed, rust belts, new knowledge) (Todling, Trippl, 2005)
    Notwithstanding their “conceptual diffuseness”, RIS are used to design, deliver, evaluate, analyse and define regional innovation dynamics
  • 4. … and New Players
    Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University
    Universities: actors committed to generation and diffusion of scientific knowledge their roles (and expectations) are evolving rapidly.
    Clusters: peculiar form of industrial organization based on the concept of proximity. Their role is to shape the demand for knowledge and address the investments.
    Innovation Platforms: specialized in coordinating the demand for specific technologies.
    • Innovation Intermediaries: “An organization or body that acts an agent or broker in any aspect of the innovation process between two or more parties.” (Howells, 2006).
  • What’s the point?VAN LENTE, H., HEKKERT, M., SMITS, R. & VAN WAVEREN, B. (2003) Roles of Systemic Intermediaries in Transition Processes. International Journal of Innovation Management, 7, 3
    Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University
  • 5. There is a Need to Study Innovation Intermediaries?
    Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University
    Innovation is a distributed, non linear, process based on mutual learning.
    Proximity and space are important elements of the regional (localized) innovation process.
    Innovation Intermediaries are an emergent typology of actors providing knowledge based services.
  • 6. Diversity of Actors in IntermediationSource: VILJAMAA, et. Al. (2010) For and against? An exploration of inadvertent influences of policies on KIBS industries in the Finnish policy setting. The Service Industries Journal, 30, 71-84
  • 7. Innovation Intermediaries as aNew Actor
    Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University
    • Different Definitions: Brokers, Gate-keepers, Boundary Organizations, Bridging Organizations, Bricoleurs, Reseacrh&Technology Organizations … Intermediaries
    General Aim: generation, use, and diffusion of new and economically useful knowledge
    Defined by their position in networks (formal, informal): Essentialist perspective
    Networks and Social Capital Studies: Component of Territorial/Technological Ecologies
    Defined by their activities: Functionalist perspective
    Business and Innovation studies: Actors in a System – aiming at address specific problems
  • 8. Evolution of Innovation Intermediaries?Institutions of Technological Infrastructures (ITI)(source Koschatzky and Stahlecker, (2010)The emergence of new modes of R&D services in Germany. The Service Industries Journal, 30, 685 – 700.
    Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University
    General Function: Provide R&D services
    A) knowledge-intensive service firms (heterogeneous)
    B) research- and innovation-oriented organizations (more institutionalized: RTOs, C-RTOs , ITIs)
    Common Nature: subgroup of Knowledge-Intensive Business Services (KIBS) (cf. Strambach, 2001)
    Observation 1: the division of labour in R&D services diminishes
    Observation 2: this implies flexibility of resources (adaptation, change ... )
  • 9. Unit of Analysis: Institutions of Technological Infrastructures (ITI)
    Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University
    From the available literature:
    Institutional Form: Public Private Partnerships
    • Shareholders: Mixed (Universities, Businesses, local and regional constituencies)
    • 10. Stakeholders: Composite and Dynamic (local traditional/technological districts as well as Big Firms)
    • 11. Governance model: agreed by shareholders
    • 12. Remits: coordination, design and delivery of technology transfer activities
    • 13. Source of revenues: Mixed (projects and public tutelage)
  • How to study Intermediaries?Innovation Intermediaries as KIBS
    Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University
    Knowledge Intensive Business Services
    services that involved economic activities which are intended to result in the creation, accumulation or dissemination of knowledge” (Miles et al., 1995).
    Innovation Intermediaries as KIBS because:
    they rely heavily on professional knowledge;
    they can be source, user or carrier of knowledge and innovation;
    the innovation process is defined by the relationship aimed at solve a specific problem;
    their activity is mainly aimed at increase the competitiveness of firms, institutions and regions at large.
  • 14. Unit of Observation
    Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University
    Functions, organizational settings and tasks (ideal model)
    Organizational routines: Activities, and processes (real model)
    Human Capital: scholarity levels, technologies managed, mobility and affiliations
    Systems of relationships developed: territory; sector or technology; typologies of organizations
    Performances and outcomes obtained (comparing different perspectives: policy maker, managers and clients) – Gaps and Reinforcements
  • 15. Aim
    Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University
    Aim: of this research is to define the role of specific I.I. according to an evolutionary perspective
    If division of labour in R&D services is diminishing, this evolution can be captured profiting from a actor-oriented perspective (and not subject oriented).
    If this evolution leads toward a more flexible Intermediary, the analysis of Functions, Routines (activities) and systems of Relationship should be implemented (contextualized perspective).
    Hypothesis: this emerging role should be explained by the emergence of institutional, organizational and professional paths.
  • 16. Research Rationale
    Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University
    Object of this research is to study the role and functioning of a specific actor - Innovation Intermediaries (I.I.) - in a Regional Innovation System.
    Focus is on the organizational, strategic and relational aspects: activities, functions, networks and technologies (object perspective)
    Main Research question: how can the emerging role be defined in a RIS?
    Tentative Hypothesis: we have to look for the dynamics of Innovation Intermediaries. And then looking at their role in RIS.
  • 17. Research Design
    Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University
    • Research Method: comparison between “critical case studies” (Emilia-Romagna and Baden-Wurttemberg ):
    Proved tradition in innovation and industrial policies
    Well defined and sizeable Regional Innovation System
    Defined industrial specialisation
    Formulation and delivery of congruent innovation policies
    Presence of Innovation Intermediaries
    • Critical Case Studies ?
    if happens here so this could be a new possible variety in a RIS (Micro to Meso level)
  • 18. Research Consistency
    Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University
  • 19. Research Questions
    Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University
    Overarching Research Question: How can the role of Innovation Intermediaries in the regional innovation system be defined?
    Sub Research Question 1: How does the regional policy mix impinges on Intermediaries’ strategy?
    According to which rationale Innovation intermediaries are defined and used by regional innovation policy?
    How does the policy mix impinges on innovation intermediaries’ strategy and behaviour?
    How intermediaries’ activities and functions are evaluated, by in terms of quality, expectations and outcomes?
  • 20. Research Questions
    Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University
    Sub Research Question 2: What is the nature of the relationship between Intermediaries and regional innovation system?
    Which kinds of services do Intermediaries provide?
    How these services are provided?
    How the client firm interact with the intermediaries? (cnf. KIBS literature)
    Sub Research Question 3: How the intermediation activity is organised?
    How the policy mix is exploited by I.I. management?
    How the value proposition is created?
    What are the actors involved?
    How the clients are targeted and selected?
  • 21. Focus on Routines
    Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University
  • 22. An Interpretative ModelSource: Zahra, Sapienza, Daviddson (2006)
    Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University
    Resources Skills
    Dynamic Capabilities
    Entrepreneurial Activity
    Org. Knowledge
    Learning Process
  • 23. Focus on Capabilities
    (problem setting)
    (problem solving)
    Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University
    Ability to perform basic functional activities
    Perform dynamic improvements
    Ability to recognise the value of other resources or develop strategies
    Learning to learn capabilities
    Reconfiguration: of available resources in specific processes
    Transformation: replacing processes inside the organisation
    Learning: outcome of experimentation
    Creative integration: development of new resources
  • 24. Problems to be addressed
    Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University
    Undecided between routines and capabilities (even if capabilities are defined as routines): tricky field
    • Problem of self fulfilling prophecy : regarding the validity of findings
    • 25. Distance between theoretical framework (IS and Evolutionary studies) and Intermediaries: appreciative theorizing normally implies quantitative and not experimental analysis
    • 26. Definition of the level of “granularity”: where I have to stop digging?
  • References
    Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University
    Asheim, B. T. (2007): Differentiated Knowledge Bases and Varieties of Regional Innovation Systems. Innovation – The European Journal of Social Science Research, 20 (3), pp. 223-241
    Braczyk et al., (1998) Regional innovation systems: the role of governance in a globalized world. London and Pennsylvania: UCL
    Howells J., (1999) Regional System of Innovation?, In Archibugi, D.Howells, J.Michie, J. (Eds), Innovation Policy in a Global Economy, Cambridge University Press
    Howells, J. (2006) Intermediation and the role of intermediaries in innovation, Research Policy, 35(5), pp 715–28.
    Koschatzky and Stahlecker, (2010) The emergence of new modes of R&D services in Germany. The Service Industries Journal, No.30, pp. 685 – 700.
    Lumpkin, Dess (1996) Clarifying the Entrepreneurial Orientation Construct and Linking It to Performance , The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 21, No. 1, (Jan., 1996), pp. 135-172
    Strambach S. (2001) Innovation processes and the role of knowledge-intensive business services. In: Koschatzky K, Zulicke M, Zenker A, (Eds) Innovation networks: concepts and challenges in the European perspectives. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag; 2001.
    Todling, Trippl, (2005), ‘One size fits all? Towards a differentiated regional innovation policy approach’, Research Policy, Vol. 34, pp.1203-19.
    van Lente, et Al. (2003) Roles of Systemic Intermediaries in Transition Processes. International Journal of Innovation Management, 7,3
    VILJAMAA, et. Al. (2010) For and against? An exploration of inadvertent influences of policies on KIBS industries in the Finnish policy setting. The Service Industries Journal, 30, pp. 71-84
    Zahra, Sapienza, Daviddson (2006) “Entrepreneurship and Dynamic Capabilities: A Review, Model and Research Agenda”, Journal of Management Studies, Vol 43, No. 4