The Periodic Table Presentation 2


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part 2 of periodic table notes

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The Periodic Table Presentation 2

  1. 1. Modern Periodic Table
  2. 2. What’s in the box? <ul><li>What does the 1 stand for? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atomic Number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This tells us what about an atom of H? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li># of protons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>What does the 1.007947 stand for? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atomic Mass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This tells us what about an atom of H? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mass in nucleus (# of protons and neutrons) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>On the modern periodic table, how are elements arranged? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In order of increasing atomic number, left to right </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What do we call the columns (up and down) on the periodic table? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GROUPS (or families) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What do we call the rows (left and right) on the periodic table? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PERIODS </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>What does periodic mean? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Having or being marked by repeated cycles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What element does period 1 begin with? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>H </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How many periods are there on the table? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7 </li></ul></ul>Periods
  5. 6. Groups <ul><li>Two different number systems for groups </li></ul><ul><li>In the first numbering system, groups are number 1-8 and each number is followed by either an A or B </li></ul><ul><li>The groups labeled A are the main groups (1A thru 8A) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Representative elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is because they possess a wide range of chemical and physical properties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The groups designated with a B (1B thru 8B) are found in the center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transition Elements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A more recent numbering system has been devised numbering 1-18 </li></ul>
  6. 8. Classification of Elements <ul><li>What was another pattern of organization you noticed on the periodic table? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical properties and states </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 main classifications of elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonmetals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metalloids </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. 1. Metals <ul><li>Elements that are shiny, smooth and clean </li></ul><ul><li>Solid at room temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Good conductors of heat and electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Malleable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hammered flat into a sheet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ductile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawn out into a wire </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. 1. Metals <ul><li>All group B and most group A elements </li></ul><ul><li>Staircase line is divider between metals and nonmetals (Boron 3A and Astatine 7A) </li></ul><ul><li>ALMOST all elements on left side of table are metals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the exception? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 11. Alkali and Alkaline Earth metals (Group A) <ul><li>What does alkali mean? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>basic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alkali metals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group 1A (except hydrogen) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alkaline earth metals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group 2A </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both alkali and alkaline earth metals are chemically reactive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alkali metals more reactive…why do you think? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Valence electrons…how many do group 1A elements have? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is this stable? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 13. Transition Elements (Group B) <ul><li>2 categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transition metals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner Transition Metals (2 types) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 14. Inner Transition Metals <ul><li>Located along the bottom of the periodic table </li></ul><ul><li>2 sets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lanthanide series </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Top row of the inner transition elements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These elements are used as phosphors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Substances that emit light when struck by electrons </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Where have we seen this before? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Where do we see this today? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actinide series </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom row of the inner transition elements </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 16. Transition elements <ul><li>All other group B elements that are not inner transition elements </li></ul><ul><li>Basically the Group B elements we see on the actual periodic table… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Think of it as the ‘continental US’ </li></ul></ul>
  13. 18. <ul><li>3 main classifications of elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonmetals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metalloids </li></ul></ul>
  14. 19. 2. Nonmetals <ul><li>Occupy the upper right side of the periodic table </li></ul><ul><li>Usually gases </li></ul><ul><li>Brittle, dull-looking solids </li></ul><ul><li>Poor conductors of heat and electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Bromine (Br) is the only nonmetal that is liquid at room temperature </li></ul>
  15. 20. Important nonmetals <ul><li>Group 7A </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Halogens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Highly reactive elements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What does this mean? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why are they highly reactive? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Look at the valence electrons </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Group 8A </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Noble gases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Highly unreactive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 valence electrons </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 21. <ul><li>3 main classifications of elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonmetals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metalloids </li></ul></ul>
  17. 22. 3. Metalloids <ul><li>Border the stair-case line </li></ul><ul><li>Elements with physical and chemical properties of both metals and non-metals </li></ul><ul><li>Silicon and germanium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two of the most important metalloids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anyone know why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in computer chips and solar cells </li></ul></ul>
  18. 24. Everyday Examples <ul><li>Metals? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jewelry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pot and pans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nonmetals? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air we breath </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neon signs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diamonds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metalloids? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer chips </li></ul></ul>