The Periodic Table Presentation 1
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Periodic Table notes set 1

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The Periodic Table Presentation 1 The Periodic Table Presentation 1 Presentation Transcript

  • The Periodic Table Part One
  • The Basics
    • What does periodic mean?
      • Having or marked by repeated cycles
      • What things in our everyday life do we notice as cyclic or periodic?
    • What are some of the patterns you notice on the periodic table?
    • There are many important people who played a key role in organizing the elements in such an intricate fashion…
  • Antoine Lavoisier (1790’s)
    • Compiled a list of known elements at the time (23)
      • What elements do you think were included here?
        • Gold, silver, oxygen, carbon
    • The 1800’s brought about big changes…
    • What are some big things that may have affected the knowledge of chemistry?
      • Electricity
      • Development of the spectrometer
      • Industrial revolution (mid-1800’s)
        • Lead to many chemical industries…soaps, dyes, fertilizers
        • But not all good things came from the revolution
          • Chemical pollution now an issue
    • 70 known elements by the 1870
  • In addition to new elements…
    • New scientific data that provided insight into the properties of compounds and elements
    • A tool for organization became necessary
    • Big step: 1860
      • Scientists agreed on a method for accurately determining the atomic masses of the elements (finally!)
      • What would be the problem with not having a universal way to measure the mass of elements?
    • Now the search for relationships between mass and elements was on…
  • John Newlands (1864)
    • English chemist
    • Proposed organization scheme
    • Noticed elements were arranged by increasing atomic mass
    • Also, their properties repeated every eigth element
      • 1 st and 8 th
      • 2 nd and 9 th
    • What do were call this repeating pattern?
    • Newlands called it: The Law of Octaves
      • Octave is a group of musical notes that repeats every eighth tone
    • Newlands organized the first 14 known elements
    • Elements with similar properties were in the same row
    • How does this compare with our current periodic table
    • The Law of octaves was not readily accepted b/c it did not work with all elements
    • Newlands law was also criticized b/c the use of the word octave was considered very “unscientific”
    • The important thing was that Newland recognized that properties of elements were repeated
  • Lothar Meyer (1869)
    • German chemist
    • Demonstrated connection between atomic mass and elemental properties
    • Did not receive as much credit as Dmitri Mendeleev because he did not publish his organization scheme first
  • Dmitri Mendeleev (1869)
    • Russian chemist demonstrated connection between atomic mass and elemental properties
    • Noticed (like Newlands) that when elements were put in order of atomic mass there was a periodic repetition of their elemental properties
    • Arranged elements in order of increasing atomic mass into columns with similar properties
    • This was the first periodic table
  •  
  •  
    • Mendeleev’s table was widely accepted because it predicted the existence and properties of undiscovered elements
    • Blank spaces on the table
    • Predicted properties of yet to be discovered elements such as scandium, gallium, and germanium
  • But there were problems…
    • New elements discovered and atomic masses were more accurately determined
    • Elements in Mendeleev’s table not in correct order
    • Arranging elements by mass now put groups of elements together with different properties
  • Henry Moseley (1913)
    • English Chemist
    • Figured out the problem with Medeleev’s Table
    • What did Moseley Discover before?
      • Atoms of each element contain unique number of protons in their nuclei
    • He arranged elements in order of increasing atomic number and not increasing atomic mass
  • Problem Solved!
    • Moseley’s arrangement solved the problems with Mendeleev’s table
    • His arrangement resulted in clear periodic patterns of properties
    • Lead to Periodic Law:
      • Statement that there is a periodic repetition of chemical and physical properties of the elements when they are arranged in increasing atomic number
  • Problem-solving lab p 155
  • Modern Periodic Table