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# The Periodic Table Presentation 1

## on Jan 09, 2008

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Periodic Table notes set 1

Periodic Table notes set 1

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## The Periodic Table Presentation 1Presentation Transcript

• The Periodic Table Part One
• The Basics
• What does periodic mean?
• Having or marked by repeated cycles
• What things in our everyday life do we notice as cyclic or periodic?
• What are some of the patterns you notice on the periodic table?
• There are many important people who played a key role in organizing the elements in such an intricate fashion…
• Antoine Lavoisier (1790’s)
• Compiled a list of known elements at the time (23)
• What elements do you think were included here?
• Gold, silver, oxygen, carbon
• The 1800’s brought about big changes…
• What are some big things that may have affected the knowledge of chemistry?
• Electricity
• Development of the spectrometer
• Industrial revolution (mid-1800’s)
• Lead to many chemical industries…soaps, dyes, fertilizers
• But not all good things came from the revolution
• Chemical pollution now an issue
• 70 known elements by the 1870
• In addition to new elements…
• New scientific data that provided insight into the properties of compounds and elements
• A tool for organization became necessary
• Big step: 1860
• Scientists agreed on a method for accurately determining the atomic masses of the elements (finally!)
• What would be the problem with not having a universal way to measure the mass of elements?
• Now the search for relationships between mass and elements was on…
• John Newlands (1864)
• English chemist
• Proposed organization scheme
• Noticed elements were arranged by increasing atomic mass
• Also, their properties repeated every eigth element
• 1 st and 8 th
• 2 nd and 9 th
• What do were call this repeating pattern?
• Newlands called it: The Law of Octaves
• Octave is a group of musical notes that repeats every eighth tone
• Newlands organized the first 14 known elements
• Elements with similar properties were in the same row
• How does this compare with our current periodic table
• The Law of octaves was not readily accepted b/c it did not work with all elements
• Newlands law was also criticized b/c the use of the word octave was considered very “unscientific”
• The important thing was that Newland recognized that properties of elements were repeated
• Lothar Meyer (1869)
• German chemist
• Demonstrated connection between atomic mass and elemental properties
• Did not receive as much credit as Dmitri Mendeleev because he did not publish his organization scheme first
• Dmitri Mendeleev (1869)
• Russian chemist demonstrated connection between atomic mass and elemental properties
• Noticed (like Newlands) that when elements were put in order of atomic mass there was a periodic repetition of their elemental properties
• Arranged elements in order of increasing atomic mass into columns with similar properties
• This was the first periodic table
•
•
• Mendeleev’s table was widely accepted because it predicted the existence and properties of undiscovered elements
• Blank spaces on the table
• Predicted properties of yet to be discovered elements such as scandium, gallium, and germanium
• But there were problems…
• New elements discovered and atomic masses were more accurately determined
• Elements in Mendeleev’s table not in correct order
• Arranging elements by mass now put groups of elements together with different properties
• Henry Moseley (1913)
• English Chemist
• Figured out the problem with Medeleev’s Table
• What did Moseley Discover before?
• Atoms of each element contain unique number of protons in their nuclei
• He arranged elements in order of increasing atomic number and not increasing atomic mass
• Problem Solved!
• Moseley’s arrangement solved the problems with Mendeleev’s table
• His arrangement resulted in clear periodic patterns of properties