The Cell Factory


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the cell factory notes (organelles and what not)

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The Cell Factory

  1. 1. Eukaryotic cell structure
  2. 2. The Cell factory <ul><li>Organelles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly specialized structures within the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little organs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 major divisions of the eukaryotic cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The “brain” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Portion outside the nucleus but inside the cell membrane </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. 2 types of Eukaryotic cells <ul><li>Plant cells </li></ul><ul><li>Animal cells </li></ul><ul><li>What are the differences? (write them down!!!) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Nucleus <ul><li>Brain of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Office of the factory </li></ul><ul><li>Contains nearly all the cell’s DNA and with it the coded instructions for making PROTEINS and other important molecules </li></ul>
  5. 5. Nuclear envelope <ul><li>Surrounds nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Made of 2 membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Dotted with thousands of nuclear pores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we get messages, instructions and blueprints out of the office? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow material to move in and out of nucleus by using “little runners” such as proteins, RNA and other molecules </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Inside the nucleus we see… <ul><li>Contain a granular material called… </li></ul><ul><li>CHROMATIN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chromatin= DNA + protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually spread out in nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During cell division, chromatin clumps together or condenses…we call this…. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CHROMOSOMES </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Chromosomes <ul><li>Threadlike structures that contain genetic information that is passed on from one generation to the next </li></ul>
  8. 8. Nucleolus <ul><li>Small dense region inside the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Function: assembly of ribosomes begin… </li></ul>
  9. 10. Ribosomes <ul><li>Most important function of cell is… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins regulate a zillion different things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Like… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proteins are assembled ON Ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes are small particles of protein & RNA (what’s RNA?) </li></ul><ul><li>They follow instructions from the nucleus to make proteins…follow the orders from the “head haunchos” in the main office </li></ul><ul><li>Scattered throughout the cell </li></ul><ul><li>They are like little factories </li></ul><ul><li>If a cell’s main function is making proteins, how many ribosomes are you going to have? </li></ul>
  10. 12. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) <ul><li>Internal membrane system </li></ul><ul><li>The site where the lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled, along with proteins and other materials exported from the cell </li></ul><ul><li>2 types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth ER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rough ER </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. Rough ER <ul><li>Involved in protein making (synthesis) </li></ul><ul><li>So what are we going to see on it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ribosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Once a protein is made, it leaves the ribosome and goes into the Rough ER </li></ul><ul><li>The rough ER then modifies the protein </li></ul><ul><li>All proteins that are exported by the cell are made on the RER </li></ul><ul><li>Membrane proteins are made on the RER too </li></ul>
  12. 15. Smooth ER <ul><li>NO ribosomes on it </li></ul><ul><li>Looks smooth </li></ul><ul><li>Contains collections of ENZYMES that have specialized tasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do enzymes do? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tasks include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesis of membrane lipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detoxification of drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liver cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Big in detox therefore….what do u think liver cells have a lot of? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 17. Golgi Apparatus <ul><li>Discovered by Italian scientist Camillo Golgi </li></ul><ul><li>Once proteins are done being “modified” in the RER, they move onto the Golgi apparatus </li></ul><ul><li>Looks like a stack of pancakes </li></ul><ul><li>Function: modify , sort , and package proteins and other materials from the ER for STORAGE or SECRETION outside the cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins are “shipped” to final destination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They are the CUSTOMIZATION SHOP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finishing touches on proteins before they leave factory </li></ul></ul>
  14. 20. Lysosomes <ul><li>(Lie-so-soh-mz) </li></ul><ul><li>The factory’s clean-up crew </li></ul><ul><li>It’s an Organelle filled with enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Digestion (break down) of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into smaller molecules that can be used by the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Also digest organelles that have outlived their usefulness </li></ul>
  15. 21. What do you think happens if lysosomes malfunction? <ul><li>A bunch of “junk” build up in the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Is this good? </li></ul><ul><li>Many human diseases result from malfunction of lysosome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tay-Sachs disease </li></ul></ul>
  16. 22. Vacuoles <ul><li>The factory’s storage place </li></ul><ul><li>Only in certain cells </li></ul><ul><li>Sac-like organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Function: stores material such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Plant cells have a single, large central vacuole </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure of central vacuole allows plants to support heavy structures </li></ul></ul>
  17. 24. Single-celled organisms and some animals also have vacuoles… <ul><li>Paramecium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contractile vacuole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contracts rhythmically to pump excess water out…this maintains what? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>homeostasis </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 25. What is the one thing all living things need to eat, breath, reproduce, move and much more? ENERGY!!!!
  19. 26. Two ways cells get energy… <ul><li>From food molecules </li></ul><ul><li>From the sun </li></ul>
  20. 27. Mithochondria <ul><li>Convert chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convienent for the cell to use </li></ul><ul><li>Has 2 membranes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nearly all come from the ovum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You get your mitochondria from your mom! </li></ul></ul>
  21. 30. Chloroplasts <ul><li>Capture energy from the sunlight and convert it into chemical energy…what is this process called? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PHOTOSYNTHESIS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Like solar power for plants </li></ul><ul><li>2 membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Inside: large stacks of other membranes that contain chlorphyll </li></ul>
  22. 33. Organelle DNA <ul><li>Chloroplasts and mitochondria contain their own genetic info </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In form of small DNA molecules </li></ul></ul>
  23. 34. Lynn Margulis <ul><li>American biologist </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroplasts and mitochondria are descendents of prokaryotes </li></ul>
  24. 35. She said… <ul><li>Ancient Prokaryotes from wayyyyy back in the day had a symbiotic relationship with the ancient eukaryotes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is symbiotic? (review ecology!!!) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The prokaryotes lived inside the eukaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>There were prokaryotes that used oxygen to make energy (ATP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There were prokaryotes that used photosynthesis to get energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chloroplasts </li></ul></ul>
  25. 36. Endosymbiotic Theory <ul><li>Idea that mitochondria and chloroplasts evolved from prokaryotes </li></ul>
  26. 37. Cytoskeleton <ul><li>Supporting structure and </li></ul><ul><li>transportation system </li></ul><ul><li>Network of protein filaments that helps the cell to maintain its shape and to help the cell move </li></ul><ul><li>2 main type of filaments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microtubules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microfilaments </li></ul></ul>
  27. 38. Microfilaments <ul><li>Threadlike structures </li></ul><ul><li>Made of protein called ACTIN </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive networks </li></ul><ul><li>Tough, flexible framework </li></ul><ul><li>Help cells move </li></ul><ul><li>Assembly and disassembly helps cells move (like amoebas) </li></ul>
  28. 41. Microtubules <ul><li>Hollow structures </li></ul><ul><li>Made of proteins called TUBULINS </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain cell’s shape </li></ul><ul><li>Important in cell division </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make mitotic spindle (separates chromosomes) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Help build projections from cell surface… </li></ul>
  29. 42. Cilia and Flagella <ul><li>Plural: cilium and flagellum </li></ul><ul><li>Enable cells to swim rapidly through liquid </li></ul><ul><li>Like oars of a boat </li></ul>
  30. 44. Centrioles <ul><li>Only animal cells </li></ul><ul><li>Made of protein TUBULIN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What else is made of tubulin? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Near nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Help organize cell division </li></ul>
  31. 45. <ul><li>Antwon van Leeuwenhook </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Hook </li></ul><ul><li>Cell Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Electron microscope </li></ul><ul><li>Prokaryote </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryote </li></ul><ul><li>Organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear envelope </li></ul><ul><li>Chromatin </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosome </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum </li></ul><ul><li>Rough endoplasmic reticulum </li></ul><ul><li>Course adjustment knob </li></ul><ul><li>Fine adjustment knob </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul><ul><li>DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Contractile vacuole </li></ul><ul><li>Central Vacuole </li></ul><ul><li>Golgi apparatus </li></ul><ul><li>Lysosome </li></ul><ul><li>Vacuole </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondrian </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroplast </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoskeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Centriole </li></ul><ul><li>Mictrotubule </li></ul><ul><li>Microfilament </li></ul><ul><li>Theodor Schwann </li></ul><ul><li>Matthias Schleiden </li></ul><ul><li>Rudolph Virchow </li></ul><ul><li>Lynn Margulis </li></ul><ul><li>Endosymbiotic Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Cilia </li></ul><ul><li>Flagella </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Tay-Sachs disease </li></ul>