Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
The Cell Factory
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

The Cell Factory

41,988

Published on

the cell factory notes (organelles and what not)

the cell factory notes (organelles and what not)

Published in: Business, Technology
4 Comments
24 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
41,988
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1,270
Comments
4
Likes
24
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Eukaryotic cell structure
  • 2. The Cell factory <ul><li>Organelles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly specialized structures within the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little organs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 major divisions of the eukaryotic cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The “brain” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Portion outside the nucleus but inside the cell membrane </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 3. 2 types of Eukaryotic cells <ul><li>Plant cells </li></ul><ul><li>Animal cells </li></ul><ul><li>What are the differences? (write them down!!!) </li></ul>
  • 4. Nucleus <ul><li>Brain of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Office of the factory </li></ul><ul><li>Contains nearly all the cell’s DNA and with it the coded instructions for making PROTEINS and other important molecules </li></ul>
  • 5. Nuclear envelope <ul><li>Surrounds nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Made of 2 membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Dotted with thousands of nuclear pores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we get messages, instructions and blueprints out of the office? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow material to move in and out of nucleus by using “little runners” such as proteins, RNA and other molecules </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. Inside the nucleus we see… <ul><li>Contain a granular material called… </li></ul><ul><li>CHROMATIN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chromatin= DNA + protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually spread out in nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During cell division, chromatin clumps together or condenses…we call this…. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CHROMOSOMES </li></ul></ul>
  • 7. Chromosomes <ul><li>Threadlike structures that contain genetic information that is passed on from one generation to the next </li></ul>
  • 8. Nucleolus <ul><li>Small dense region inside the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Function: assembly of ribosomes begin… </li></ul>
  • 9.  
  • 10. Ribosomes <ul><li>Most important function of cell is… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins regulate a zillion different things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Like… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proteins are assembled ON Ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes are small particles of protein & RNA (what’s RNA?) </li></ul><ul><li>They follow instructions from the nucleus to make proteins…follow the orders from the “head haunchos” in the main office </li></ul><ul><li>Scattered throughout the cell </li></ul><ul><li>They are like little factories </li></ul><ul><li>If a cell’s main function is making proteins, how many ribosomes are you going to have? </li></ul>
  • 11.  
  • 12. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) <ul><li>Internal membrane system </li></ul><ul><li>The site where the lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled, along with proteins and other materials exported from the cell </li></ul><ul><li>2 types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth ER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rough ER </li></ul></ul>
  • 13. Rough ER <ul><li>Involved in protein making (synthesis) </li></ul><ul><li>So what are we going to see on it? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ribosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Once a protein is made, it leaves the ribosome and goes into the Rough ER </li></ul><ul><li>The rough ER then modifies the protein </li></ul><ul><li>All proteins that are exported by the cell are made on the RER </li></ul><ul><li>Membrane proteins are made on the RER too </li></ul>
  • 14.  
  • 15. Smooth ER <ul><li>NO ribosomes on it </li></ul><ul><li>Looks smooth </li></ul><ul><li>Contains collections of ENZYMES that have specialized tasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do enzymes do? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tasks include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesis of membrane lipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detoxification of drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liver cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Big in detox therefore….what do u think liver cells have a lot of? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 16.  
  • 17. Golgi Apparatus <ul><li>Discovered by Italian scientist Camillo Golgi </li></ul><ul><li>Once proteins are done being “modified” in the RER, they move onto the Golgi apparatus </li></ul><ul><li>Looks like a stack of pancakes </li></ul><ul><li>Function: modify , sort , and package proteins and other materials from the ER for STORAGE or SECRETION outside the cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins are “shipped” to final destination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They are the CUSTOMIZATION SHOP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finishing touches on proteins before they leave factory </li></ul></ul>
  • 18.  
  • 19.  
  • 20. Lysosomes <ul><li>(Lie-so-soh-mz) </li></ul><ul><li>The factory’s clean-up crew </li></ul><ul><li>It’s an Organelle filled with enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Digestion (break down) of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into smaller molecules that can be used by the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Also digest organelles that have outlived their usefulness </li></ul>
  • 21. What do you think happens if lysosomes malfunction? <ul><li>A bunch of “junk” build up in the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Is this good? </li></ul><ul><li>Many human diseases result from malfunction of lysosome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tay-Sachs disease </li></ul></ul>
  • 22. Vacuoles <ul><li>The factory’s storage place </li></ul><ul><li>Only in certain cells </li></ul><ul><li>Sac-like organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Function: stores material such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Plant cells have a single, large central vacuole </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure of central vacuole allows plants to support heavy structures </li></ul></ul>
  • 23.  
  • 24. Single-celled organisms and some animals also have vacuoles… <ul><li>Paramecium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contractile vacuole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contracts rhythmically to pump excess water out…this maintains what? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>homeostasis </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 25. What is the one thing all living things need to eat, breath, reproduce, move and much more? ENERGY!!!!
  • 26. Two ways cells get energy… <ul><li>From food molecules </li></ul><ul><li>From the sun </li></ul>
  • 27. Mithochondria <ul><li>Convert chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convienent for the cell to use </li></ul><ul><li>Has 2 membranes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nearly all come from the ovum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You get your mitochondria from your mom! </li></ul></ul>
  • 28.  
  • 29.  
  • 30. Chloroplasts <ul><li>Capture energy from the sunlight and convert it into chemical energy…what is this process called? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PHOTOSYNTHESIS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Like solar power for plants </li></ul><ul><li>2 membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Inside: large stacks of other membranes that contain chlorphyll </li></ul>
  • 31.  
  • 32.  
  • 33. Organelle DNA <ul><li>Chloroplasts and mitochondria contain their own genetic info </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In form of small DNA molecules </li></ul></ul>
  • 34. Lynn Margulis <ul><li>American biologist </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroplasts and mitochondria are descendents of prokaryotes </li></ul>
  • 35. She said… <ul><li>Ancient Prokaryotes from wayyyyy back in the day had a symbiotic relationship with the ancient eukaryotes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is symbiotic? (review ecology!!!) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The prokaryotes lived inside the eukaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>There were prokaryotes that used oxygen to make energy (ATP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There were prokaryotes that used photosynthesis to get energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chloroplasts </li></ul></ul>
  • 36. Endosymbiotic Theory <ul><li>Idea that mitochondria and chloroplasts evolved from prokaryotes </li></ul>
  • 37. Cytoskeleton <ul><li>Supporting structure and </li></ul><ul><li>transportation system </li></ul><ul><li>Network of protein filaments that helps the cell to maintain its shape and to help the cell move </li></ul><ul><li>2 main type of filaments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microtubules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microfilaments </li></ul></ul>
  • 38. Microfilaments <ul><li>Threadlike structures </li></ul><ul><li>Made of protein called ACTIN </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive networks </li></ul><ul><li>Tough, flexible framework </li></ul><ul><li>Help cells move </li></ul><ul><li>Assembly and disassembly helps cells move (like amoebas) </li></ul>
  • 39.  
  • 40.  
  • 41. Microtubules <ul><li>Hollow structures </li></ul><ul><li>Made of proteins called TUBULINS </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain cell’s shape </li></ul><ul><li>Important in cell division </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make mitotic spindle (separates chromosomes) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Help build projections from cell surface… </li></ul>
  • 42. Cilia and Flagella <ul><li>Plural: cilium and flagellum </li></ul><ul><li>Enable cells to swim rapidly through liquid </li></ul><ul><li>Like oars of a boat </li></ul>
  • 43.  
  • 44. Centrioles <ul><li>Only animal cells </li></ul><ul><li>Made of protein TUBULIN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What else is made of tubulin? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Near nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Help organize cell division </li></ul>
  • 45. <ul><li>Antwon van Leeuwenhook </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Hook </li></ul><ul><li>Cell Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Electron microscope </li></ul><ul><li>Prokaryote </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryote </li></ul><ul><li>Organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear envelope </li></ul><ul><li>Chromatin </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosome </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum </li></ul><ul><li>Rough endoplasmic reticulum </li></ul><ul><li>Course adjustment knob </li></ul><ul><li>Fine adjustment knob </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul><ul><li>DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Contractile vacuole </li></ul><ul><li>Central Vacuole </li></ul><ul><li>Golgi apparatus </li></ul><ul><li>Lysosome </li></ul><ul><li>Vacuole </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondrian </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroplast </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoskeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Centriole </li></ul><ul><li>Mictrotubule </li></ul><ul><li>Microfilament </li></ul><ul><li>Theodor Schwann </li></ul><ul><li>Matthias Schleiden </li></ul><ul><li>Rudolph Virchow </li></ul><ul><li>Lynn Margulis </li></ul><ul><li>Endosymbiotic Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Cilia </li></ul><ul><li>Flagella </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Tay-Sachs disease </li></ul>
  • 46.  
  • 47.  
  • 48.  

×